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Chikungunya: un reto para los servicios de salud de la República Dominicana. / [Chikungunya: a challenge for the Dominican Republic's health services].

Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 36(5): 331-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo Espanhol | | ID: mdl-25604103


The Region of the Americas has been affected since December 2013 by a chikungunya epidemic for the first time. Although the first cases were recorded in the French Caribbean, the epidemic quickly spread to the Dominican Republic due to trade and people movements. The Dominican Republic, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti, has a population of 10 million. This article contains information from a range of different publications and official documents about the chikungunya virus infection and epidemic. These papers were extremely helpful for guiding the response to the epidemic in the Dominican Republic and may also be useful for enhancing knowledge of the virus and responses among health workers elsewhere in the region. Particular attention is drawn to the important research undertaken in countries and territories affected by the epidemic in the Indian Ocean area. This is the case, for example, of the island of La Réunion, where the epidemic had an attack rate of more than 30% between 2005 and 2007. Researchers were able to identify risk groups, severe and atypical forms of the infection, cases of vertical transmission, chronic disease causing recurrent pain over three years, and directly- or indirectly-related deaths from the virus. Given its high attack rate, the chikungunya virus has emerged as an exceptional challenge for health ministries and calls for appropriate organized responses from the health services, prioritization of care for risk groups and patients exhibiting severe forms of the disease, and effective social communication and intersectoral actions.

The global burden of cholera.

Bull World Health Organ ; 90(3): 209-218A, 2012 Mar 01.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-22461716


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. METHODS: Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. FINDINGS: About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4-4.3) and an estimated 87,000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91,000 people (uncertainty range: 28,000 to 142,000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. CONCLUSION: The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.

Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development.

Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 30(5): 484-9, 2011 Nov.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-22262276


In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development.

Implementation of resource facilitation to assess referral needs and promote access to state vocational rehabilitation services in people with traumatic brain injury.

Neuropsychol Rehabil ; 28(7): 1145-1160, 2018 Oct.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-27796176


Resource facilitation (RF) has shown promise for improving return to work (RTW) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but little is known about the RF needs of people recruited from acute trauma settings. In this descriptive study, we sought to track referral needs, describe problems in accessing state vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, and highlight the role of RF in overcoming these difficulties in 45 adults with complicated mild to severe TBI seeking RTW who were recruited from acute trauma care. Participants received a referral to the state VR agency, along with RF services for up to one year. Case coordinators (CCs) conducted biweekly assessments, provided referrals, and helped address problems in accessing services. On average 4.92 referrals were generated per participant; 91% required referrals. CCs made 44% of referrals, while physicians/other healthcare professionals generated 33% and VR counsellors generated 23%. CCs filled a gap in referring for financial and transportation difficulties. Two case studies illustrate implementation of the RF paradigm. RF provides systematic assessment and referral for services needed to facilitate utilisation of state VR services. Among persons with TBI recruited from acute trauma settings in the US, CCs provide referrals that are often not generated by other sources.

[The Policy and Practice of Preventive Care for the Elderly].

Hu Li Za Zhi ; 65(2): 13-19, 2018 Apr.
Artigo Zh | | ID: mdl-29564852


Taiwan is projected to become an aged society in 2018. In addition to establishing a comprehensive, long-term care system that is able to deal with the expected impacts of population aging, it is imperative that the government focus on improving the prevention of aging-related conditions. This article introduces the innovative preventive care policy promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare and its preliminary results. Furthermore, the foundational ideas behind this policy and how it is being executed are explained. Medical and related professional groups participated in the research and development of the associated care plan and in the training of community-based trainers. Local governments integrate local resources in order to establish contracted community service bases and to provide professionally reviewed preventive care plans. A network of 850 contracted communities was established in 2017, and 17,117 participants have received services through this network to date. The Kihon checklist (KCL, the basic assessment tool for frailty used by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) was used before and after the intervention. Participants showed noticeably improved scores on the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and in the motor function, nutrition, oral function, socialization, dementia, depression, and lifestyle domains, with scores on the emotional happiness index showing especially strong improvement.

From One Syndrome to Many: Incorporating Geriatric Consultation Into HIV Care.

Clin Infect Dis ; 65(3): 501-506, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-28387803


Antiretroviral therapy has enabled people to live long lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As a result, most HIV-infected adults in the United States are >50 years of age. In light of this changing epidemiology, HIV providers must recognize and manage multiple comorbidities and aging-related syndromes. Geriatric principles can help meet this new challenge, as preservation of function and optimization of social and psychological health are relevant to the care of aging HIV-infected adults, even those who are not yet old. Nonetheless, the field is still in its infancy. Although other subspecialties have started to explore the role of geriatricians, little is known about their role in HIV care, and few clinics have incorporated geriatricians. This article introduces basic geriatric nomenclature and principles, examines several geriatric consultation models from other subspecialties, and describes our HIV and Aging clinical program to encourage investigation of best practices for the care of this population.

Pence, Putin, Mbeki and Their HIV/AIDS-Related Crimes Against Humanity: Call for Social Justice and Behavioral Science Advocacy.

AIDS Behav ; 21(4): 963-967, 2017 Apr.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-28130629


Indiana, a large rural state in the Midwestern United States, suffered the worst North American HIV outbreak among injection drug users in years. The Indiana state government under former Governor and current US Vice President Mike Pence fueled the HIV outbreak by prohibiting needle/syringe exchange and failed to take substantive action once the outbreak was identified. This failure in public health policy parallels the HIV epidemics driven by oppressive drug laws in current day Russia and is reminiscent of the anti-science AIDS denialism of 1999-2007 South Africa. The argument that Russian President Putin and former South African President Mbeki should be held accountable for their AIDS policies as crimes against humanity can be extended to Vice President Pence. Social and behavioral scientists have a responsibility to inform the public of HIV prevention realities and to advocate for evidence-based public health policies to prevent future outbreaks of HIV infection.

Regional Variation in Postoperative Myocardial Infarction in Patients Undergoing Vascular Surgery in the United States.

Ann Vasc Surg ; 40: 63-73, 2017 Apr.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-27908815


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess for regional variation in the incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI) following nonemergent vascular surgery across the United States to identify potential areas for quality improvement initiatives. METHODS: We evaluated POMI rates across 17 regional Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) groups that comprised 243 centers with 1,343 surgeons who performed 75,057 vascular operations from 2010 to 2014. Four procedures were included in the analysis: carotid endarterectomy (CEA, n = 39,118), endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR, n = 15,106), infrainguinal bypass (INFRA, n = 17,176), and open infrarenal AAA repair (OAAA, n = 3,657). POMI was categorized by the method of diagnosis as troponin-only or clinical/ECG and rates were investigated in regions with ≥100 consecutive cases. Regions with significantly different POMI rates were defined as those >1.5 interquartile lengths beyond the 75th percentile of the distribution. Risk-adjusted rates of POMI were assessed using the VQI Cardiac Risk Index all-procedures prediction model to compare the observed versus expected rates for each region. RESULTS: Overall rates of POMI varied by procedure type: CEA 0.8%, EVAR 1.1%, INFRA 2.7%, and OAAA 4.2% (P < 0.001). Significant variation in POMI rates was observed between regions, resulting in differing ranges of POMI rates for each procedure: CEA 0.5-2.0% (P = 0.001), EVAR 0.3-3.1% (P < 0.001), INFRA 1.1-4.8% (P < 0.001), and OAAA 2.2-10.0% (P < 0.001). A single region in 3 of the 4 procedure-specific datasets was identified as a statistical outlier with a significantly higher POMI rate after CEA, EVAR, and OAAA; this region was identical for the EVAR and OAAA datasets but was a different region for the CEA dataset. No significant variation in POMI was noted between regions after INFRA. Procedure-specific clinical POMI rates (mean; range) were significantly different between regions for EVAR (0.4%; 0-1.1%, P = 0.01) and INFRA (1.4%; 0.5-2.9%, P = 0.01), but not for CEA (0.4%; 0-0.8%, P = 0.53) or OAAA (1.6%; 0-3.8%, P = 0.23). Procedure-specific troponin-only POMI rates (mean; range) were significantly different between regions for all procedures: CEA (0.4%; 0.1-1.2%, P < 0.001), EVAR (0.7%; 0-2.1%, P < 0.001), INFRA (1.3%; 0.4-2.5%, P = 0.001), and OAAA (2.5%; 0-8.5%, P < 0.001). After risk adjustment, regional variation was again noted with 3 regions having higher and 4 regions having lower than expected rates of POMI. CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in POMI rates following major vascular surgery exists across VQI regions even after risk adjustment. These findings may present an opportunity for focused regional quality improvement efforts.

Exploring implementation practices in results-based financing: the case of the verification in Benin.

BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 204, 2017 03 14.
Artigo Inglês | | ID: mdl-28288637


BACKGROUND: Results-based financing (RBF) has been introduced in many countries across Africa and a growing literature is building around the assessment of their impact. These studies are usually quantitative and often silent on the paths and processes through which results are achieved and on the wider health system effects of RBF. To address this gap, our study aims at exploring the implementation of an RBF pilot in Benin, focusing on the verification of results. METHODS: The study is based on action research carried out by authors involved in the pilot as part of the agency supporting the RBF implementation in Benin. While our participant observation and operational collaboration with project's stakeholders informed the study, the analysis is mostly based on quantitative and qualitative secondary data, collected throughout the project's implementation and documentation processes. Data include project documents, reports and budgets, RBF data on service outputs and on the outcome of the verification, daily activity timesheets of the technical assistants in the districts, as well as focus groups with Community-based Organizations and informal interviews with technical assistants and district medical officers. RESULTS: Our analysis focuses on the actual practices of quantitative, qualitative and community verification. Results show that the verification processes are complex, costly and time-consuming, and in practice they end up differing from what designed originally. We explore the consequences of this on the operation of the scheme, on its potential to generate the envisaged change. We find, for example, that the time taken up by verification procedures limits the time available for data analysis and feedback to facility staff, thus limiting the potential to improve service delivery. Verification challenges also result in delays in bonus payment, which delink effort and reward. Additionally, the limited integration of the verification activities of district teams with their routine tasks causes a further verticalization of the health system. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the potential disconnect between the theory of change behind RBF and the actual scheme's implementation. The implications are relevant at methodological level, stressing the importance of analyzing implementation processes to fully understand results, as well as at operational level, pointing to the need to carefully adapt the design of RBF schemes (including verification and other key functions) to the context and to allow room to iteratively modify it during implementation. They also question whether the rationale for thorough and costly verification is justified, or rather adaptations are possible.
Resultados 1 - 10 de 885