Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Шоу: 20 | 50 | 100
Результаты 1 - 20 de 76
Фильтр
1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1354-1356, 2020 Dec.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898685

Реферат

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus that was first identified in Wuhan, China; it has since spread rapidly throughout the world. Most of the patients with COVID-19 present with respiratory symptoms, including cough, nasal symptoms, fever, and shortness of breath. However, several groups have reported that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the central nervous system via the olfactory bulb followed by spread throughout the brain and peripheral nervous system. This brief report illustrated a 78-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) on March 22, 2020, with chief complaints of dizziness and unsteadiness while walking. He had no symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 on arrival. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test performed at that time due to his atypical presentation and lymphocytopenia was positive for virus nucleic acids. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are frequently non-specific and may emerge several days before the respiratory symptoms; as such, identification of patients presenting with these subtle and seemingly unremarkable COVID-19 symptoms will be quite difficult. Added to this, numerous countries still limit testing for SARS-COV-2 to patients presenting with fever or respiratory symptoms. Frontline physicians should be aware of early, non-specific symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

Реферат

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631233, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575223

Реферат

Coronavirus disease-19 caused by the novel RNA betacoronavirus SARS-CoV2 has first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and since then developed into a worldwide pandemic with >99 million people afflicted and >2.1 million fatal outcomes as of 24th January 2021. SARS-CoV2 targets the lower respiratory tract system leading to pneumonia with fever, cough, and dyspnea. Most patients develop only mild symptoms. However, a certain percentage develop severe symptoms with dyspnea, hypoxia, and lung involvement which can further progress to a critical stage where respiratory support due to respiratory failure is required. Most of the COVID-19 symptoms are related to hyperinflammation as seen in cytokine release syndrome and it is believed that fatalities are due to a COVID-19 related cytokine storm. Treatments with anti-inflammatory or anti-viral drugs are still in clinical trials or could not reduce mortality. This makes it necessary to develop novel anti-inflammatory therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, the unique active compounds of the cannabis plant, has been discovered in the area of immunology. Phytocannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds which biological functions are conveyed by their interactions with the endocannabinoid system in humans. Here, we explore the anti-inflammatory function of cannabinoids in relation to inflammatory events that happen during severe COVID-19 disease, and how cannabinoids might help to prevent the progression from mild to severe disease.


Тема - темы
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Cannabis/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

Реферат

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
5.
Eur Respir J ; 58(1)2021 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496128

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function and clinical symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors within 3 months after hospital discharge, and to identify risk factors associated with impaired lung function. METHODS AND MATERIAL: COVID-19 patients were prospectively followed-up with pulmonary function tests and clinical characteristics for 3 months following discharge from a hospital in Wuhan, China between January and February 2020. RESULTS: 647 patients were included. 87 (13%) patients presented with weakness, 63 (10%) with palpitations and 56 (9%) with dyspnoea. The prevalence of each of the three symptoms were markedly higher in severe patients than nonsevere patients (19% versus 10% for weakness, p=0.003; 14% versus 7% for palpitations, p=0.007; 12% versus 7% for dyspnoea, p=0.014). Results of multivariable regression showed increased odds of ongoing symptoms among severe patients (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p=0.026) or patients with longer hospital stays (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.041). Pulmonary function test results were available for 81 patients, including 41 nonsevere and 40 severe patients. In this subgroup, 44 (54%) patients manifested abnormal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D LCO) (68% severe versus 42% nonsevere patients, p=0.019). Chest computed tomography (CT) total severity score >10.5 (OR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-44.1; p=0.001) on admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-15.5; p=0.014) were significantly associated with impaired D LCO. Pulmonary interstitial damage may be associated with abnormal D LCO. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function, particularly D LCO, declined in COVID-19 survivors. This decrease was associated with total severity score of chest CT >10.5 and ARDS occurrence. Pulmonary interstitial damage might contribute to the imparied D LCO.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 30.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403622

Реферат

A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-effects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%-99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%-81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%-55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%-41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%-23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%-17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%-17%, n = 1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 × 109/L, 95% CI 0.83-1.03 × 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54-45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%-1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 35-47, 2021 01.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372745

Реферат

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in economic damage. The immune response elicited from this virus is poorly understood. An alarming number of cases have arisen where COVID-19 patients develop complications on top of the symptoms already associated with SARS, such as thrombosis, injuries of vascular system, kidney, and liver, as well as Kawasaki disease. In this review, a bioinformatics approach was used to elucidate the immune response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human lung epithelial and transformed human lung alveolar. Additionally, examined the potential mechanism behind several complications that have been associated with COVID-19 and determined that a specific cytokine storm is leading to excessive neutrophil recruitment. These neutrophils are directly leading to thrombosis, organ damage, and complement activation via neutrophil extracellular trap release.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vascular System Injuries/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Vascular System Injuries/virology
8.
Bioinformatics ; 36(21): 5133-5138, 2021 01 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343670

Реферат

SUMMARY: There are seven known coronaviruses that infect humans: four mild coronaviruses, including HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1, only cause mild respiratory diseases, and three severe coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, can cause severe respiratory diseases even death of infected patients. Both infection and death caused by SARS-CoV-2 are still rapidly increasing worldwide. In this study, we demonstrate that viral coding proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have distinct features and are most, medium and least conserved with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the rest four mild coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1), respectively. Moreover, expression of host responsive genes (HRG), HRG-enriched biological processes and HRG-enriched KEGG pathways upon infection of SARS-CoV-2 shows slightly overlapping with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV but distinctive to the four mild coronaviruses. Interestingly, enrichment of overactivation of neutrophil by HRGs is only and commonly found in infections of severe SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV but not in the other four mild coronaviruses, and the related gene networks show different patterns. Clinical data support that overactivation of neutrophil for severe patients can be one major factor for the similar clinical symptoms observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to infections of the other two severe coronavirus (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Taken together, our study provides a mechanistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 epidemic via revealing the conserved and distinct features of SARS-CoV-2, raising the critical role of dysregulation of neutrophil for SARS-CoV-2 infection. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: All data sources and analysis methods related to this manuscript are available in the methods, supplementary materials and GEO database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12888, 2021 06 18.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275957

Реферат

The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early signs and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which will further help in early management of patients. Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 "SARS" and 2012 "MERS" pandemics. The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neurological signs and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross-sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data was analyzed by using the "MedCalc" Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Standard I2 test was used to analyze the heterogeneity. We have collected and screened about a total 2615articles, finally we have included 31articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which was further tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication had primary or secondary objectives of searching neurological manifestations in the COVID-19 patients and the pathogenic mechanism which will subsequently strengthen the importance to start more prospective clinical trials. The prevalence of neurological signs and symptoms were taken as primary objective. Thereafter, the prevalence of each CNS/PNS symptoms was categorized and their prevalence studied. The selection of Bagheri et al., 2020 may be discussed because they have done the cross-sectional study with the neurological finding and correlated the data with prevalence of the COVID-19 positive patients. The proportion of patients presenting with neurological outcome and clinical/PCR positivity were done. We had searched and followed all the possible online/web source, still the data collection process may remain a limitation of work due to addition of several publications on COVID-19 every day. Due to lack of data of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we have included the case reports, MERS and COVID-19 in CNS/PNS manifestations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
10.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(8): 4178-4187, 2021 Aug.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274943

Реферат

The coronavirus disease that presumably began in 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in a pandemic. Initially, COVID-19 was thought to only affect respiration. However, accumulating evidence shows a wide range of neurological symptoms are also associated with COVID-19, such as anosmia/ageusia, headaches, seizures, demyelination, mental confusion, delirium, and coma. Neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients may arise due to a cytokine storm and a heighten state of inflammation. The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a central pathway involved with inflammation and is shown to be elevated in a dose-dependent matter in response to coronaviruses. NF-κB has a role in cytokine storm syndrome, which is associated with greater severity in COVID-19-related symptoms. Therefore, therapeutics that reduce the NF-κB pathway should be considered in the treatment of COVID-19. Neuro-COVID-19 units have been established across the world to examine the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. Neuro-COVID-19 is increasingly becoming an accepted term among scientists and clinicians, and interdisciplinary teams should be created to implement strategies for treating the wide range of neurological symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology
11.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 300-308, 2022 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249753

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The aim of this open supplement study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® in comparison with controls on symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome and in improving endothelial function, microcirculation, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress over 3 months in symptomatic subjects recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty subjects recovering from symptomatic COVID-19 were included. One group of 30 followed a standard recovery management while 30 comparable subjects received a supplement of 150 mg Pycnogenol® daily (in 3 doses of 50 mg) in addition to standard management. RESULTS: Two groups of selected subjects were comparable at baseline. The groups progressively improved both with the SM (standard management) and with the SM in combination with the supplement. Patients, supplemented with Pycnogenol® showed significantly better improvement compared to the control group patients. No side effects from the supplementation were observed; tolerability was optimal. The progressive evolution over time was visible in all target measurements. Physiological tests: endothelial function, low in all subjects at inclusion was assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD) and finger reactive hyperemia in the microcirculation (laser Doppler measurements) after the release of an occluding suprasystolic cuff. It was significantly improved in the Pycnogenol® group after one month and after 3 months (P<0.05 vs. controls). The rate of ankle swelling (RAS) by strain gauge decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) in comparison with controls showing an improvement of the capillary filtration rate. At inclusion, the kidney cortical flow velocity indicated a decrease in perfusion (lower systolic and diastolic flow velocity) in all patients. Kidney cortical flow velocity increased significantly with the supplement (P<0.05) in comparison with controls with improvement in systolic velocity and in diastolic component. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and Il-6 plasma levels decreased progressively over 3 months with a significant more pronounced decrease in the supplement group (P<0.05). The number of patients with normal plasma IL-6 levels at the end of the study was higher (P<0.05) with the supplement. ESR followed the same pattern with a progressive and a more significant decrease in the supplemented subjects (P<0.02). Oxidative stress decreased significantly in the supplemented group (P<0.05) compared with the control group. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the supplemented group (P<0.05) at the end of the study. Finally, the scores of Quality-of-life, mood and fatigue questionnaire and the Karnofsky Scale Performance Index significantly improved in the supplement group (P<0.05) compared to controls after 1 and 3 months. All other blood parameters (including platelets and clotting factors) were within normal values at the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Pycnogenol® may offer a significant option for managing some of the signs and symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. This pilot evaluation offers some potential rationale for the use of Pycnogenol® in this condition that will have significant importance in the coming years.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Microcirculation , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Registries , Risk Factors
12.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 802-805, 2021 10.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245766

Реферат

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading around the world. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present fever, cough, and respiratory illnesses. It has been revealed that the comorbidities can turn it into severe types, and the managements meet unpredicted complications. Here, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coincidence with confirmed acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ten days after admission and therapeutic process, the patient developed autonomic dysfunction. Despite respiratory support and receiving intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient died due to cardiac arrest. Albeit it is yet scientifically doubtful, there are raising concerns toward a possible association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating potential neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Dent Med Probl ; 58(2): 219-227, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244385

Реферат

In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic overwhelmed the world, temporarily paralyzing healthcare and economic systems. Until now, we have learned a lot about the symptoms, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease as well as about the laboratory findings concerning the disease, and we are rapidly acquiring new data on the influence of COVID-19 on other aspects of human health beside its effects on the respiratory system. Patients with co-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are more frequently hospitalized, more likely to be treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) and have poorer prognoses.In this article, we discuss the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on CVD, starting from the mechanisms connected with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, and then describing the main pathologies in the heart and vessels detected in patients with COVID-19. Additionally, we comment on the problem of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), which may be triggered by viral infection. Finally, we discuss how, in some countries, the pandemic has changed treatment patterns, lowering the rate of invasive diagnostics and even falsely reducing the prevalence of CVD as a result of patients' fear of being admitted to hospital.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Neuroscientist ; : 10738584211015136, 2021 May 26.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243777

Реферат

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been increasingly recognized. However, the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in the central nervous system remains unclear. Brain organoid models derived from human pluripotent stem cells are potentially useful for the study of complex physiological and pathological processes associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as they recapitulate cellular heterogeneity and function of individual tissues. We identified brain organoid studies that provided insight into the neurotropic properties of SARS-CoV-2. While SARS-CoV-2 was able to infect neurons, the extent of neurotropism was relatively limited. Conversely, choroidal epithelial cells consistently showed a high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Brain organoid studies also elucidated potential mechanism for cellular entry, demonstrated viral replication, and highlighted downstream cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, they suggest that the neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 may be contributed by both direct neuronal invasion and indirect consequences of neuroinflammation. The use of high throughput evaluation, patient-derived organoids, and advent of "assembloids" will provide a better understanding and functional characterization of the neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. With advancement of organoid technology, brain organoids offer a promising tool for unravelling pathophysiologic clues and potential therapeutic options for neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19.

15.
J Neurol Res ; 10(5): 164-172, 2020 Oct.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227227

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease caused by a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated with many neurological symptoms. The purpose of this article is to describe the neurological manifestations so far reported and their probable pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review on EMBASE, MEDLINE and SCIELO databases using the terms "COVID-19", "COVID", "neurological", "neurologic", "manifestations", "implications", "Guillain-Barre syndrome", "encephalopathy". A total of 33 articles including clinical series, retrospective studies, and case reports were selected and thoroughly reviewed to describe neurological manifestations of COVID-19. There are several neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection with different clinical presentations, severity, and prevalence. The most critical ones, such as cerebrovascular disease, encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, were less common and usually associated with previous medical history, known risk factors for cerebrovascular disease or advanced age. The main hypotheses for the spread of the virus are through the hematogenous route or the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone or a disseminated severe immune response by a cytokine storm. The presence of neurological disturbances associated with laboratory tests alterations is an important clue for the physicians to promptly recognize neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227074

Реферат

Post-COVID syndrome is increasingly recognized as a new clinical entity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptoms persisting for more than three weeks after the diagnosis of COVID-19 characterize the post-COVID syndrome. Its incidence ranges from 10% to 35%, however, rates as high as 85% have been reported among patients with a history of hospitalization. Currently, there is no consensus on the classification of post-COVID syndrome. We reviewed the published information on post-COVID syndrome, putting emphasis on its pathogenesis. The pathogenesis of post-COVID syndrome is multi-factorial and more than one mechanism may be implicated in several clinical manifestations. Prolonged inflammation has a key role in its pathogenesis and may account for some neurological complications, cognitive dysfunction, and several other symptoms. A multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) of all ages has been also described recently, similarly to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The post-infectious inflammatory pathogenetic mechanism of MIS-A is supported by the fact that its diagnosis is established through serology in up to one third of cases. Other pathogenetic mechanisms that are implicated in post-COVID syndrome include immune-mediated vascular dysfunction, thromboembolism, and nervous system dysfunction. Although the current data are indicating that the overwhelming majority of patients with post-COVID syndrome have a good prognosis, registries to actively follow them are needed in order to define the full clinical spectrum and its long-term outcome. A consensus-based classification of post-COVID syndrome is essential to guide clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic management. Further research is also imperative to elucidate the pathogenesis of post-COVID syndrome.

17.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 189-198, 2021 Apr.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224407

Реферат

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increases the demand for postacute care in patients after a severe disease course. Various long-term sequelae are expected and rehabilitation medicine is challenged to support physical and cognitive recovery. AIM: We aimed to explore the dysfunctions and outcome of COVID-19 survivors after early postacute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: This study evaluated the postacute sequelae of patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed rehabilitative outcomes of a subgroup of patients included in the prospective observational multicenter CovILD study. RESULTS: A total of 23 subjects discharged after severe to critical COVID-19 infection underwent an individualized, multiprofessional rehabilitation. At the start of postacute rehabilitation, impairment of pulmonary function (87%), symptoms related to postintensive care syndrome, and neuropsychological dysfunction (85%) were frequently found, whereas cardiac function appeared to be largely unaffected. Of interest, multi-disciplinary rehabilitation resulted in a significant improvement in lung function, as reflected by an increase of forced vital capacity (P=0.007) and forced expiratory volume in one second (P=0.014), total lung capacity (P=0.003), and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P=0.002). Accordingly, physical performance status significantly improved as reflected by a mean increase of six-minute walking distance by 176 (SD±137) meters. Contrarily, a considerable proportion of patients still had limited diffusion capacity (83%) or neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy at the end of rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals discharged after a severe course of COVID-19 frequently present with persisting physical and cognitive dysfunctions after hospital discharge. Those patients significantly benefit from multi-disciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Our data demonstrated the highly promising effects of early postacute rehabilitation in survivors of severe or critical COVID-19. This findings urge further prospective evaluations and may impact future treatment and rehabilitation strategies.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Subacute Care/methods , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
18.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 8: 20499361211009385, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215078

Реферат

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection which can cause a variety of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vascular symptoms. The acute illness phase generally lasts no more than 2-3 weeks. However, there is increasing evidence that a proportion of COVID-19 patients experience a prolonged convalescence and continue to have symptoms lasting several months after the initial infection. A variety of chronic symptoms have been reported including fatigue, dyspnea, myalgia, exercise intolerance, sleep disturbances, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, fever, headache, malaise, and vertigo. These symptoms are similar to those seen in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a chronic multi-system illness characterized by profound fatigue, sleep disturbances, neurocognitive changes, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise. ME/CFS symptoms are exacerbated by exercise or stress and occur in the absence of any significant clinical or laboratory findings. The pathology of ME/CFS is not known: it is thought to be multifactorial, resulting from the dysregulation of multiple systems in response to a particular trigger. Although not exclusively considered a post-infectious entity, ME/CFS has been associated with several infectious agents including Epstein-Barr Virus, Q fever, influenza, and other coronaviruses. There are important similarities between post-acute COVID-19 symptoms and ME/CFS. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to establish COVID-19 as an infectious trigger for ME/CFS. Further research is required to determine the natural history of this condition, as well as to define risk factors, prevalence, and possible interventional strategies.

19.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 17.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194614

Реферат

Emerging data suggest that obesity is a major risk factor for the progression of major complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm and coagulopathy in COVID-19. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the link between obesity and disease severity as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for the development of new therapeutic interventions and preventive measures in this high-risk group. We propose that multiple features of obesity contribute to the prevalence of severe COVID-19 and complications. First, viral entry can be facilitated by the upregulation of viral entry receptors, like angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), among others. Second, obesity-induced chronic inflammation and disruptions of insulin and leptin signaling can result in impaired viral clearance and a disproportionate or hyper-inflammatory response, which together with elevated ferritin levels can be a direct cause for ARDS and cytokine storm. Third, the negative consequences of obesity on blood coagulation can contribute to the progression of thrombus formation and hemorrhage. In this review we first summarize clinical findings on the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 disease severity and then further discuss potential mechanisms that could explain the risk for major complications in patients suffering from obesity.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Immunity , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Insulin Resistance , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Unfolded Protein Response , Virus Internalization
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249644, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172879

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Post-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) syndrome includes persistence of symptoms beyond viral clearance and fresh development of symptoms or exaggeration of chronic diseases within a month after initial clinical and virological cure of the disease with a viral etiology. We aimed to determine the incidence, association, and risk factors associated with development of the post-COVID-19 syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dhaka Medical College Hospital between June 01, 2020 and August 10, 2020. All the enrolled patients were followed up for a month after clinical improvement, which was defined according the World Health Organization and Bangladesh guidelines as normal body temperature for successive 3 days, significant improvement in respiratory symptoms (respiratory rate <25/breath/minute with no dyspnea), and oxygen saturation >93% without assisted oxygen inhalation. FINDINGS: Among the 400 recruited patients, 355 patients were analyzed. In total, 46% patients developed post-COVID-19 symptoms, with post-viral fatigue being the most prevalent symptom in 70% cases. The post-COVID-19 syndrome was associated with female gender (relative risk [RR]: 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.48, p = 0.03), those who required a prolonged time for clinical improvement (p<0.001), and those showing COVID-19 positivity after 14 days (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00-1.19, p<0.001) of initial positivity. Patients with severe COVID-19 at presentation developed post-COVID-19 syndrome (p = 0.02). Patients with fever (RR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.05-2.27, p = 0.03), cough (RR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.02-1.81, p = 0.04), respiratory distress (RR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.4-1.56, p = 0.001), and lethargy (RR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.06-1.35, p = 0.003) as the presenting features were associated with the development of the more susceptible to develop post COVID-19 syndrome than the others. Logistic regression analysis revealed female sex, respiratory distress, lethargy, and long duration of the disease as risk factors. CONCLUSION: Female sex, respiratory distress, lethargy, and long disease duration are critical risk factors for the development of post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Fatigue , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Syndrome
Критерии поиска