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1.
JBMR Plus ; 5(1): e10405, 2021 Jan.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898823

Реферат

Regulation of immune function continues to be one of the most well-recognized extraskeletal actions of vitamin D. This stemmed initially from the discovery that antigen presenting cells such as macrophages could actively metabolize precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). Parallel observation that activated cells from the immune system expressed the intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25D suggested a potential role for vitamin D as a localized endogenous modulator of immune function. Subsequent studies have expanded our understanding of how vitamin D exerts effects on both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. At an innate level, intracrine synthesis of 1,25D by macrophages and dendritic cells stimulates expression of antimicrobial proteins such as cathelicidin, as well as lowering intracellular iron concentrations via suppression of hepcidin. By potently enhancing autophagy, 1,25D may also play an important role in combatting intracellular pathogens such as M. tuberculosis and viral infections. Local synthesis of 1,25D by macrophages and dendritic cells also appears to play a pivotal role in mediating T-cell responses to vitamin D, leading to suppression of inflammatory T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and concomitant induction of immunotolerogenic T-regulatory responses. The aim of this review is to provide an update on our current understanding of these prominent immune actions of vitamin D, as well as highlighting new, less well-recognized immune effects of vitamin D. The review also aims to place this mechanistic basis for the link between vitamin D and immunity with studies in vivo that have explored a role for vitamin D supplementation as a strategy for improved immune health. This has gained prominence in recent months with the global coronavirus disease 2019 health crisis and highlights important new objectives for future studies of vitamin D and immune function. © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 3168-3180, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883208

Реферат

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lactobacilli strains in preventing the recurrences of vaginal candidiasis (VC) in 78 pregnant women with VC (lactobacilli, n = 39; placebo, n = 39) and the potential benefits on quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: The lactobacilli putative probiotic (SynForU-HerCare; two capsules/day of 9·5 log CFU per capsule) or placebo was administered for 8-weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were assessed for vaginal and gut health conditions at baseline, week-4 and week-8 via questionnaires. The vulvovaginal symptom questionnaire not only covered aspects pertaining to vulvovaginal symptoms but also the quality of life impacts such as emotional, social and sexual. The administration of lactobacilli reduced symptoms of irritation (P = 0·023) and discharge (P = 0·011) starting week-4 and continued after week-8 (P < 0·05), accompanied by reduced symptoms for burning after week-8 (P = 0·046) as compared to the placebo. Patients consuming lactobacilli also showed reduced concern about symptoms after week-4 (P = 0·010) and continued after week-8 (P = 0·001), accompanied by reduced impairment of daily activities attributed to vulvovaginal symptoms (P = 0·012) and continued after week-8 (P = 0·026). Insignificant differences were observed for sexual impacts between treatment groups. The administration of lactobacilli also reduced recurrences of both emotional and social stress as compared to the placebo at both week-4 and week-8 (P < 0·05). Patients consuming lactobacilli showed higher defecation times per week at week-4 (P = 0·010) and week-8 (P = 0·001) as compared to the placebo group, indicating the potential to reduce risks of pregnancy-induced constipation. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacilli probiotics are beneficial towards pregnant women, especially in reducing vulvovaginal symptoms and recurrences of VC, accompanied by improved emotional and social distress attributed to VC. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study demonstrated the preventive and modulatory roles of lactobacilli strains against VC in pregnant women. Taken altogether, our present data illustrated that lactobacilli probiotics are beneficial towards pregnant women, especially in reducing vulvovaginal symptoms and recurrences of VC, accompanied by improved emotional and social distress attributed to VC, thus could be a potential strategy for the maintenance of vaginal health during pregnancy.


Тема - темы
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Probiotics , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Lactobacillus , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Vagina
3.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(3): 673-680, 2022 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737116

Реферат

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). CONCLUSION: The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453289

Реферат

Bacterial toxins play a key role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. Based on their structural and functional properties, they employ various strategies to modulate lung barrier function and to impair host defense in order to promote infection. Although in general, these toxins target common cellular signaling pathways and host compartments, toxin- and cell-specific effects have also been reported. Toxins can affect resident pulmonary cells involved in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and barrier function through impairing vectorial Na+ transport and through cytoskeletal collapse, as such, destroying cell-cell adhesions. The resulting loss of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and fluid clearance capacity will induce capillary leak and foster edema formation, which will in turn impair gas exchange and endanger the survival of the host. Toxins modulate or neutralize protective host cell mechanisms of both the innate and adaptive immunity response during chronic infection. In particular, toxins can either recruit or kill central players of the lung's innate immune responses to pathogenic attacks, i.e., alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils. Pulmonary disorders resulting from these toxin actions include, e.g., acute lung injury (ALI), the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), and severe pneumonia. When acute infection converts to persistence, i.e., colonization and chronic infection, lung diseases, such as bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) can arise. The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of bacterial toxins in the lungs and the resulting outcomes for pathogenesis, their roles in promoting bacterial dissemination, and bacterial survival in disease progression.


Тема - темы
Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Signal Transduction
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113494, 2021 Oct 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446590

Реферат

In the search for new anti-influenza virus (IV) compounds, we have identified the 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (TZP) as a very suitable scaffold to obtain compounds able to disrupt IV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) PA-PB1 subunits heterodimerization. In this work, in order to acquire further SAR insights for this class of compounds and identify more potent derivatives, we designed and synthesized additional series of analogues to investigate the role of the substituents around the TZP core. To this aim, we developed four facile and efficient one-step procedures for the synthesis of 5-phenyl-, 6-phenyl- and 7-phenyl-2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and 2-amino-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ol. Two analogues having the ethyl carboxylate moiety at the C-2 position of the TZP were also prepared in good yields. Then, the scaffolds herein synthesized and two previous scaffolds were functionalized and evaluated for their anti-IAV activity, leading to the identification of compound 22 that showed both anti-PA-PB1 (IC50 = 19.5 µM) and anti-IAV activity (EC50 = 16 µM) at non-toxic concentrations, thus resulting among the most active TZP derivatives reported to date by us. A selection of the synthesized compounds, along with a set of in-house available analogues, was also tested against SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound 49 from this series displayed an EC50 value of 34.47 µM, highlighting the potential of the TPZ scaffold in the search for anti-CoV agents.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Vero Cells
6.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(10): 3707-3713, 2020 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384470

Реферат

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted by inhalation of droplets and aerosols. This puts healthcare professionals from specialties with close patient contact at high risk of nosocomial infections with SARS-CoV-2. In this context, preprocedural mouthrinses with hydrogen peroxide have been recommended before conducting intraoral procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 1% hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse on reducing the intraoral SARS-CoV-2 load. METHODS: Twelve out of 98 initially screened hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were included in this study. Intraoral viral load was determined by RT-PCR at baseline, whereupon patients had to gargle mouth and throat with 20 mL of 1% hydrogen peroxide for 30 s. After 30 min, a second examination of intraoral viral load was performed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, virus culture was performed for specimens exhibiting viral load of at least 103 RNA copies/mL at baseline. RESULTS: Ten out of the 12 initially included SARS-CoV-2-positive patients completed the study. The hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse led to no significant reduction of intraoral viral load. Replicating virus could only be determined from one baseline specimen. CONCLUSION: A 1% hydrogen peroxide mouthrinse does not reduce the intraoral viral load in SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects. However, virus culture did not yield any indication on the effects of the mouthrinse on the infectivity of the detected RNA copies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The recommendation of a preprocedural mouthrinse with hydrogen peroxide before intraoral procedures is questionable and thus should not be supported any longer, but strict infection prevention regimens are of paramount importance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (ref. DRKS00022484).


Тема - темы
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Young Adult
7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(8): e2001812, 2021 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384089

Реферат

Nucleic acid vaccines are a method of immunization aiming to elicit immune responses akin to live attenuated vaccines. In this method, DNA or messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences are delivered to the body to generate proteins, which mimic disease antigens to stimulate the immune response. Advantages of nucleic acid vaccines include stimulation of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, ease of design, rapid adaptability to changing pathogen strains, and customizable multiantigen vaccines. To combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and many other diseases, nucleic acid vaccines appear to be a promising method. However, aid is needed in delivering the fragile DNA/mRNA payload. Many delivery strategies have been developed to elicit effective immune stimulation, yet no nucleic acid vaccine has been FDA-approved for human use. Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the top candidates to mediate successful DNA/mRNA vaccine delivery due to their unique properties, including unlimited possibilities for formulations, protective capacity, simultaneous loading, and delivery potential of multiple DNA/mRNA vaccines. This review will summarize the many varieties of novel NP formulations for DNA and mRNA vaccine delivery as well as give the reader a brief synopsis of NP vaccine clinical trials. Finally, the future perspectives and challenges for NP-mediated nucleic acid vaccines will be explored.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , DNA , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(2): 702-715, 2021 01 23.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387955

Реферат

Despite SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 being equipped with highly similar protein arsenals, the corresponding zoonoses have spread among humans at extremely different rates. The specific characteristics of these viruses that led to such distinct outcomes remain unclear. Here, we apply proteome-wide comparative structural analysis aiming to identify the unique molecular elements in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome that may explain the differing consequences. By combining protein modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we suggest nonconservative substitutions in functional regions of the spike glycoprotein (S), nsp1, and nsp3 that are contributing to differences in virulence. Particularly, we explain why the substitutions at the receptor-binding domain of S affect the structure-dynamics behavior in complexes with putative host receptors. Conservation of functional protein regions within the two taxa is also noteworthy. We suggest that the highly conserved main protease, nsp5, of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 is part of their mechanism of circumventing the host interferon antiviral response. Overall, most substitutions occur on the protein surfaces and may be modulating their antigenic properties and interactions with other macromolecules. Our results imply that the striking difference in the pervasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV among humans seems to significantly derive from molecular features that modulate the efficiency of viral particles in entering the host cells and blocking the host immune response.


Тема - темы
Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Proteomics , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Animals , Humans , Protein Domains , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity , Viral Proteins/metabolism
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 221: 113494, 2021 Oct 05.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291451

Реферат

In the search for new anti-influenza virus (IV) compounds, we have identified the 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (TZP) as a very suitable scaffold to obtain compounds able to disrupt IV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) PA-PB1 subunits heterodimerization. In this work, in order to acquire further SAR insights for this class of compounds and identify more potent derivatives, we designed and synthesized additional series of analogues to investigate the role of the substituents around the TZP core. To this aim, we developed four facile and efficient one-step procedures for the synthesis of 5-phenyl-, 6-phenyl- and 7-phenyl-2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and 2-amino-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ol. Two analogues having the ethyl carboxylate moiety at the C-2 position of the TZP were also prepared in good yields. Then, the scaffolds herein synthesized and two previous scaffolds were functionalized and evaluated for their anti-IAV activity, leading to the identification of compound 22 that showed both anti-PA-PB1 (IC50 = 19.5 µM) and anti-IAV activity (EC50 = 16 µM) at non-toxic concentrations, thus resulting among the most active TZP derivatives reported to date by us. A selection of the synthesized compounds, along with a set of in-house available analogues, was also tested against SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound 49 from this series displayed an EC50 value of 34.47 µM, highlighting the potential of the TPZ scaffold in the search for anti-CoV agents.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Vero Cells
10.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 300-308, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249753

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The aim of this open supplement study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® in comparison with controls on symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome and in improving endothelial function, microcirculation, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress over 3 months in symptomatic subjects recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty subjects recovering from symptomatic COVID-19 were included. One group of 30 followed a standard recovery management while 30 comparable subjects received a supplement of 150 mg Pycnogenol® daily (in 3 doses of 50 mg) in addition to standard management. RESULTS: Two groups of selected subjects were comparable at baseline. The groups progressively improved both with the SM (standard management) and with the SM in combination with the supplement. Patients, supplemented with Pycnogenol® showed significantly better improvement compared to the control group patients. No side effects from the supplementation were observed; tolerability was optimal. The progressive evolution over time was visible in all target measurements. Physiological tests: endothelial function, low in all subjects at inclusion was assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and finger reactive hyperemia in the microcirculation (laser Doppler measurements) after the release of an occluding suprasystolic cuff. It was significantly improved in the Pycnogenol® group after one month and after 3 months (P<0.05 vs. controls). The rate of ankle swelling (RAS) by strain gauge decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) in comparison with controls showing an improvement of the capillary filtration rate. At inclusion, the kidney cortical flow velocity indicated a decrease in perfusion (lower systolic and diastolic flow velocity) in all patients. Kidney cortical flow velocity increased significantly with the supplement (P<0.05) in comparison with controls with improvement in systolic velocity and in diastolic component. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and Il-6 plasma levels decreased progressively over 3 months with a significant more pronounced decrease in the supplement group (P<0.05). The number of patients with normal plasma IL-6 levels at the end of the study was higher (P<0.05) with the supplement. ESR followed the same pattern with a progressive and a more significant decrease in the supplemented subjects (P<0.02). Oxidative stress decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the supplemented group (P<0.05) at the end of the study. Finally, the scores of Quality-of-life, mood and fatigue questionnaire and the Karnofsky Scale Performance Index significantly improved in the supplement group (P<0.05) compared to controls after 1 and 3 months. All other blood parameters (including platelets and clotting factors) were within normal values at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Pycnogenol® may offer a significant option for managing some of the signs and symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. This pilot evaluation offers some potential rationale for the use of Pycnogenol® in this condition that will have significant importance in the coming years.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Microcirculation , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Registries , Risk Factors
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11334, 2021 05 31.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249212

Реферат

Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (pLMWH) is currently recommended in COVID-19 to reduce the risk of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antinflammatory effects of pLMWH could translate in lower rate of clinical progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients admitted to a COVID-hospital in Rome with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild/moderate pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint was the time from hospital admission to orotracheal intubation/death (OTI/death). A total of 449 patients were included: 39% female, median age 63 (IQR, 50-77) years. The estimated probability of OTI/death for patients receiving pLMWH was: 9.5% (95% CI 3.2-26.4) by day 20 in those not receiving pLMWH vs. 10.4% (6.7-15.9) in those exposed to pLMWH; p-value = 0.144. This risk associated with the use of pLMWH appeared to vary by PaO2/FiO2 ratio: aHR 1.40 (95% CI 0.51-3.79) for patients with an admission PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg and 0.27 (0.03-2.18) for those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 mmHg; p-value at interaction test 0.16. pLMWH does not seem to reduce the risk of OTI/death mild/moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, especially when respiratory function had already significantly deteriorated. Data from clinical trials comparing the effect of prophylactic vs. therapeutic dosage of LMWH at various stages of COVID-19 disease are needed.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Rome , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-7, 2021 May 22.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244615

Реферат

AIM: On August 4, 2020, a massive explosion hit Lebanon's capital city, Beirut. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Beirut blast on the COVID-19 situation in the country. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Data on COVID-19 were retrieved from the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health (LMOPH), where all the COVID-19 positive cases were reported. The study was divided into two periods, considering the incubation period of the COVID-19 virus: (July 27-August 9, 2020) and (August 10-23, 2020). Information obtained included daily number of cases, tests, deaths, hospitalized patients, intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and mode of acquisition (local vs. expat). Daily positivity rates were reported per 100 tests. An independent sample t-test and a Joinpoint regression analysis were used to determine significance. A p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 201,010 tests were conducted during our studied period, with 8993 positive cases, constituting a total positivity rate of 4.5 per 100 tests. Case fatality rate over the studied period was 0.8%. The positivity rate of the period prior to August 10, 2020, was 2.7 per 100 tests, significantly less than that of the period following the explosion, which was 6.4 per 100 tests (p < 0.001). During our studied period, daily positivity rates were significantly increasing at a slope of 0.29 (p < 0.001). A significant increase in slope was noted on August 13, 2020 (p < 0.001). The number of hospitalized patients increased from 139 patients on July 27 to 266 on August 23, 2020, and that of ICU patients increased from 36 to 75. CONCLUSION: The port of Beirut explosion resulted in a significant increase in the daily number of positive COVID-19 cases. The aftermath of the explosion, the damage to healthcare facilities, and the overcrowding due to emergency efforts were contributing factors to that increase.

13.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 18(1): 51, 2021 May 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238725

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Whether vitamin D supplementation has any effect on body fat percentage, especially among elite athletes, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D level in elite male collegiate athletes and to analyze its effect on body fat percentage. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 42 elite male collegiate athletes in this prospective cohort study. In March 2020, body composition monitoring and blood test were performed. All athletes were provided with vitamin D3 supplement tablets of 25 µg/day. The use of the supplement was dependent on athletes' preference. During the study period, their club activities were stopped for 2 months due to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. A second examination, similar to the first one, was performed after approximately 3 months. Supplement usage by each athlete was also confirmed. The participants were divided into a non-supplement group (without supplementation, n = 15) and a supplement group (with supplementation, n = 27). RESULTS: Regarding baseline data at initial examination, the non-supplement and supplement groups showed significant differences in the mean body fat percentage (9.0% and 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03) and serum 25(OH)D level (22.7 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, P = 0.02). At the time of the second examination, there were no significant differences in the results of both the groups. In terms of mean change value from the first to the second examination, there were significant differences in body fat percentage (1.9 and 0.2%, respectively, P = 0.02) and serum 25(OH)D level (1.7 and 7.2 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.001) between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was observed between the change ratio of body fat percentage and change value of serum 25(OH)D level (r = - 0.37, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation of 25 µg/day significantly increased the serum 25(OH)D level in elite male collegiate athletes. Vitamin D supplementation may play a role in maintaining athletes' body fat percentage under circumstances where sports activity has decreased.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234727

Реферат

Certain underlying diseases such as diabetic mellitus and hypertension are a risk factor for the severity and mortality of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. Furthermore, both angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are controversial at role in the process of COVID-19 cases. The aim of the study was to investigate whether underlying diseases and taking ACEi/ARBs, affect the duration of hospitalization and mortality in patients with confirmed COVID-19. Medical usage claims data for the past three years until 15 May 2020, from the "CORONA-19 International Cooperation Research" project was used. We analyzed the medical insurance claims data for all 7590 coronavirus (COVID-19) patients confirmed by RT-PCR tests nationwide up to 15 May 2020. Among the comorbidities, a history of hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.056-2.158) and diabetes (HR, 1.867; 95% CI, 1.408-2.475) were associated significantly with mortality. Furthermore, heart failure (HR, 1.391; 95% CI, 1.027-1.884), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.615; 95% CI, 1.185-2.202), chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.451; 95% CI, 1.018-2.069), mental disorder (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.106-2.343), end stage renal disease (HR, 5.353; 95% CI, 2.185-13.12) were also associated significantly with mortality. The underlying disease has increased the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. Diabetes, hypertension, cancer, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and mental disorders increased mortality. Controversial whether taking ACEi/ARBs would benefit COVID-19 patients, in our study, patients taking ACEi/ARBs had a higher risk of mortality.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 Apr 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217077

Реферат

Epidemiological and virological studies have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) are emerging globally, including in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spread of B.1.1.7-lineage SARS-CoV-2 in southern Italy from December 2020-March 2021 through the detection of the S gene target failure (SGTF), which could be considered a robust proxy of VOC B.1.1.7. SGTF was assessed on 3075 samples from week 52/2020 to week 10/2021. A subset of positive samples identified in the Apulia region during the study period was subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A descriptive and statistical analysis of the demographic and clinical characteristics of cases according to SGTF status was performed. Overall, 20.2% of samples showed SGTF; 155 strains were confirmed as VOC 202012/01 by WGS. The proportion of SGTF-positive samples rapidly increased over time, reaching 69.2% in week 10/2021. SGTF-positive cases were more likely to be symptomatic and to result in hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Despite the implementation of large-scale non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), such as the closure of schools and local lockdowns, a rapid spread of VOC 202012/01 was observed in southern Italy. Strengthened NPIs and rapid vaccine deployment, first among priority groups and then among the general population, are crucial both to contain the spread of VOC 202012/01 and to flatten the curve of the third wave.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Europe , Humans , Italy/epidemiology
16.
Front Physiol ; 12: 578708, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207712

Реферат

Background: A computational proteomic analysis suggested that SARS-CoV-2 might bind to hemoglobin (Hb). The authors hypothesized that this phenomenon could result in a decreased oxygen (O2) binding and lead to hemolytic anemia as well. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the affinity of Hb for O2 was altered during COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective, observational, single-center study, the blood gas analyses of 100 COVID-19 patients were compared to those of 100 non-COVID-19 patients. Fifty-five patients with carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) ≥8% and 30 with sickle cell disease (SCD) were also included ("positive controls" with abnormal Hb affinity). P50 was corrected for body temperature, pH, and PCO2. Results: Patients did not differ statistically for age or sex ratio in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups. Median P50 at baseline was 26 mmHg [25.2-26.8] vs. 25.9 mmHg [24-27.3], respectively (p = 0.42). As expected, P50 was 22.5 mmHg [21.6-23.8] in the high HbCO group and 29.3 mmHg [27-31.5] in the SCD group (p < 0.0001). Whatever the disease severity, samples from COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 groups were distributed on the standard O2-Hb dissociation curve. When considering the time-course of P50 between days 1 and 18 in both groups, no significant difference was observed. Median Hb concentration at baseline was 14 g.dl-1 [12.6-15.2] in the COVID-19 group vs. 13.2 g.dl-1 [11.4-14.7] in the non-COVID-19 group (p = 0.006). Among the 24 COVID-19 patients displaying anemia, none of them exhibited obvious biological hemolysis. Conclusion: There was no biological argument to support the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 could alter O2 binding to Hb.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 584874, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207706

Реферат

Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of COVID-19 prevention and control measures on the transmission of common respiratory viruses in a pediatric population. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. The study population was selected from children with respiratory diseases who attended Xiamen Children's Hospital from January 1, 2018 to January 31, 2021. All children were screened for influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The changes in respiratory virus detection rates before and after the SARS-CoV-2 intervention were analyzed using an interrupted time-series model. Polynomial curve fitting was also used to predict future short-term trends in respiratory virus detection. Results: A total of 56,859 children were seen at Xiamen Children's Hospital from January 1, 2018 to Jan 31, 2021, of which 32,120 were tested for respiratory viruses via pharyngeal swabs. The overall positive detection rates of the four respiratory viral infections decreased significantly (P = 0.0017) after the implementation of the quarantine and school suspension measures in January 2020. Among them, the detection rate of RSV decreased most significantly (P = 0.008), and although there was no statistically significant difference in the detection rates of the influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus, a downward trend in the graph was observed. The positive detection rates of RSV in the 0-1-, 1-3-, and 3-7-year-old groups all decreased significantly (P = 0.035, 0.016, and 0.038, respectively). The change in the positive detection rate of RSV was relatively stable in the 7-18-year-old group. A total of 10,496 samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and no positive cases were reported. Conclusions: The combination of preventive and control measures for COVID-19 reduced the detection rate of four common respiratory viruses, with the greatest impact on RSV. If prevention and control measures continue to be maintained, the overall detection rate or absolute number of detections for the four respiratory viruses will remain low in the short term. However, this trend is likely to vary with the changes in measures.

18.
Scand J Urol ; 55(3): 184-191, 2021 Jun.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207211

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: The first case of COVID-19 in Sweden was diagnosed in late January 2020, the first recommendations against the spread of the virus were released in mid-March, and the peak of the first wave of the pandemic was reached in March-June. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the short-term effects of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis, staging, and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden on newly diagnosed PCa cases and on the number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed between 18 March 2020 and 2 June 2020 were compared with those in the corresponding time periods in 2017-2019, as reported until January 31 of the year after each study period. RESULTS: During the study period in 2020, 36% fewer PCa cases were registered in NPCR compared with the corresponding time period in previous years: 1458 cases in 2020 vs a mean of 2285 cases in 2017-2019. The decrease in new PCa registrations was more pronounced in men above age 75 years, down 51%, than in men aged 70-75, down 37%, and in men below age 70, down 28%. There was no decrease in the number of radical prostatectomies and number of radical radiotherapy courses increased by 32%. CONCLUSIONS: During the peak of the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of men diagnosed with PCa in Sweden decreased by one third compared with previous years, whereas there was no decrease in the number of curative treatments.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/mortality , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Age Factors , Aged , Catchment Area, Health/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Prostatectomy/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652102, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190331

Реферат

Prevalence studies of current smoking, among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liquid-interface (ALI) system and ACE-2 membrane protein expression was evaluated after 24 h from exposure. Our transcriptomics data analysis showed a significant selective reduction of membrane ACE-2 expression (about 25%) following smoking exposure. Interestingly, we observed a positive direct correlation between ACE-2 reduction and nicotine delivery. Furthermore, by stratifying GSE52237 as a function of ACE-2 gene expression levels, we highlighted 1,012 genes related to ACE-2 in smokers and 855 in non-smokers. Furthermore, we showed that 161 genes involved in the endocytosis process were highlighted using the online pathway tool KEGG. Finally, 11 genes were in common between the ACE-2 pathway in smokers and the genes regulated during endocytosis, while 12 genes with non-smokers. Interestingly, six in non-smokers and four genes in smokers were closely involved during the viral internalization process. Our data may offer a pharmaceutical role of nicotine as potential treatment option in COVID-19.

20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 14.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186902

Реферат

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic created an unprecedented public health emergency. Early recognition of an infected person and disruption of the transmission pathway are the keys to controlling this major public health threat around the world. The scientifically reliable screening method is an RT-PCR test that is performed on an ororhinopharyngeal swab in the laboratory. In the current severe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it is necessary to identify devices for rapid diagnosis to reduce the spread of the disease. The aim of this study was to provide a qualitative, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on the recognition of specific antigens of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The device was built by assembling commercially available and custom-made semi-finished products. The method was performed in environments outside the laboratory, i.e., "patient side," with an immediate chemocolorimetric response or with a digital reader using an ELISA method.

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