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1.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103889, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579857

RESUMO

Kombucha is a traditional fermented beverage gaining popularity around the world. So far, few studies have investigated its microbiome using next-generation DNA sequencing, whereas the correlation between the microbial community and metabolites evolution along fermentation is still unclear. In this study, we explore this correlation in a traditionally produced kombucha by evaluating its microbial community and the main metabolites produced. We also investigated the effects of starter cultures processed in three different ways (control, starter culture without liquid suspension (CSC), and a freeze-dried starter culture (FDSC)) to evaluate changes in kombucha composition, such as antioxidant activity and sensory analysis. We identified seven genera of bacteria, including Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, Liquorilactobacillus, Ligilactobacillus, and Zymomonas, and three genera of yeasts, Dekkera/Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Saccharomyces. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the acceptance test in sensory analysis, different starter cultures resulted in products showing different microbial and biochemical compositions. FDSC decreased Zymomonas and Acetobacter populations, allowing for Gluconobacter predominance, whereas in the control and CSC kombuchas the first two were the predominant genera. Results suggest that the freeze-drying cultures could be implemented to standardize the process and, despite it changes the microbial community, a lower alcohol content could be obtained.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114570, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480995

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn or Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Phyllanthaceae), (FPE) commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, gained immense importance in indigenous traditional medicinal systems, including Ayurveda, for its medicinal and nutritional benefits. It is used to cure several diseases such as common cold, fever, cough, asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, cephalalgia, ophthalmopathy, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, erysipelas, skin diseases, leprosy, hematogenesis, inflammation, anemia, emaciation, hepatopathy, jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, cardiac disorders, and premature greying of hair. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present review, we presented a comprehensive analysis of the ethnopharmacology, bioactive composition, and toxicity of P. emblica to identify the gap between research and the current applications and to help explore the trends and perspectives for future studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the literature published before April 2021 on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of FPE. Literature in English from scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Springer, and Google Scholar, books. These reports were analyzed and summarized to prepare this review. The plant taxonomy was verified by "The Plant List" database (http://www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: s: FPE have been used as a rich source of vitamin C, minerals, and amino acids. Several bioactive molecules were isolated and identified from FPE such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, ascorbic acid etc. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on FPE revealed its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anticancer, radioprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anti-venom, wound healing, HIV-reverse transcriptase effect. Toxicological studies on fruits indicated the absence of any adverse effect even at a high dose after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS: Although FPE showed remarkable therapeutic activities against several diseases such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, hepatitis B virus, and malaria, there were several drawbacks in some previous reports including the lack of information on the drug dose, standards, controls, and mechanism of action of the extract. Further in-depth studies are required to explain the mechanism of action of the extracts to reveal the role of the bioactive compounds in the reported activities.

3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130807, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411859

RESUMO

The combined use of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains is becoming an effective way to achieve wine products with distinctive aromas. The purpose of this study was to further improve the wine aroma complexity through optimizing inoculation protocols of multi-starters. The three indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Hanseniaspora vineae, and Lachancea thermotolerans) and their pairwise combinations (co-inoculation) were sequentially inoculated with S. cerevisiae in Petit Manseng grape must, respectively. Results evidenced a higher divergence in aroma compounds produced by two different non-Saccharomyces species compared to single species. Especially for the combination of T. delbrueckii and L. thermotolerans, the concentrations of most ethyl esters were further increased, contributing to a higher score of 'pineapple' note in agreement with sensory analysis. Our results highlighted that the inoculation of more than one non-Saccharomyces species is a potential strategy to improve the aroma diversity and quality of industrial wines.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Fermentação , Hanseniaspora , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomycetales , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
4.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 220, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hansen's disease (leprosy), widespread in medieval Europe, is today mainly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with around 200,000 new cases reported annually. Despite its long history and appearance in historical records, its origins and past dissemination patterns are still widely unknown. Applying ancient DNA approaches to its major causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, can significantly improve our understanding of the disease's complex history. Previous studies have identified a high genetic continuity of the pathogen over the last 1500 years and the existence of at least four M. leprae lineages in some parts of Europe since the Early Medieval period. RESULTS: Here, we reconstructed 19 ancient M. leprae genomes to further investigate M. leprae's genetic variation in Europe, with a dedicated focus on bacterial genomes from previously unstudied regions (Belarus, Iberia, Russia, Scotland), from multiple sites in a single region (Cambridgeshire, England), and from two Iberian leprosaria. Overall, our data confirm the existence of similar phylogeographic patterns across Europe, including high diversity in leprosaria. Further, we identified a new genotype in Belarus. By doubling the number of complete ancient M. leprae genomes, our results improve our knowledge of the past phylogeography of M. leprae and reveal a particularly high M. leprae diversity in European medieval leprosaria. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allow us to detect similar patterns of strain diversity across Europe with branch 3 as the most common branch and the leprosaria as centers for high diversity. The higher resolution of our phylogeny tree also refined our understanding of the interspecies transfer between red squirrels and humans pointing to a late antique/early medieval transmission. Furthermore, with our new estimates on the past population diversity of M. leprae, we gained first insights into the disease's global history in relation to major historic events such as the Roman expansion or the beginning of the regular transatlantic long distance trade. In summary, our findings highlight how studying ancient M. leprae genomes worldwide improves our understanding of leprosy's global history and can contribute to current models of M. leprae's worldwide dissemination, including interspecies transmissions.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009783, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the leprosy burden in Yunnan, China, leprosy remains an important public health problem in some specific areas. We analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and spatial distribution of leprosy in Yunnan, China, and provide data to guide disease prevention and control efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The surveillance data of newly detected leprosy cases in Yunnan, China, during 2011-2020 were extracted from the LEPROSY MANAGEMANT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN CHINA (LEPMIS), and spatial distribution analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and spatiotemporal scanning were performed with ArcGIS 10.6.1, GeoDa 1.8.8, and SaTScan 9.4.3 software, respectively. A total of 1907 newly detected leprosy cases were reported in Yunnan, China, during 2011-2020. The new case detection rate (NCDR) decreased from 0.62 in 2011 to 0.25 in 2020, with an annual incidence of 0.41/100,000 population. The proportions of multibacillary (MB) cases, cases in female patients, cases causing grade 2 physical disability (G2D), and cases in pediatric patients were 67.07%, 33.93%, 17.99%, and 2.83%, respectively. The number of counties with an incidence above 1/100,000 population decreased from 30 in 2011 to 8 in 2020. The Moran's I of leprosy in Yunnan, China, during 2011-2020 ranged from 0.076 to 0.260, indicating the presence of spatial clusters. Local spatial autocorrelation (LSA) analysis showed that high-high cluster areas (hot spots) were mainly distributed in the southeastern, northern, and northwestern regions. Spatiotemporal scanning showed three clusters with high NCDRs. The probably primary clusters, occurring during January 1, 2011-December 31, 2015, covered 11 counties in the southeastern region (RR = 5.046515, LRR = 271.749664, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The number of leprosy cases in Yunnan decreased overall, although some high-NCDR regions remained. Geographic information system (GIS) analysis coupled with spatial analysis indicated regions with leprosy clusters. Continuous leprosy prevention and control strategies in Yunnan Province should be established, and interventions in high-risk regions should be prioritized and further strengthened.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621273

RESUMO

Despite being treatable, leprosy still represents a major public health problem, and many mechanisms that drive leprosy immunopathogenesis still need to be elucidated. B cells play important roles in immune defense, being classified in different subgroups that present distinct roles in the immune response. Here, the profile of B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of patients with paucibacillary (TT/BT), multibacillary (LL/BL) and erythema nodosum leprosum was analyzed. B cell subpopulations (memory, transition, plasmablasts, and mature B cells) and levels of IgG were analyzed by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. It was observed that Mycobacterium leprae infection can alter the proportions of B cell subpopulations (increase of mature and decrease of memory B cells) in patients affected by leprosy. This modulation is associated with an increase in total IgG and the patient's clinical condition. Circulating B cells may be acting in the modulation of the immune response in patients with various forms of leprosy, which may reflect the patient's ability to respond to M. leprae.

7.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(4): 921-942, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623098

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes infections that affect the peripheral nervous system, including their clinical features, differential diagnoses, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of pyomyositis have increased recently in the United States, possibly because of an increase in risk factors such as IV drug use, obesity, and diabetes. Other peripheral nervous system infections, such as diphtheria, have become more common in older patients secondary to a lack of revaccination or waning immunity. Although recommended treatment regimens for most infections remain unchanged over recent years, debate over the ideal dosing and route of administration continues for some infections such as tetanus and leprosy (Hansen disease). SUMMARY: Infections of the peripheral nervous system are varied in terms of the type of infection, localization, and potential treatment. Nerve conduction studies and EMG can help determine localization, which is key to determining an initial differential diagnosis. It is important to recognize infections quickly to minimize diagnostic delays that could lead to patient morbidity and mortality.

8.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110670, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600672

RESUMO

The quality of the cocoa seeds depends on various factors. Fermentation is among them because during this process flavor precursors are synthesized through the action of fungi and bacteria, whose diversity can change depending on the geographic location and the agricultural practices. This research aimed to characterize and compare the fungal community involved in spontaneous fermentations carried out under the same post-harvest agricultural practices in two farms located at completely different agro­ecological zones by application of a high-throughput amplicon sequencing method. The results showed that the diversity of biological variants is different between regions. In the Magdalena Medio region, the fermentations were dominated by Hanseniaspora opuntiae, and Saccharomyces sp., while in Urabá region all the fermentation was characterized by an almost constant diversity and high abundance of H. opuntiae. In each site, unique biological variants of these two genera were detected. Additionally, differences were observed in the physicochemical parameters such as the pH and temperature of the fermentation mass, and the duration of the process. The analyses of these results allow concluding that the environmental conditions and indigenous microbiota of each cocoa-cultivation zone explained the differences found in this study.

9.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 488, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the triad of recurrent orofacial swelling with facial paralysis and fissured dorsal tongue. Histologically, noncaseating granulomatous inflammation occurs that confirms the diagnosis. Overlaps between granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease are described. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is the treatment of choice for acute attacks. CASE PRESENTATION: We here present a case of a 59-year-old White woman suffering from Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome with a past history of sarcoidosis on therapy with leflunomide in combination with low-dose tacrolimus successfully treated with the anti-leprosy drug clofazimine after failure of systemic steroid therapy. CONCLUSIONS: We propose clofazimine as an alternative treatment in steroid-refractory cases.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Paralisia Facial , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal , Sarcoidose , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/complicações , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620073

RESUMO

Leprosy is caused by extremely slow-growing and uncultivated mycobacterial pathogens, namely Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepromatosis. Nearly 95% of the new cases of leprosy recorded globally are found in India, Brazil, and 20 other priority countries [WHO, 2019], of which nearly two-thirds of the cases are reported in India alone. Currently, leprosy is treated with dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine, also known as multi-drug therapy [MDT], as per the recommendations of WHO since 1981. Still, the number of new leprosy cases recorded globally has remained constant in the last one-decade ,and resistance to multiple drugs has been documented in various parts of the world, even though relapses are rare in patients treated with MDT. Antimicrobial resistance testing against M. leprae or the evaluation of the anti-leprosy activity of new drugs remains a challenge as leprosy bacilli do not grow in vitro. Besides, developing a new drug against leprosy through the conventional drug development process is not economically attractive or viable for pharma companies. Therefore, a promising alternative is the repurposing of existing drugs/approved medications or their derivatives for assessing their anti-leprosy potential. It is an efficient method to identify novel medicinal and therapeutic properties of approved drug molecules. Any combinatorial chemotherapy that combines these repurposed drugs with the existing first-line [MDT] and second-line drugs could improve the bactericidal and synergistic effects against these notorious bacteria and can help in achieving the much-cherished goal of "leprosy-free world". This review highlights novel opportunities for drug repurposing to combat resistance to current therapeutic approaches.

11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1166, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620991

RESUMO

Hyperdiverse tropical rainforests, such as the aseasonal forests in Southeast Asia, are supported by high annual rainfall. Its canopy is dominated by the species-rich tree family of Dipterocarpaceae (Asian dipterocarps), which has both ecological (e.g., supports flora and fauna) and economical (e.g., timber production) importance. Recent ecological studies suggested that rare irregular drought events may be an environmental stress and signal for the tropical trees. We assembled the genome of a widespread but near threatened dipterocarp, Shorea leprosula, and analyzed the transcriptome sequences of ten dipterocarp species representing seven genera. Comparative genomic and molecular dating analyses suggested a whole-genome duplication close to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event followed by the diversification of major dipterocarp lineages (i.e. Dipterocarpoideae). Interestingly, the retained duplicated genes were enriched for genes upregulated by no-irrigation treatment. These findings provide molecular support for the relevance of drought for tropical trees despite the lack of an annual dry season.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a benign adnexal neoplasm. Contiguous squamous proliferation has been rarely described in syringocystadenoma papilliferum. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum and pathogenesis of contiguous squamous proliferation in syringocystadenoma papilliferum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum diagnosed over the past 12 years were screened for contiguous squamous proliferation. Cases with associated nevus sebaceous were excluded from the study. Immunohistochemistry for GATA3, CK7, BRAFV600E and p16 was performed. PCR for human papilloma virus, type 16 and 18, was carried out. RESULTS: Of a total of 30 cases, 14 cases showed associated contiguous squamous proliferation which included four cases of verrucous hyperplasia, six cases with papillomatosis, two cases with mild squamous hyperplasia and one case each of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma. In the cases with non-neoplastic contiguous squamous proliferations, the squamous component did not express CK7 or GATA3. However, the squamous component of premalignant and malignant lesions expressed CK7 and GATA3 concordant with the adenomatous component. BRAF was positive in adenomatous component in five cases while the contiguous squamous proliferation component was negative for BRAF in all but one case. p16 was negative in both components of all cases and PCR for human papilloma virus was negative in all cases. LIMITATIONS: Due to the rarity of disease, the sample size of our study was relatively small with two cases in the 2nd group, that is, syringocystadenoma papilliferum with malignant contiguous squamous proliferation. Detailed molecular studies such as gene sequencing were not performed. CONCLUSION: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with contiguous squamous proliferation is underreported, and most commonly displays verrucous hyperplasia. The premalignant and malignant contiguous squamous proliferations likely arise from syringocystadenoma papilliferum while the hyperplastic contiguous squamous proliferations likely arise from the adjacent epidermis. Relationship with high-risk human papilloma virus is unlikely. However, further molecular analysis of larger number of cases is required to establish the pathogenesis.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623041
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623042

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common skin disease that affects 1-3% of the general population. The treatment depends on body surface area involved, quality of life impairment and associated comorbidities. The treatment options include topical therapy, phototherapy, conventional systemic therapy (methotrexate, cyclosporine and acitretin), biologics and oral small molecules (apremilast and tofacitinib). Despite the availability of newer therapies such as biologics and oral small molecules, many a time, there is a paucity of treatment options due to the chronic nature of the disease, end-organ toxicity of the conventional drugs or high cost of newer drugs. In these scenarios, unconventional treatment options may be utilized as stand-alone or adjuvant therapy. In this review, we have discussed these uncommonly used treatment options in the management of psoriasis.

19.
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