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1.
Can J Ophthalmol ; 57(4): 236-241, 2022 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972162

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vascular changes in the early period after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: This study included 50 eyes of 25 patients who had been hospitalized for polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 infection and 50 eyes of 25 healthy individuals. All subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography using a 6 × 6 macular protocol in the early period after hospital discharge and 6 months later. Foveal vessel density (VD) and parafoveal VD values were measured from 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal) of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and the deep capillary plexus (DCP). The choriocapillaris (CC) flow area and the foveal avascular zone area also were measured. The OCTA measurements of the patient group were compared both between time points and with the control group at each time point. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower VD values than control subjects in all parafoveal quadrants of both the SCP (superior, p = 0.01; inferior, p = 0.048; nasal, p = 0.003; temporal, p = 0.048) and the DCP (superior, p = 0.001; inferior, p = 0.011; nasal, p = 0.012; temporal, p = 0.018) at the initial checkup and in all parafoveal quadrants of the SCP (superior, p = 0.0001; inferior, p = 0.007; nasal, p = 0.001; temporal, p = 0.017) and in 2 of the parafoveal quadrants of the DCP (superior, p = 0.003; inferior, p = 0.016) at 6-month follow-up. CC flow area values were significantly lower at the 6-month follow-up than at the initial examination (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: It is important to perform appropriate follow-up for COVID-19 patients because retinal vascular flow changes may persist in the long term.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Retinal Vessels , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fovea Centralis/blood supply , Humans , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
3.
Mycoses ; 2020 Aug 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961696

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a complication of respiratory bacterial and viral infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS/METHODS: In University Hospital La Paz (Madrid, Spain), we reviewed the clinical and demographic characteristics of 10 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and Aspergillus spp. isolate in respiratory samples. We also recovered results of galactomannan tests in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. RESULTS: Eight male and two female from 51 to 76 years were recovered. They had reported risk factors to develop IPA (haematological malignancies, immunosuppression, diabetes, obesity, intensive care unit stay, among others). Azole susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in nine patients and Aspergillus nidulans was isolated in one patient. Only one case was classified as probable aspergillosis, seven cases as putative aspergillosis, and two cases were not classifiable. Eight patients received antifungal treatment. Seven patients died (70%), two are still inpatient due to nosocomial infections and one was discharged referred to another institution. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical entity has high mortality, and therefore, it should be performed surveillance with early galactomannan tests and cultures in respiratory samples in order to improve the outcome of the patients with this condition.

4.
Minerva Med ; 113(3): 558-568, 2022 Jun.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955308

Реферат

Since COVID-19 spread all over the world becoming a pandemic illness, researchers have better characterized route of virus transmissibility and clinical signs and symptoms of the disease. Since viral transmission occurs through the droplets emitted during coughing or sneezing, the lungs are primarily affected. However, SARS-CoV-2 can affect several human organs due to high expressions of ACE2 receptor which is the main viral target, and the virus may affect not only higher and lower respiratory tracts, but also heart, kidney, gastro enteric tract, liver, pancreas, nervous system and skin. This review focuses on extra pulmonary involvement underlying atypical presentation of COVID-19. There is a great body of evidence concerning several human organ abnormalities associated to the SARS-CoV-2, enough to consider COVID-19 as a multisystemic and polyhedral disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Acta Clin Belg ; 77(1): 113-117, 2022 Feb.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900964

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Recent publications on Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) report that diabetic people with or without co-morbidities are at higher risk of developing severe and/or fatal illnesses. METHOD AND RESULT: We report the first case of a 60-year-old man with a 27-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus, infected by SARS-CoV-2 presenting with an euglycaemic ketoacidosis and an acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSION: This case report reminds us of the importance of adjusting more recent glucose-lowering drugs, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, in the overall management of type 1 diabetic individuals during the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. ABBREVIATIONS: COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, T1DM: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, SGLT2i: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis, euDKA: euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(15): 2876-2878, 2022 Aug.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900904

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Data concerning the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the female genital system is scarce; however, this information is important for understanding whether the virus can transmit sexually or from mother to child. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregnant women with COVID-19 have virus in their lower genital tract. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we present an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary university hospital from 19 April to 19 May 2020. We included 13 pregnant women hospitalized with suspected COVID-19. Results of laboratory tests, imaging tests, and nucleic acid tests on vaginal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were also analyzed for pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: Twelve pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study. Mean age was 32 ± 7.9 years. All patients had mild symptoms and were followed in the maternity ward, with none of them needing critical care unit follow-up. All lower genital tract samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 was not present in the vaginal fluid of pregnant women. This finding may indicate that the female genital tract is not a route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

Реферат

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EJHaem ; 1(1): 376-383, 2020 Jul.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898850

Реферат

The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from mild symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome, hyperinflammation, and coagulation disorder. The hematopoietic system plays a critical role in the observed hyperinflammation, particularly in severely ill patients. We conducted a prospective diagnostic study performing a blood differential analyzing morphologic changes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 associated morphologic changes were defined in a training cohort and subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 45). Morphologic aberrations were further analyzed by electron microscopy (EM) and flow cytometry of lymphocytes was performed. We included 45 COVID-19 patients in our study (median age 58 years; 82% on intensive care unit). The blood differential showed a specific pattern of pronounced multi-lineage aberrations in lymphocytes (80%) and monocytes (91%) of patients. Overall, 84%, 98%, and 98% exhibited aberrations in granulopoiesis, erythropoiesis, and thrombopoiesis, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural equivalents of the observed changes and confirmed the multi-lineage aberrations already seen by light microscopy. The morphologic pattern caused by COVID-19 is characteristic and underlines the serious perturbation of the hematopoietic system. We defined a hematologic COVID-19 pattern to facilitate further independent diagnostic analysis and to investigate the impact on the hematologic system during the clinical course of COVID-19 patients.

10.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1354-1356, 2020 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898685

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus that was first identified in Wuhan, China; it has since spread rapidly throughout the world. Most of the patients with COVID-19 present with respiratory symptoms, including cough, nasal symptoms, fever, and shortness of breath. However, several groups have reported that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the central nervous system via the olfactory bulb followed by spread throughout the brain and peripheral nervous system. This brief report illustrated a 78-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) on March 22, 2020, with chief complaints of dizziness and unsteadiness while walking. He had no symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 on arrival. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test performed at that time due to his atypical presentation and lymphocytopenia was positive for virus nucleic acids. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are frequently non-specific and may emerge several days before the respiratory symptoms; as such, identification of patients presenting with these subtle and seemingly unremarkable COVID-19 symptoms will be quite difficult. Added to this, numerous countries still limit testing for SARS-COV-2 to patients presenting with fever or respiratory symptoms. Frontline physicians should be aware of early, non-specific symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(2): 95-101, 2020 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898665

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic is creating unique strains on the healthcare system. While only a small percentage of patients require mechanical ventilation and ICU care, the enormous size of the populations affected means that these critical resources may become limited. A number of non-invasive options exist to avert mechanical ventilation and ICU admission. This is a clinical review of these options and their applicability in adult COVID-19 patients. Summary recommendations include: (1) Avoid nebulized therapies. Consider metered dose inhaler alternatives. (2) Provide supplemental oxygen following usual treatment principles for hypoxic respiratory failure. Maintain awareness of the aerosol-generating potential of all devices, including nasal cannulas, simple face masks, and venturi masks. Use non-rebreather masks when possible. Be attentive to aerosol generation and the use of personal protective equipment. (3) High flow nasal oxygen is preferred for patients with higher oxygen support requirements. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation may be associated with higher risk of nosocomial transmission. If used, measures special precautions should be used reduce aerosol formation. (4) Early intubation/mechanical ventilation may be prudent for patients deemed likely to progress to critical illness, multi-organ failure, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 2021 May 11.
Статья в испанский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804923

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Ischaemic stroke may be a major complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Studying and characterising the different aetiological subtypes, clinical characteristics, and functional outcomes may be valuable in guiding patient selection for optimal management and treatment. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively on consecutive patients with COVID-19 who developed acute focal brain ischaemia (between 1 March and 19 April 2020) at a tertiary university hospital in Madrid (Spain). RESULTS: During the study period, 1594 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. We found 22 patients with ischaemic stroke (1.38%), 6 of whom did not meet the inclusion criteria. The remaining 16 patients were included in the study (15 cases of ischaemic stroke and one case of transient ischaemic attack).Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 9 (interquartile range: 16), and mean (standard deviation) age was 73 years (12.8). Twelve patients (75%) were men. Mean time from COVID-19 symptom onset to stroke onset was 13 days. Large vessel occlusion was identified in 12 patients (75%).We detected elevated levels of D-dimer in 87.5% of patients and C-reactive protein in 81.2%. The main aetiology was atherothrombotic stroke (9 patients, 56.3%), with the predominant subtype being endoluminal thrombus (5 patients, 31.2%), involving the internal carotid artery in 4 cases and the aortic arch in one. The mortality rate in our series was 44% (7 of 16 patients). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, the most frequent stroke aetiology was atherothrombosis, with a high proportion of endoluminal thrombus (31.2% of patients). Our clinical and laboratory data support COVID-19-associated coagulopathy as a relevant pathophysiological mechanism for ischaemic stroke in these patients.

15.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0202, 2020 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795075

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome appear to present with at least two distinct phenotypes: severe hypoxemia with relatively well-preserved lung compliance and lung gas volumes (type 1) and a more conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome phenotype, displaying the typical characteristics of the "baby lung" (type 2). We aimed to test plausible hypotheses regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome and to evaluate the resulting implications for ventilatory management. DESIGN: We adapted a high-fidelity computational simulator, previously validated in several studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome, to: 1) develop quantitative insights into the key pathophysiologic differences between the coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome and the conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2) assess the impact of different positive end-expiratory pressure, Fio2, and tidal volume settings. SETTING: Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Systems Medicine Research Network. SUBJECTS: The simulator was calibrated to represent coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with both normal and elevated body mass indices undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An acute respiratory distress syndrome model implementing disruption of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and vasodilation leading to hyperperfusion of collapsed lung regions failed to replicate clinical data on type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Adding mechanisms to reflect disruption of alveolar gas-exchange due to the effects of pneumonitis and heightened vascular resistance due to the emergence of microthrombi produced levels of ventilation perfusion mismatch and hypoxemia consistent with data from type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, while preserving close-to-normal lung compliance and gas volumes. Atypical responses to positive end-expiratory pressure increments between 5 and 15 cm H2O were observed for this type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome model across a range of measures: increasing positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in reduced lung compliance and no improvement in oxygenation, whereas mechanical power, driving pressure, and plateau pressure all increased. Fio2 settings based on acute respiratory distress syndrome network protocols at different positive end-expiratory pressure levels were insufficient to achieve adequate oxygenation. Incrementing tidal volumes from 5 to 10 mL/kg produced similar increases in multiple indicators of ventilator-induced lung injury in the type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome model to those seen in a conventional acute respiratory distress syndrome model. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that use of standard positive end-expiratory pressure/Fio2 tables, higher positive end-expiratory pressure strategies, and higher tidal volumes may all be potentially deleterious in type 1 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, and that a highly personalized approach to treatment is advisable.

16.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(9): e3080, 2020 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795020

Реферат

BACKGROUND: It is anticipated that in due course the burden of emergency care due to COVID-19 infected patients will reduce sufficiently to permit elective surgical procedures to recommence. Prioritizing cleft/craniofacial surgery in the already overloaded medical system will then become an issue. The European Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association, together with the European Cleft and Craniofacial Initiative for Equality in Care, performed a brief survey to capture a current snapshot during a rapidly evolving pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the 2242 participants who attended 1 of 3 recent international cleft/craniofacial meetings. RESULTS: The respondents indicated that children with Robin sequence who were not responding to nonsurgical options should be treated as emergency cases. Over 70% of the respondents indicated that palate repair should be performed before the age of 15 months, an additional 22% stating the same be performed by 18 months. Placement of middle ear tubes, primary cleft lip surgery, alveolar bone grafting, and velopharyngeal insufficiency surgery also need prioritization. Children with craniofacial conditions such as craniosynostosis and increased intracranial pressure need immediate care, whilst children with craniosynostosis and associated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or proptosis need surgical care within 3 months of the typical timing. Craniosynostosis without signs of increased intracranial pressure needs correction before the age of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several areas of cleft and craniofacial conditions that need prioritization, but also certain areas where intervention is less urgent. We acknowledge that there will be differences in the post COVID-19 response according to circumstances and policies in individual countries.

17.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(10): 1424-1430, 2020 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777852

Реферат

PURPOSE: Risk to healthcare workers treating asymptomatic patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the operating room depends on multiple factors. This review examines the evidence for asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriage of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of transmission from asymptomatic patients, and the specific risks associated with aerosol-generating procedures. Protective measures, such as minimization of aerosols and use of personal protective equipment in the setting of treating asymptomatic patients, are also reviewed. SOURCE: We examined the published literature as well as Societal guidelines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There is evidence that a proportion of those infected with SARS-CoV-2 have detectable viral loads prior to exhibiting symptoms, or without ever developing symptoms. The degree of risk of transmission from asymptomatic patients to healthcare providers will depend on the prevalence of disease in the population, which is difficult to assess without widespread population screening. Aerosol-generating procedures increase the odds of viral transmission from infected symptomatic patients to healthcare providers, but transmission from asymptomatic patients has not been reported. Techniques to minimize aerosolization and appropriate personal protective equipment may help reduce the risk to healthcare workers in the operating room. Some societal guidelines recommend the use of airborne precautions during aerosol-generating procedures on asymptomatic patients during the coronavirus disease pandemic, although evidence supporting this practice is limited. CONCLUSION: Viral transmission from patients exhibiting no symptoms in the operating room is plausible and efforts to reduce risk to healthcare providers include reducing aerosolization and wearing appropriate personal protective equipment, the feasibility of which will vary based on geographic risk and equipment availability.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Le risque encouru par les travailleurs de la santé traitant des patients asymptomatiques infectés par le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère du coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) en salle d'opération dépend de plusieurs facteurs. Ce compte rendu examine les données probantes concernant la présence asymptomatique ou pré-symptomatique du SARS-CoV-2, le risque de transmission des patients asymptomatiques, et les risques spécifiques associés aux interventions générant des aérosols. Nous passons également en revue différentes mesures de protection, telles que la minimisation des aérosols et l'utilisation d'équipements de protection individuelle, dans un contexte de traitement de patients asymptomatiques. SOURCE: Nous avons examiné la littérature publiée ainsi que les directives sociétales. CONSTATATIONS PRINCIPALES: Selon certaines données probantes, une proportion des personnes infectées par le SARS-CoV-2 possèdent des charges virales détectables avant la présence de symptômes, voire même sans manifestation de symptômes. Le degré de risque de transmission des patients asymptomatiques aux travailleurs de la santé dépendra de la prévalence de la maladie dans la population, une donnée difficile à évaluer sans dépistage généralisé. Les interventions générant des aérosols augmentent le risque de transmission virale des patients symptomatiques infectés aux travailleurs de la santé, mais la transmission de patients asymptomatiques n'a pas été rapportée. Les techniques visant à minimiser l'aérosolisation et les équipements de protection individuelle adaptés pourraient être utiles pour réduire le risque des travailleurs de la santé en salle d'opération. Certaines directives régionales et nationales recommandent le recours à des précautions contre la transmission par voie aérienne durant les interventions générant des aérosols pratiquées sur des patients asymptomatiques pendant la pandémie de coronavirus, bien que les données probantes appuyant cette pratique soient limitées. CONCLUSION: La transmission virale des patients asymptomatiques en salle d'opération est plausible et les efforts visant à réduire le risque pour les travailleurs de la santé comprennent la réduction de l'aérosolisation et le port d'équipements de protection individuelle adaptés, deux mesures dont la faisabilité variera en fonction du risque géographique et de la disponibilité des équipements.


Тема - темы
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Mar 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753619

Реферат

The real-world performance of a home telemonitoring strategy (ForeseeHome AMD Monitoring System®, Notal Vision, Inc.,Manassas VA, USA) was evaluated and compared to the device arm of the AREDS2-HOME study among patients with intermediate AMD (iAMD) who converted to neovascular AMD (nAMD). All patients with confirmed conversion to nAMD who used the home monitoring system from 10/2009 through 9/2018 were identified by Notal Vision Diagnostic Clinic's medical records. Selected outcome variables were evaluated, including visual acuity (VA) at baseline and at conversion, and change in visual acuity (VA) from baseline to time of conversion. In total, 8991 patients performed 3,200,999 tests at a frequency of 5.6 ± 3.2 times/week. The 306 eyes that converted from iAMD to nAMD over the study period (a 2.7% annual rate) were included in the analyses. There was a median (interquartile range) change of -3.0 (0.0-(-10.0)) letters among converted eyes, 81% [95% confidence interval (72-88%)] maintained a VA ≥ 20/40 at the time of conversion, while 69% of the conversion detections were triggered by system alerts. The real-world performance of an at-home testing strategy was similar to that reported for the device arm of the AREDS2-HOME study. The home telemonitoring system can markedly increase early detection of conversion to nAMD.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 225(6): 965-970, 2022 03 15.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740882

Реферат

Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 16 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and neurological symptoms were assessed using 2 independent methods. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for the virus spike protein was found in 81% of patients in serum and in 56% in CSF. SARS-CoV-2 IgG in CSF was observed in 2 patients with negative serological findings. Levels of IgG in both serum and CSF were associated with disease severity (P < .05). All patients with elevated markers of central nervous system damage in CSF also had CSF antibodies (P = .002), and CSF antibodies had the highest predictive value for neuronal damage markers of all tested clinical variables.


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Formation , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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