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1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1354-1356, 2020 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898685

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus that was first identified in Wuhan, China; it has since spread rapidly throughout the world. Most of the patients with COVID-19 present with respiratory symptoms, including cough, nasal symptoms, fever, and shortness of breath. However, several groups have reported that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the central nervous system via the olfactory bulb followed by spread throughout the brain and peripheral nervous system. This brief report illustrated a 78-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) on March 22, 2020, with chief complaints of dizziness and unsteadiness while walking. He had no symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 on arrival. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test performed at that time due to his atypical presentation and lymphocytopenia was positive for virus nucleic acids. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are frequently non-specific and may emerge several days before the respiratory symptoms; as such, identification of patients presenting with these subtle and seemingly unremarkable COVID-19 symptoms will be quite difficult. Added to this, numerous countries still limit testing for SARS-COV-2 to patients presenting with fever or respiratory symptoms. Frontline physicians should be aware of early, non-specific symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
QJM ; 114(9): 625-635, 2021 Nov 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746245

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The objective of the present study is to identify specific clinical features of cases of GBS reported in the literature associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched Pubmed, and included single case reports and case series with full text in English, reporting original data of patients with GBS and a confirmed recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data were extracted. We identified 28 articles (22 single case reports and 6 case series), reporting on a total of 44 GBS patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed through serum reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 72.7% of cases. A total of 40 patients (91%) had symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection before the onset of the GBS. The median period between the onset of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of the GBS was 11.2 days (range, 2-23). The most common clinical features were: leg weakness (61.4%), leg paresthesia (50%), arm weakness (50.4%), arm paresthesia (50.4%), hyporeflexia/areflexia (48%) and ataxia (22.7%). In total, 38.6% (n = 17) were found to have facial paralysis. Among 37 patients in whom nerve-conduction studies and electromyography were performed, of which 26 patients (59.1%) were consistent with the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy subtype of the GBS. The present retrospective analysis support the role of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the development of the GBS, may trigger GBS as para-infectious disease, and lead to SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

Реферат

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631233, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575223

Реферат

Coronavirus disease-19 caused by the novel RNA betacoronavirus SARS-CoV2 has first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and since then developed into a worldwide pandemic with >99 million people afflicted and >2.1 million fatal outcomes as of 24th January 2021. SARS-CoV2 targets the lower respiratory tract system leading to pneumonia with fever, cough, and dyspnea. Most patients develop only mild symptoms. However, a certain percentage develop severe symptoms with dyspnea, hypoxia, and lung involvement which can further progress to a critical stage where respiratory support due to respiratory failure is required. Most of the COVID-19 symptoms are related to hyperinflammation as seen in cytokine release syndrome and it is believed that fatalities are due to a COVID-19 related cytokine storm. Treatments with anti-inflammatory or anti-viral drugs are still in clinical trials or could not reduce mortality. This makes it necessary to develop novel anti-inflammatory therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, the unique active compounds of the cannabis plant, has been discovered in the area of immunology. Phytocannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds which biological functions are conveyed by their interactions with the endocannabinoid system in humans. Here, we explore the anti-inflammatory function of cannabinoids in relation to inflammatory events that happen during severe COVID-19 disease, and how cannabinoids might help to prevent the progression from mild to severe disease.


Тема - темы
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Cannabis/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(4)2021 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518339

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a severe immune-mediated disorder. We aim to report the neurologic features of children with PIMS-TS. METHODS: We identified children presenting to a large children's hospital with PIMS-TS from March to June 2020 and performed a retrospective medical note review, identifying clinical and investigative features alongside short-term outcome of children presenting with neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with PIMS-TS were identified, 9 (12%) had neurologic involvement: altered conciseness (3), behavioral changes (3), focal neurology deficits (2), persistent headaches (2), hallucinations (2), excessive sleepiness (1), and new-onset focal seizures (1). Four patients had cranial images abnormalities. At 3-month follow-up, 1 child had died, 1 had hemiparesis, 3 had behavioral changes, and 4 completely recovered. Systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic markers were higher in patients with neurologic involvement (mean highest CRP 267 vs 202 mg/L, p = 0.05; procalcitonin 30.65 vs 13.11 µg/L, p = 0.04; fibrinogen 7.04 vs 6.17 g/L, p = 0.07; d-dimers 19.68 vs 7.35 mg/L, p = 0.005). Among patients with neurologic involvement, these markers were higher in those without full recovery at 3 months (ferritin 2284 vs 283 µg/L, p = 0.05; d-dimers 30.34 vs 6.37 mg/L, p = 0.04). Patients with and without neurologic involvement shared similar risk factors for PIMS-TS (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic ethnicity 78% vs 70%, obese/overweight 56% vs 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/psychology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
8.
Eur Respir J ; 58(1)2021 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496128

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function and clinical symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors within 3 months after hospital discharge, and to identify risk factors associated with impaired lung function. METHODS AND MATERIAL: COVID-19 patients were prospectively followed-up with pulmonary function tests and clinical characteristics for 3 months following discharge from a hospital in Wuhan, China between January and February 2020. RESULTS: 647 patients were included. 87 (13%) patients presented with weakness, 63 (10%) with palpitations and 56 (9%) with dyspnoea. The prevalence of each of the three symptoms were markedly higher in severe patients than nonsevere patients (19% versus 10% for weakness, p=0.003; 14% versus 7% for palpitations, p=0.007; 12% versus 7% for dyspnoea, p=0.014). Results of multivariable regression showed increased odds of ongoing symptoms among severe patients (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p=0.026) or patients with longer hospital stays (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.041). Pulmonary function test results were available for 81 patients, including 41 nonsevere and 40 severe patients. In this subgroup, 44 (54%) patients manifested abnormal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D LCO) (68% severe versus 42% nonsevere patients, p=0.019). Chest computed tomography (CT) total severity score >10.5 (OR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-44.1; p=0.001) on admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-15.5; p=0.014) were significantly associated with impaired D LCO. Pulmonary interstitial damage may be associated with abnormal D LCO. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function, particularly D LCO, declined in COVID-19 survivors. This decrease was associated with total severity score of chest CT >10.5 and ARDS occurrence. Pulmonary interstitial damage might contribute to the imparied D LCO.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 30.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403622

Реферат

A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-effects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%-99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%-81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%-55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%-41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%-23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%-17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%-17%, n = 1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 × 109/L, 95% CI 0.83-1.03 × 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54-45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%-1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001011, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388516

Реферат

Introduction: Research into paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) has focused on tertiary level management. This review reports on symptoms and investigations at presentation. Methods: Single centre retrospective case note analysis of patients fulfilling PIMS-TS diagnostic criteria from March to May 2020 in a London district level university hospital. Results: Six patients presented in the week prior to their final diagnosis with fever and non-specific symptoms. Raised C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphopenia and hyponatraemia were noted. Kawasaki-like symptoms were under-represented in all patients. Interpretation: The results suggest that a proportion of children with early PIMS-TS present with a non-specific febrile illness and abnormal blood results. Further research is needed to determine the most appropriate identification and follow-up of these children.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 35-47, 2021 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372745

Реферат

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in economic damage. The immune response elicited from this virus is poorly understood. An alarming number of cases have arisen where COVID-19 patients develop complications on top of the symptoms already associated with SARS, such as thrombosis, injuries of vascular system, kidney, and liver, as well as Kawasaki disease. In this review, a bioinformatics approach was used to elucidate the immune response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human lung epithelial and transformed human lung alveolar. Additionally, examined the potential mechanism behind several complications that have been associated with COVID-19 and determined that a specific cytokine storm is leading to excessive neutrophil recruitment. These neutrophils are directly leading to thrombosis, organ damage, and complement activation via neutrophil extracellular trap release.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vascular System Injuries/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Vascular System Injuries/virology
12.
Bioinformatics ; 36(21): 5133-5138, 2021 01 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343670

Реферат

SUMMARY: There are seven known coronaviruses that infect humans: four mild coronaviruses, including HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1, only cause mild respiratory diseases, and three severe coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, can cause severe respiratory diseases even death of infected patients. Both infection and death caused by SARS-CoV-2 are still rapidly increasing worldwide. In this study, we demonstrate that viral coding proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have distinct features and are most, medium and least conserved with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the rest four mild coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1), respectively. Moreover, expression of host responsive genes (HRG), HRG-enriched biological processes and HRG-enriched KEGG pathways upon infection of SARS-CoV-2 shows slightly overlapping with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV but distinctive to the four mild coronaviruses. Interestingly, enrichment of overactivation of neutrophil by HRGs is only and commonly found in infections of severe SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV but not in the other four mild coronaviruses, and the related gene networks show different patterns. Clinical data support that overactivation of neutrophil for severe patients can be one major factor for the similar clinical symptoms observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to infections of the other two severe coronavirus (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Taken together, our study provides a mechanistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 epidemic via revealing the conserved and distinct features of SARS-CoV-2, raising the critical role of dysregulation of neutrophil for SARS-CoV-2 infection. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: All data sources and analysis methods related to this manuscript are available in the methods, supplementary materials and GEO database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304206

Реферат

We report the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Japan. A 54-year-old woman developed neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We tested for various antiganglioside antibodies, that had not been investigated in previous cases. The patient was diagnosed with GBS based on neurological and electrophysiological findings; no antiganglioside antibodies were detected. In previous reports, most patients with SARS-CoV-2-infection-related GBS had lower limb predominant symptoms, and antiganglioside antibody tests were negative. Our findings support the notion that non-immune abnormalities such as hyperinflammation following cytokine storms and microvascular disorders due to vascular endothelial damage may lead to neurological symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our case further highlights the need for careful diagnosis in suspected cases of GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Electromyography/methods , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Hypesthesia/diagnosis , Hypesthesia/etiology , Japan , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Rare Diseases , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304172

Реферат

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are known to be variable with growing evidence of nervous system involvement. In this case report, we describe the symptoms of a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 whose clinical course was complicated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We present a case of a 58-year-old woman who was initially diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia due to symptoms of fever and cough. Two weeks later, after the resolution of upper respiratory tract symptoms, she developed symmetric ascending quadriparesis and paresthesias. The diagnosis of GBS was made through cerebrospinal fluid analysis and she was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin administration.


Тема - темы
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Low Back Pain/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiculopathy/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12888, 2021 06 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275957

Реферат

The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early signs and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which will further help in early management of patients. Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 "SARS" and 2012 "MERS" pandemics. The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neurological signs and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross-sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data was analyzed by using the "MedCalc" Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Standard I2 test was used to analyze the heterogeneity. We have collected and screened about a total 2615articles, finally we have included 31articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which was further tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication had primary or secondary objectives of searching neurological manifestations in the COVID-19 patients and the pathogenic mechanism which will subsequently strengthen the importance to start more prospective clinical trials. The prevalence of neurological signs and symptoms were taken as primary objective. Thereafter, the prevalence of each CNS/PNS symptoms was categorized and their prevalence studied. The selection of Bagheri et al., 2020 may be discussed because they have done the cross-sectional study with the neurological finding and correlated the data with prevalence of the COVID-19 positive patients. The proportion of patients presenting with neurological outcome and clinical/PCR positivity were done. We had searched and followed all the possible online/web source, still the data collection process may remain a limitation of work due to addition of several publications on COVID-19 every day. Due to lack of data of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we have included the case reports, MERS and COVID-19 in CNS/PNS manifestations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
16.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(8): 4178-4187, 2021 Aug.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274943

Реферат

The coronavirus disease that presumably began in 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in a pandemic. Initially, COVID-19 was thought to only affect respiration. However, accumulating evidence shows a wide range of neurological symptoms are also associated with COVID-19, such as anosmia/ageusia, headaches, seizures, demyelination, mental confusion, delirium, and coma. Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients may arise due to a cytokine storm and a heighten state of inflammation. The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a central pathway involved with inflammation and is shown to be elevated in a dose-dependent matter in response to coronaviruses. NF-κB has a role in cytokine storm syndrome, which is associated with greater severity in COVID-19-related symptoms. Therefore, therapeutics that reduce the NF-κB pathway should be considered in the treatment of COVID-19. Neuro-COVID-19 units have been established across the world to examine the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. Neuro-COVID-19 is increasingly becoming an accepted term among scientists and clinicians, and interdisciplinary teams should be created to implement strategies for treating the wide range of neurological symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology
17.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(5): e1284, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224630

Реферат

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of an unknown aetiology. A small proportion of children exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or infected by Yersinia reproducibly develop principal symptoms of KD in various ethnic areas, but not in all studies. These microbes provoke a rapid cell-damaging process, called 'pyroptosis', which is characterised by a subsequent release of proinflammatory cellular components from damaged endothelial and innate immune cells. In agreement with these molecular events, patients with KD show elevated levels of damage-associated molecular patterns derived from cell death. In addition, an overwhelming amount of oxidative stress-associated molecules, including oxidised phospholipids or low-density lipoproteins, are generated as by-products of inflammation during the acute phase of the disease. These molecules induce abnormalities in the acquired immune system and activate innate immune and vascular cells to produce a range of proinflammatory molecules such as cytokines, chemokines, proteases and reactive oxygen species. These responses further recruit immune cells to the arterial wall, wherein inflammation and oxidative stress closely interact and mutually amplify each other. The inflammasome, a key component of the innate immune system, plays an essential role in the development of vasculitis in KD. Thus, innate immune memory, or 'trained immunity', may promote vasculitis in KD. Hence, this review will be helpful in understanding the pathophysiologic pathways leading to the development of principal KD symptoms and coronary artery lesions in patients with KD, as well as in subsets of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and Yersinia infections.

18.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 300-308, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249753

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The aim of this open supplement study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® in comparison with controls on symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome and in improving endothelial function, microcirculation, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress over 3 months in symptomatic subjects recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty subjects recovering from symptomatic COVID-19 were included. One group of 30 followed a standard recovery management while 30 comparable subjects received a supplement of 150 mg Pycnogenol® daily (in 3 doses of 50 mg) in addition to standard management. RESULTS: Two groups of selected subjects were comparable at baseline. The groups progressively improved both with the SM (standard management) and with the SM in combination with the supplement. Patients, supplemented with Pycnogenol® showed significantly better improvement compared to the control group patients. No side effects from the supplementation were observed; tolerability was optimal. The progressive evolution over time was visible in all target measurements. Physiological tests: endothelial function, low in all subjects at inclusion was assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and finger reactive hyperemia in the microcirculation (laser Doppler measurements) after the release of an occluding suprasystolic cuff. It was significantly improved in the Pycnogenol® group after one month and after 3 months (P<0.05 vs. controls). The rate of ankle swelling (RAS) by strain gauge decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) in comparison with controls showing an improvement of the capillary filtration rate. At inclusion, the kidney cortical flow velocity indicated a decrease in perfusion (lower systolic and diastolic flow velocity) in all patients. Kidney cortical flow velocity increased significantly with the supplement (P<0.05) in comparison with controls with improvement in systolic velocity and in diastolic component. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and Il-6 plasma levels decreased progressively over 3 months with a significant more pronounced decrease in the supplement group (P<0.05). The number of patients with normal plasma IL-6 levels at the end of the study was higher (P<0.05) with the supplement. ESR followed the same pattern with a progressive and a more significant decrease in the supplemented subjects (P<0.02). Oxidative stress decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the supplemented group (P<0.05) at the end of the study. Finally, the scores of Quality-of-life, mood and fatigue questionnaire and the Karnofsky Scale Performance Index significantly improved in the supplement group (P<0.05) compared to controls after 1 and 3 months. All other blood parameters (including platelets and clotting factors) were within normal values at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Pycnogenol® may offer a significant option for managing some of the signs and symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. This pilot evaluation offers some potential rationale for the use of Pycnogenol® in this condition that will have significant importance in the coming years.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Microcirculation , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Registries , Risk Factors
19.
QJM ; 114(9): 625-635, 2021 Nov 13.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246752

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The objective of the present study is to identify specific clinical features of cases of GBS reported in the literature associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched Pubmed, and included single case reports and case series with full text in English, reporting original data of patients with GBS and a confirmed recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data were extracted. We identified 28 articles (22 single case reports and 6 case series), reporting on a total of 44 GBS patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed through serum reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 72.7% of cases. A total of 40 patients (91%) had symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection before the onset of the GBS. The median period between the onset of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of the GBS was 11.2 days (range, 2-23). The most common clinical features were: leg weakness (61.4%), leg paresthesia (50%), arm weakness (50.4%), arm paresthesia (50.4%), hyporeflexia/areflexia (48%) and ataxia (22.7%). In total, 38.6% (n = 17) were found to have facial paralysis. Among 37 patients in whom nerve-conduction studies and electromyography were performed, of which 26 patients (59.1%) were consistent with the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy subtype of the GBS. The present retrospective analysis support the role of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the development of the GBS, may trigger GBS as para-infectious disease, and lead to SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 802-805, 2021 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245766

Реферат

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading around the world. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present fever, cough, and respiratory illnesses. It has been revealed that the comorbidities can turn it into severe types, and the managements meet unpredicted complications. Here, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coincidence with confirmed acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ten days after admission and therapeutic process, the patient developed autonomic dysfunction. Despite respiratory support and receiving intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient died due to cardiac arrest. Albeit it is yet scientifically doubtful, there are raising concerns toward a possible association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating potential neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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