Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Шоу: 20 | 50 | 100
Результаты 1 - 20 de 301
Фильтр
Добавить фильтры

база данных
Годовой диапазон
1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 254-262, 2022 01 29.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662114

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared cytokines in COVID-19 versus influenza to define differentiating features of the inflammatory response to these pathogens and their association with severe disease. Because elevated body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for severe COVID-19, we examined the relationship of BMI to cytokines associated with severe disease. METHODS: Thirty-seven cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma from 135 patients with COVID-19, 57 patients with influenza, and 30 healthy controls. Controlling for BMI, age, and sex, differences in cytokines between groups were determined by linear regression and random forest prediction was used to determine the cytokines most important in distinguishing severe COVID-19 and influenza. Mediation analysis was used to identify cytokines that mediate the effect of BMI and age on disease severity. RESULTS: Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased in COVID-19 versus influenza patients, whereas granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-λ1, IL-10, IL-15, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 were significantly elevated in the influenza group. In subgroup analysis based on disease severity, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α were elevated in severe COVID-19, but not in severe influenza. Random forest analysis identified high IL-6 and low IFN-λ1 levels as the most distinct between severe COVID-19 and severe influenza. Finally, IL-1RA was identified as a potential mediator of the effects of BMI on COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to activation of fundamentally different innate immune pathways in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza infection, and emphasize drivers of severe COVID-19 to focus both mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Chemokines , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Bras Nefrol ; 43(4): 551-571, 2021.
Статья в английский, португальский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575271

Реферат

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with higher mortality and a worse prognosis. Nevertheless, most patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, and about 5% can develop more severe symptoms and involve hypovolemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. In a pathophysiological perspective, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by numerous dependent pathways triggered by hypercytokinemia, especially IL-6 and TNF-alpha, leading to systemic inflammation, hypercoagulability, and multiple organ dysfunction. Systemic endotheliitis and direct viral tropism to proximal renal tubular cells and podocytes are important pathophysiological mechanisms leading to kidney injury in patients with more critical infection, with a clinical presentation ranging from proteinuria and/or glomerular hematuria to fulminant AKI requiring renal replacement therapies. Glomerulonephritis, rhabdomyolysis, and nephrotoxic drugs are also associated with kidney damage in patients with COVID-19. Thus, AKI and proteinuria are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We provide a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the impact of acute kidney involvement in the evolutive prognosis and mortality of patients with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Proteinuria , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 515-519, 2021 09 25.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574756

Реферат

Blockade of IL-6 function by an anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody (tocilizumab, trade name Actemra) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, treatment with tocilizumab has also been found to alleviate the cytokine storm induced by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy. Patients with serious cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which suggested that tocilizumab might be an effective therapeutic for serious cases of COVID-19. In the first part of this short review, the therapeutic effect of tocilizumab for the disease induced by IL-6 overproduction is described. CRS induced by CAR-T-cell therapy and COVID-19 is then discussed.


Тема - темы
Arthritis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 624483, 2021.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574395

Реферат

The immune response type organized against viral infection is determinant in the prognosis of some infections. This work has aimed to study Th polarization in acute COVID-19 and its possible association with the outcome through an observational prospective study. Fifty-eight COVID-19 patients were recruited in the Medicine Department of the hospital "12 de Octubre," 55 patients remaining after losses to follow-up. Four groups were established according to maximum degree of disease progression. T-helper cell percentages and phenotypes, analyzed by flow cytometer, and serum cytokines levels, analyzed by Luminex, were evaluated when the microbiological diagnosis (acute phase) of the disease was obtained. Our study found a significant reduction of %Th1 and %Th17 cells with higher activated %Th2 cells in the COVID-19 patients compared with reference population. A higher percent of senescent Th2 cells was found in the patients who died than in those who survived. Senescent Th2 cell percentage was an independent risk factor for death (OR: 13.88) accompanied by the numbers of total lymphocytes (OR: 0.15) with an AUC of 0.879. COVID-19 patients showed a profile of pro-inflammatory serum cytokines compared to controls, with higher levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-15, and IP-10. IL-10 and IL-13 were also elevated in patients compared to controls. Patients who did not survive presented significantly higher levels of IL-15 than those who recovered. No significant differences were observed according to disease progression groups. The study has shown that increased levels of IL-15 and a high Th2 response are associated with a fatal outcome of the disease.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 410-412, 2021 12.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573909

Реферат

OBJECTIVE: Cytokine release syndrome is suggested to be the most important mechanism triggering acute respiratory distress syndrome and end organ damage in COVID-19. The severity of disease may be measured by different biomarkers. METHODS: We studied markers of inflammation and coagulation as recorded in 29 patients on admission to the hospital in order to identify markers of severe COVID-19 and need of ICU. RESULTS: Patients who were eventually admitted to ICU displayed significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin. No statistical differences were found between the groups in median levels of lymphocytes, D-dimer or ferritin. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 and CRP were the strongest predictors of severity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 09.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526827

Реферат

Despite direct viral effect, the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes an overproduction of cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6). Therefore, tocilizumab (TOC), a monoclonal antibody against IL-6 receptors, was considered as a possible therapeutic option. Patients were selected from the SARSTer database, containing 2332 individuals with COVID-19. Current study included 825 adult patients with moderate to severe course. Analysis was performed in 170 patients treated with TOC and 655 with an alternative medication. The end-points of treatment effectiveness were death rate, need for mechanical ventilation, and clinical improvement. Patients treated with TOC were balanced compared to non-TOC regarding gender, age, BMI, and prevalence of coexisting conditions. Significant effect of TOC on death was demonstrated in patients with baseline IL-6 > 100 pg/mL (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-0.57). The best effectiveness of TOC was achieved in patients with a combination of baseline IL-6 > 100 pg/mL and either SpO2 ≤ 90% (HR: 0.07) or requiring oxygen supplementation (HR: 0.18). Tocilizumab administration in COVID-19 reduces mortality and speeds up clinical improvement in patients with a baseline concentration of IL-6 > 100 pg/mL, particularly if they need oxygen supplementation owing to the lower value of SpO2 ≤ 90%.

7.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2146-2151, 2021 11.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526353

Реферат

Tocilizumab is an IL-6 receptor antagonist with the ability to suppress the cytokine storm in critically ill patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated patients treated with tocilizumab for a SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted between March 13, 2020, and April 16, 2020. This was a multicenter study with data collected by chart review both retrospectively and concurrently. Parameters evaluated included age, sex, race, use of mechanical ventilation (MV), usage of steroids and vasopressors, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Early dosing was defined as a tocilizumab dose administered prior to or within 1 day of intubation. Late dosing was defined as a dose administered > 1 day after intubation. In the absence of MV, the timing of the dose was related to the patient's date of admission only. We evaluated 145 patients. The average age was 58.1 years, 64% were men, 68.3% had comorbidities, and 60% received steroid therapy. Disposition of patients was 48.3% discharged and 29.3% died, of which 43.9% were African American. MV was required in 55.9%, of which 34.5% died. Avoidance of MV (P = 0.002) and increased survival (P < 0.001) was statistically associated with early dosing. Tocilizumab therapy was effective at decreasing mortality and should be instituted early in the management of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019) COVID-19).


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14462, 2021 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494712

Реферат

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies have shown that some cytokines in COVID-19 patients were elevated. This study aims to assess whether IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IP-10 and IL-4 serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers of COVID-19. METHODS: The above serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients were detected by ELISA and SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were detected by the chemiluminescence method. The independent-sample Mann-Whitney U test was utilised to compare cytokine levels in different groups and courses, the Levene T-test and T'-test were utilised to compare they in different genders and the Spearman correlation test was utilised to analyse the correlation between the cytokine levels with ages and SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM. RESULTS: Serum levels of IL-10, IL-1ß, MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-4 in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients, while IL-6 were only significantly higher than in healthy people, IP-10 were significantly lower than in other diseases patients. AUCs of COVID-19 diagnosed by IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IP-10 and IL-4 were 0.735, 0.775, 0.595, 0.821, 0.848, 0.38 and 0.682, respectively. In the COVID-19 patients' serum, the levels of IL-10 and MCP-1 of male were noticeably higher than those of female, and all cytokines were significantly positively correlated with age, IL-1ß and IL-4 were significantly negatively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 IgM, while IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF- and IP-10 were significantly negatively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 IgG. IL-10 on 43-56 days was significantly lower than at 29-42 days, TNF-α at 15-42 days was significantly higher than at 0-14 days, IP-10 at 0-14 days was the highest and IL-4 at 29-42 days was significantly higher than at 0-14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of IL-10, IL-1 ß, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-4 would assist the clinical study of COVID-19, and IP-10 may be the cytokine of early elevation in COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Chemokine CXCL10 , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 572989, 2020.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488436

Реферат

Background: The rapid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has hit hard on the world and causes panic since the virus causes serious infectious respiratory illness and easily leads to severe conditions such as immune system overactivation or cytokine storm. Due to the limited knowledge on the course of infection of this coronavirus and the lack of an effective treatment for this fatal disease, mortality remains high. The emergence of a cytokine storm in patients with a severe condition has been reported as the top reason of the death of patients with COVID-19 infection. However, the causative mechanism of cytokine storm remains elusive. Thus, we aim to observe the association of coagulopathy (D-dimer) with cytokine (i.e., IL-6) and CT imaging in COVID-19-infected patients. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we systematically analyzed the comprehensive clinical laboratory data of COVID-19-positive patients in different illness groups of mild, moderate, and severe conditions according to the Chinese Clinical Guidance for COVID-19 Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment (7th edition). T tests and chi-square tests were used for two-group comparisons. One-way ANOVA was used for three-group comparisons. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients of the D-dimer level with IL-6 and CT imaging were computed at baseline. With regular liquid biopsy approach, D-dimer, IL-6, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were recorded repeatedly with a time curve to investigate disease progression, along with CT imaging, and other indicators. Results: All the 64 patients were clinically evaluated and classified into three groups of mild (32 cases), moderate (23 cases), and severe (nine cases) conditions. The D-dimer level positively correlated with IL-6 (R = 0.5) at baseline when the COVID-19-infected patients were admitted. In addition, we observed that D-dimer rises earlier than the cytokine storm represented by IL-6 surge, which suggests that coagulopathy might act as a trigger to potentiate a cytokine storm. Conclusion: Integrated analysis revealed a positive correlation of coagulopathy with cytokine storm in COVID-19-infected patients; the D-dimer rises early, which indicates that coagulopathy acts as a prodrome of cytokine storm. Coagulopathy can be used to monitor early cytokine storm in COVID-19-infected patients.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 571597, 2020.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488435

Реферат

The COVID-19 disease is an unprecedented international public health emergency and considerably impacts the global economy and health service system. While awaiting the development of an effective vaccine, searching for the therapy for severe or critical COVID-19 patients is essential for reducing the mortality and alleviating the tension of the health service system. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) induced by elevated interleukin-6 was recognized to underscore the pathology of severe COVID-19 patients. Inhibiting CRS by agents suppressing IL-6 may relieve symptoms, shorten the hospital stay and reduce the need for oxygen therapy. Although evidence from randomized, double-blinded clinical trials is still lacking, the IL-6R inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ) has shown some clinical benefits in the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients and have been included in clinical guidelines. In this review, we focused on the possible mechanisms of TCZ in the treatment of CRS and highlighted some significant considerations in the use of TCZ to treat COVID-19 patients.

11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 405, 2020 10 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477432

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab blocks pro-inflammatory activity of interleukin-6 (IL-6), involved in pathogenesis of pneumonia the most frequent cause of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A multicenter, single-arm, hypothesis-driven trial was planned, according to a phase 2 design, to study the effect of tocilizumab on lethality rates at 14 and 30 days (co-primary endpoints, a priori expected rates being 20 and 35%, respectively). A further prospective cohort of patients, consecutively enrolled after the first cohort was accomplished, was used as a secondary validation dataset. The two cohorts were evaluated jointly in an exploratory multivariable logistic regression model to assess prognostic variables on survival. RESULTS: In the primary intention-to-treat (ITT) phase 2 population, 180/301 (59.8%) subjects received tocilizumab, and 67 deaths were observed overall. Lethality rates were equal to 18.4% (97.5% CI: 13.6-24.0, P = 0.52) and 22.4% (97.5% CI: 17.2-28.3, P < 0.001) at 14 and 30 days, respectively. Lethality rates were lower in the validation dataset, that included 920 patients. No signal of specific drug toxicity was reported. In the exploratory multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio negatively affected survival, while the concurrent use of steroids was associated with greater survival. A statistically significant interaction was found between tocilizumab and respiratory support, suggesting that tocilizumab might be more effective in patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab reduced lethality rate at 30 days compared with null hypothesis, without significant toxicity. Possibly, this effect could be limited to patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. Registration EudraCT (2020-001110-38); clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04317092).


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Validation Studies as Topic
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1488-1493, 2020 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450042

Реферат

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been particularly challenging due to a lack of established therapies and treatment guidelines. With the rapid transmission of disease, even the off-label use of available therapies has been impeded by limited availability. Several antivirals, antimalarials, and biologics are being considered for treatment at this time. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize the available information regarding treatment options for COVID-19 and serve as a resource for health care professionals. OBJECTIVES: This narrative review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of current therapy options for COVID-19 and address the controversial use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). PubMed and SCOPUS were queried using a combination of the keywords "COVID 19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "treatment." All types of studies were evaluated including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. DISCUSSION: There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence. Remdesivir and convalescent plasma may be considered in critical patients with respiratory failure; however, access to these therapies may be limited. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonists may be used in patients who develop evidence of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Corticosteroids should be avoided unless there is evidence of refractory septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or another compelling indication for their use. ACE inhibitors and ARBs should not be discontinued at this time and ibuprofen may be used for fever. CONCLUSION: There are several ongoing clinical trials that are testing the efficacy of single and combination treatments with the drugs mentioned in this review and new agents are under development. Until the results of these trials become available, we must use the best available evidence for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Additionally, we can learn from the experiences of healthcare providers around the world to combat this pandemic.


Тема - темы
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 293-298, 2021 Jul 21.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380101

Реферат

The prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be clarified. In this retrospective study, COVID-19 patients treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 7 to February 8, 2020 with measurements of serum IL-6 levels within 1 week after admission were included. Data regarding demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, complications, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Sixty-six patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study (31 patients were females). They were divided into a normal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 35) and an abnormal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 31). Compared with the normal group, the incidence of critical cases (P <0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P = 0.001), acute cardiac injury (P = 0.002), cardiac insufficiency (P = 0.039), mechanical ventilation rate (P = 0.002), and mortality (P = 0.021) was significantly increased in the abnormal group. Serum IL-6 concentration was an independent predictor of fatal outcome (P = 0.04). The optimal cutoff value of serum IL-6 concentration for predicting fatal outcomes was 26.09 pg/mL (P <0.001). In COVID-19, elevated serum IL-6 levels were associated with critical illness, use of mechanical ventilation, and complications, including heart injury and ARDS, and could predict a fatal outcome. Early detection of serum IL-6 levels after admission should be necessary in COVID-19 patients.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

Реферат

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
16.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 395-406, 2021 08 02.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338702

Реферат

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical expression is pleiomorphic, severity is related to age and comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension, and pathophysiology involves aberrant immune activation and lymphopenia. We wondered if the myeloid compartment was affected during COVID-19 and if monocytes and macrophages could be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from COVID-19 patients and controls were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and extensively investigated with immunofluorescence, viral RNA extraction and quantification, and total RNA extraction followed by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction using specific primers, supernatant cytokines (interleukins 6, 10, and 1ß; interferon-ß; transforming growth factor-ß1, and tumor necrosis factor-α), and flow cytometry. The effect of M1- vs M2-type or no polarization prior to infection was assessed. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 efficiently infected monocytes and MDMs, but their infection is abortive. Infection was associated with immunoregulatory cytokines secretion and the induction of a macrophagic specific transcriptional program characterized by the upregulation of M2-type molecules. In vitro polarization did not account for permissivity to SARS-CoV-2, since M1- and M2-type MDMs were similarly infected. In COVID-19 patients, monocytes exhibited lower counts affecting all subsets, decreased expression of HLA-DR, and increased expression of CD163, irrespective of severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 drives monocytes and macrophages to induce host immunoparalysis for the benefit of COVID-19 progression.SARS-CoV-2 infection of macrophages induces a specific M2 transcriptional program. In Covid-19 patients, monocyte subsets were decreased associated with up-expression of the immunoregulatory molecule CD163 suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 drives immune system for the benefit of Covid-19 disease progression.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Monocytes/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 755-762, 2021 07.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337041

Реферат

BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify the benefit of cytokine adsorption in patients with COVID-19 supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: We did a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial to investigate cytokine adsorption in adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ECMO. Patients with COVID-19 selected for ECMO at the Freiburg University Medical Center (Freiburg, Germany) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive cytokine adsorption using the CytoSorb device or not. Randomisation was computer-generated, allocation was concealed by opaque, sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. The CytoSorb device was incorporated into the ECMO circuit before connection to the patient circuit, replaced every 24 h, and removed after 72 h. The primary endpoint was serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration 72 h after initiation of ECMO analysed by intention to treat. Secondary endpoints included 30-day survival. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04324528) and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00021300) and is closed. FINDINGS: From March 29, 2020, to Dec 29, 2020, of 34 patients assessed for eligibility, 17 (50%) were treated with cytokine adsorption and 17 (50%) without. Median IL-6 decreased from 357·0 pg/mL to 98·6 pg/mL in patients randomly assigned to cytokine adsorption and from 289·0 pg/mL to 112·0 pg/mL in the control group after 72 h. One patient in each group died before 72 h. Adjusted mean log IL-6 concentrations after 72 h were 0·30 higher in the cytokine adsorption group (95% CI -0·70 to 1·30, p=0·54). Survival after 30 days was three (18%) of 17 with cytokine adsorption and 13 (76%) of 17 without cytokine adsorption (p=0·0016). INTERPRETATION: Early initiation of cytokine adsorption in patients with severe COVID-19 and venovenous ECMO did not reduce serum IL-6 and had a negative effect on survival. Cytokine adsorption should not be used during the first days of ECMO support in COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adsorption , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 643-654, 2021 06.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291133

Реферат

Circulating concentrations of the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are known to be increased in pro-inflammatory critical care syndromes, such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevations in serum IL-6 concentrations in patients with severe COVID-19 have led to renewed interest in the cytokine as a therapeutic target. However, although the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6 are widely known, the cytokine also has a series of important physiological and anti-inflammatory functions. An adequate understanding of the complex processes by which IL-6 signalling occurs is crucial for the correct interpretation of IL-6 concentrations in the blood or lung, the use of IL-6 as a critical care biomarker, or the design of effective anti-IL-6 strategies. Here, we outline the role of IL-6 in health and disease, explain the different types of IL-6 signalling and their contribution to the net biological effect of the cytokine, describe the approaches to IL-6 inhibition that are currently available, and discuss implications for the future use of treatments such as tocilizumab in the critical care setting.


Тема - темы
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Jun 03.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276990

Реферат

BACKGROUND: So far, SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh coronavirus found to infect humans and cause disease with quite a strong infectivity. Patients diagnosed as severe or critical cases are prone to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome and even death. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been reported to be associated with the severity of disease and mortality in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to evaluate the association between IL-6 and severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 disease. METHODS: A systematic literature search using China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang databases, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature, Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed from inception until 16 January 2021. RESULTS: 12 studies reported the value of IL-6 for predicting the severe disease in patients with COVID-19. The pooled area under the curve (AUC) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.821 to 0.931). 5 studies elaborated the predictive value of IL-6 on mortality. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0.15 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.17, I2=98.9%), 0.73 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.79, I2=91.8%) and 0.531 (95% CI 0.451 to 0.612), respectively. Meta-regression analysis showed that country, technique used, cut-off, sample, study design and detection time did not contribute to the heterogeneity of mortality. CONCLUSION: IL-6 is an adequate predictor of severe disease in patients infected with the COVID-19. The finding of current study may guide clinicians and healthcare providers in identifying potentially severe or critical patients with COVID-19 at the initial stage of the disease. Moreover, we found that only monitoring IL-6 levels does not seem to predict mortality and was not associated with COVID-19's mortality. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021233649.

20.
Br J Haematol ; 194(3): 518-529, 2021 08.
Статья в английский | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266318

Реферат

The COVID-19 pandemic has been the most significant health crisis in recent global history. Early studies from Wuhan highlighted COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and a significant association with mortality was soon recognised. As research continues across the world, more evidence is emerging of the cross-talk between the innate immune system, coagulation activation and inflammation. Immunothrombosis has been demonstrated to play a key role in the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19, with extracellular histones and neutrophil extracellular traps detected in the plasma and cardiopulmonary tissues of critically ill patients. Targeting the components of immunothrombosis is becoming an important factor in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection. Recent studies report outcomes of intermediate and therapeutic anticoagulation in hospitalised patients with varying severities of COVID-19 disease, including optimal dosing and associated bleeding risks. Immunomodulatory therapies, including corticosteroids and IL-6 receptor antagonists, have been demonstrated to significantly reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients. As the pandemic continues, more studies are required to understand the driving factors and upstream mechanisms for coagulopathy and immunothrombosis in COVID-19, and thus potentially develop more targeted therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection, both in the acute phase and in those who develop longer-term symptom burden.


Тема - темы
COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Animals , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Humans , Immunogenic Cell Death , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/therapy
Критерии поиска