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1.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104115, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309429

RESUMO

Hanseniaspora opuntiae is a commonly found yeast species in naturally fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass, which needed in-depth investigation. The present study aimed at examining effects of the cocoa isolate H. opuntiae IMDO 040108 as part of three different starter culture mixtures compared with spontaneous fermentation, regarding microbial community, substrate consumption, and metabolite production dynamics, including volatile organic compound (VOC) and phytochemical compositions, as well as compositions of the cocoa beans after fermentation, cocoa liquors, and chocolates. The inoculated H. opuntiae strain was unable to prevail over background yeasts present in the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass. It led to under-fermented cocoa beans after four days of fermentation, which was however reflected in higher levels of polyphenols. Cocoa fermentation processes inoculated with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain enhanced flavour production during the fermentation and drying steps, which was reflected in richer and more reproducible aroma profiles of the cocoa liquors and chocolates. Sensory analysis of the cocoa liquors and chocolates further demonstrated that S. cerevisiae led to more acidic notes compared to spontaneous fermentation, as a result of an advanced fermentation degree. Finally, different VOC profiles were found in the cocoa beans throughout the whole chocolate production chain, depending on the fermentation process.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Fabaceae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Cacau/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 401: 134200, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115231

RESUMO

Caatinga Biome fruits have been scarcely explored as a source of biotechnological yeasts. This study isolated yeasts from naturally fermented Caatinga fruits and evaluated Hanseniaspora opuntiae125,Issatchenkia terricola 129, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae 148 on fermentation of soursop and umbu-cajá pulps. All strains were able to ferment the pulps (72 h), increasing (p < 0.05) acetic acid, phenolics concentration and bioaccessibility, and maintaining counts above 7 log CFU/mL after fermentation and/or in vitro digestion. H. opuntiae 125 showed the highest counts (8.43-8.76 log CFU/mL; p < 0.05) in pulps and, higher organic acids production, increased survival to digestion, and higher bioaccessibility of various phenolics (p < 0.05) in the umbu-cajá pulp.I. terricola129 andH. opuntiae 148 showed higher metabolic activity, concentration and bioaccessibility of specific phenolics in umbu-cajá and soursop pulps, respectively (p < 0.05). Volatiles varied (p < 0.05) with the yeast strain. Generally, the yeast biotechnological performance for pulp fermentation was better on its fruit source.


Assuntos
Annona , Frutas , Frutas/química , Brasil , Fenóis/análise , Leveduras/metabolismo , Fermentação
4.
J Cent Nerv Syst Dis ; 14: 11795735221135477, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36277272

RESUMO

Background: Leprosy is primarily a disease of peripheral nerves. Some isolated case reports and case series have communicated imaging changes in the central nervous system (CNS) and brachial plexus in patients with leprosy. Objectives: To study the neuroimaging abnormalities in patients with lepra bacilli-positive neuropathy in the context of CNS, spinal root ganglion, and brachial plexus. Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: We screened newly-diagnosed patients with multibacillary leprosy presenting with neuropathy. Patients with bacilli-positive sural nerve biopsies were included in the study and subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord. Results: A total of 54 patients with bacteriologically confirmed multibacillary leprosy were screened; Mycobacterium leprae was demonstrated in the sural nerve biopsies of 29 patients. Five patients (5/29; 17.24%) had MRI abnormalities in CNS, spinal root ganglion, and/or brachial plexus. Three patients had MRI changes suggestive of either myelitis or ganglionitis. One patient had T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the middle cerebellar peduncle while 1 had T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the brachial plexus. Conclusion: CNS, spinal root ganglion, and brachial plexus are involved in patients with leprous neuropathy. Immunological reaction against M leprae antigen might be a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for brachial plexus and CNS imaging abnormalities.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, was a major public health problem in Japan in the early 20th century. Today, the number of new cases has decreased significantly. We aimed to investigate the trends of leprosy in Japan over the past 73 years and the challenges faced in recent years. METHODS: We assessed the data on newly registered cases of leprosy from 1947 to 2020. RESULTS: A total of 10,796 newly registered cases of leprosy were reported during the study period, of which 7,573 were registered in mainland Japan, 2,962 in Okinawa, and 250 were of foreign origin. Most autochthonous cases were born before 1950 in mainland Japan and before 1975 in Okinawa. The number of non-autochthonous cases surpassed that of autochthonous cases in 1992. Non-autochthonous cases originated from 26 countries, especially Brazil and the Philippines. Three cases of antimicrobial resistance were detected among non-autochthonous cases since 2004. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ongoing transmission of leprosy likely ceased in the 1940s in mainland Japan, and in the 1970s in Okinawa. With the recent rise of non-autochthonous cases with globalization, continuous surveillance and efforts to maintain leprosy services within the country are necessary even after reaching the state of elimination.

6.
Metabolites ; 12(10)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36295849

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus leads to cellular damage and causes apoptosis by oxidative stress. Heartwood extract of Pterocarpus marsupium has been used in Ayurveda to treat various diseases such as leprosy, diabetes, asthma, and bronchitis. In this study, we worked out the mechanism of the antidiabetic potential of methanolic heartwood extract of Pterocarpus marsupium (MPME). First, metabolic profiling of MPME was done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS), and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to identify phenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids in MPME. Biological studies were carried out in vitro using the HepG2 cell line. Many antidiabetic compounds were identified including Quercetin. Methanolic extract of MPME (23.43 µg/mL-93.75 µg/mL) was found to be safe and effective in reducing oxyradicals in HepG2 cells. A concentration of 93.75 µg/mL improved glucose uptake efficiently. A significant decrease in oxidative stress, cell damage, and apoptosis was found in MPME-treated HepG2 cells. The study suggests that the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium offers good defense in HepG2 cells against oxidative stress and improves glucose uptake. The results show the significant antidiabetic potential of MPME using a HepG2 cell model. The effect seems to occur by reducing oxidative stress and sensitizing the cells towards glucose uptake, hence lowering systemic glucose levels, as well as rescuing ROS generation.

7.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296312

RESUMO

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the largest biomass waste from the palm oil industry. The OPEFB has a lignocellulose content of 34.77% cellulose, 22.55% hemicellulose, and 10.58% lignin. Therefore, this material's hemicellulose and cellulose content have a high potential for xylitol and ethanol production, respectively. This study investigated the integrated microaerobic xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and anaerobic ethanol semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (semi-SSF) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the same OPEFB material. A maximum xylitol concentration of 2.86 g/L was obtained with a yield of 0.297 g/gxylose. After 96 h of anaerobic fermentation, the maximum ethanol concentration was 6.48 g/L, corresponding to 71.38% of the theoretical ethanol yield. Significant morphological changes occurred in the OPEFB after hydrolysis and xylitol and ethanol fermentation were shown from SEM analysis.

8.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pentoxifylline was initially marketed for use in patients with intermittent claudication due to chronic occlusive arterial disease of the extremities but has since been shown to have several off-label uses in dermatology. AIMS: The aim of this review is to increase awareness of the several applications of pentoxifylline in the field of dermatology. METHODS: A comprehensive PubMed search was conducted in May 2022 using the following phrases "dermatology" AND "pentoxifylline." Our search period spanned 34 years from 1988 to 2022. All available literature was reviewed. Reference lists of identified articles were included. Studies were excluded if they were not in English and if the study was out of scope. Eighty-one articles were included in this review. RESULTS: Pentoxifylline has been used to treat various dermatological conditions including peripheral vascular disease, vasculitis and vasculopathies, chilblains, pigmented purpuric dermatosis, granuloma annulare, necrobiosis, keloids, lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, scars, radiation-induced fibrosis, vitiligo, alopecia areata, leishmaniasis, and leprosy. CONCLUSIONS: Pentoxifylline's use in dermatology is growing. However, there are limited larger studies and randomized control trials on the use of pentoxifylline in dermatology and more investigation is needed to evaluate its use for many dermatologic conditions. Pentoxifylline's unique mechanism of action as well as its good tolerability, cost-effectiveness, and minimal drug interactions make it a convenient primary or adjunctive option in many dermatological conditions.

9.
ACS Omega ; 7(42): 37663-37673, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36312391

RESUMO

The solubility data of gliclazide in 10 mono-solvents (1,2-dichloroethane, 1,4-dioxane, 2-methoxyethanol, n-propyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, pentyl acetate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), and 2-butanone) and one kind of binary solvent (DMA + water) were measured between 278.15 and 323.15 K under atmospheric pressure by the gravimetric method. The Hansen solubility parameters and the KAT-LSER equation were used to investigate the solubility order and the influence of solvent effects on solubility. The experimental data were correlated by six thermodynamic models (the λh model, the Yaws model, the Apelblat model, the Jouyban model, the modified Jouyban-Acree model, and the Sun model). The results show that all of these models can correlate the experimental data well. Among them, the Apelblat model is the most suitable for correlating the solubility data of gliclazide in mono-solvents and binary solvents.

10.
Front Genet ; 13: 952219, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313452

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic disease and also a global health issue, with a high number of new cases per year. Toll-like receptors can respond to mycobacterial molecules in the early stage of infection. As important components of the innate immune response, alterations in genes coding for these receptors may contribute to susceptibility/protection against diseases. In this context, we used a case-control study model (183 leprosy cases vs. 185 controls) to investigate whether leprosy patients and the control group, in southern Brazil, have different frequencies in TLR1 (TLR1 G>T; rs5743618), TLR2 (TLR2 T>C, rs1816702 and rs4696483), and TLR4 (TLR4 A>G, rs1927911) polymorphisms. Analysis of the TLR1 1805G>T polymorphism presented the G/G genotype more frequently in the control group. TLR2 T>C rs1816702 and TLR2 T>C rs4696483, the T/T and C/T genotype, respectively, were more frequent in the control group than in leprosy patients, suggesting protection from leprosy when the T allele is present (rs4696483). Haplotype analyses between TLR1 (rs5743618) and TLR2 (rs1816702 and rs4696483) polymorphisms suggest risk for the presence of the TCC haplotype and protection in the presence of the TCT haplotype. This study suggests that polymorphisms in TLR1 and TLR2 are factors that may contribute to development/resistance of leprosy.

11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010792, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past 15 years, the decline in annually detected leprosy patients has stagnated. To reduce the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae, the World Health Organization recommends single-dose rifampicin (SDR) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for contacts of leprosy patients. Various approaches to administer SDR-PEP have been piloted. However, requirements and criteria to select the most suitable approach were missing. The aims of this study were to develop an evidence-informed decision tool to support leprosy programme managers in selecting an SDR-PEP implementation approach, and to assess its user-friendliness among stakeholders without SDR-PEP experience. METHODOLOGY: The development process comprised two phases. First, a draft tool was developed based on a literature review and semi-structured interviews with experts from various countries, organisations and institutes. This led to: an overview of existing SDR-PEP approaches and their characteristics; understanding the requirements and best circumstances for these approaches; and, identification of relevant criteria to select an approach. In the second phase the tool's usability and applicability was assessed, through interviews and a focus group discussion with intended, inexperienced users; leprosy programme managers and non-governmental organization (NGO) staff. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five SDR-PEP implementation approaches were identified. The levels of endemicity and stigma, and the accessibility of an area were identified as most relevant criteria to select an approach. There was an information gap on cost-effectiveness, while successful implementation depends on availability of resources. Five basic requirements, irrespective of the approach, were identified: stakeholder support; availability of medication; compliant health system; trained health staff; and health education. Two added benefits of the tool were identified: its potential value for advocacy and for training. CONCLUSION: An evidence-informed SDR-PEP decision tool to support the selection of implementation approaches for leprosy prevention was developed. While the tool was evaluated by potential users, more research is needed to further improve the tool, especially health-economic studies, to ensure efficient and cost-effective implementation of SDR-PEP.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Rifampina , Humanos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Tomada de Decisões
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010799, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is rare in the United Kingdom (UK), but migration from endemic countries results in new cases being diagnosed each year. We documented the clinical presentation of leprosy in a non-endemic setting. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on all new cases of leprosy managed in the Leprosy Clinic at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 1995 and 2018 were analysed. RESULTS: 157 individuals with a median age of 34 (range 13-85) years were included. 67.5% were male. Patients came from 34 different countries and most contracted leprosy before migrating to the UK. Eighty-two (51.6%) acquired the infection in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. 30 patients (19.1%) acquired leprosy in Africa, including 11 from Nigeria. Seven patients were born in Europe; three acquired their leprosy infection in Africa, three in South East Asia, and one in Europe. The mean interval between arrival in the UK and symptom onset was 5.87 years (SD 10.33), the longest time to diagnosis was 20 years. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy (n = 71, 42.0%), and lepromatous leprosy (n =, 53 33.1%) were the commonest Ridley Jopling types. Dermatologists were the specialists diagnosing leprosy most often. Individuals were treated with World Health Organization recommended drug regimens (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). CONCLUSION: Leprosy is not a disease of travellers but develops after residence in an leprosy endemic area. The number of individuals from a leprosy endemic country reflect both the leprosy prevalence and the migration rates to the United Kingdom. There are challenges in diagnosing leprosy in non-endemic areas and clinicians need to recognise the symptoms and signs of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Londres , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Nigéria
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293307

RESUMO

Dapsone (DDS), Rifampicin (RIF) and Ofloxacin (OFL) are drugs recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the treatment of leprosy. In the context of leprosy, resistance to these drugs occurs mainly due to mutations in the target genes (Folp1, RpoB and GyrA). It is important to monitor antimicrobial resistance in patients with leprosy. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae and the mutational profile of the target genes. In this paper, we limited the study period to May 2022 and searched PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Embase databases for identified studies. Two independent reviewers extracted the study data. Mutation and drug-resistance rates were estimated in Stata 16.0. The results demonstrated that the drug-resistance rate was 10.18% (95% CI: 7.85-12.51). Subgroup analysis showed the highest resistance rate was in the Western Pacific region (17.05%, 95% CI:1.80 to 13.78), and it was higher after 2009 than before [(11.39%, 7.46-15.33) vs. 6.59% (3.66-9.53)]. We can conclude that the rate among new cases (7.25%, 95% CI: 4.65-9.84) was lower than the relapsed (14.26%, 95 CI%: 9.82-18.71). Mutation rates of Folp1, RpoB and GyrA were 4.40% (95% CI: 3.02-5.77), 3.66% (95% CI: 2.41-4.90) and 1.28% (95% CI: 0.87-1.71) respectively, while the rate for polygenes mutation was 1.73% (0.83-2.63). For further analysis, we used 368 drug-resistant strains as research subjects and found that codons (Ser, Pro, Ala) on RpoB, Folp1 and GyrA are the most common mutation sites in the determining region (DRDR). In addition, the most common substitution patterns of Folp1, RpoB, and GyrA are Pro→Leu, Ser→Leu, and Ala→Val. This study found that a higher proportion of patients has developed resistance to these drugs, and the rate has increased since 2009, which continue to pose a challenge to clinicians. In addition, the amino acid alterations in the sequence of the DRDR regions and the substitution patterns mentioned in the study also provide new ideas for clinical treatment options.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Rifampina , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Dapsona/farmacologia , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Ofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/genética , Mutação , Aminoácidos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 989464, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246265

RESUMO

Genome sequencing projects of humans and other organisms reinforced that the complexity of biological systems is largely attributed to the tight regulation of gene expression at the epigenome and RNA levels. As a consequence, plenty of technological developments arose to increase the sequencing resolution to the cell dimension creating the single-cell genomics research field. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is leading the advances in this topic and comprises a vast array of different methodologies. scRNA-seq and its variants are more and more used in life science and biomedical research since they provide unbiased transcriptomic sequencing of large populations of individual cells. These methods go beyond the previous "bulk" methodologies and sculpt the biological understanding of cellular heterogeneity and dynamic transcriptomic states of cellular populations in immunology, oncology, and developmental biology fields. Despite the large burden caused by mycobacterial infections, advances in this field obtained via single-cell genomics had been comparatively modest. Nonetheless, seminal research publications using single-cell transcriptomics to study host cells infected by mycobacteria have become recently available. Here, we review these works summarizing the most impactful findings and emphasizing the different and recent single-cell methodologies used, potential issues, and problems. In addition, we aim at providing insights into current research gaps and potential future developments related to the use of single-cell genomics to study mycobacterial infection.

17.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(8): 284, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253571

RESUMO

The present research aims to investigate the miscibility, physical stability, solubility, and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble glibenclamide (GLB) in solid dispersions (SDs) with hydrophilic carriers like PEG-1500 and PEG-50 hydrogenated palm glycerides (Acconon). Mathematical theories such as Hansen solubility parameters, Flory Huggins theory, Gibbs free energy, and the in silico molecular dynamics simulation study approaches were used to predict the drug-carrier miscibility. To increase the solubility further, the effervescence technique was introduced to the conventional solid dispersions to prepare effervescent solid dispersions (ESD). Solid dispersions (SDs) were prepared by microwave, solvent evaporation, lyophilization, and hot melt extrusion (HME) techniques and tested for different characterization parameters. The theoretical and in silico parameters suggested that GLB would show good miscibility with the selected carriers under certain conditions. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the drug and carrier(s) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Solid-state characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and microscopy confirm the amorphous nature of SDs. The addition of the effervescent agent improved the amorphous nature, due to which the solubility and drug release rate was increased. In vitro and ex vivo intestinal absorption studies showed improved flux and permeability than the pure drug, suggesting an enhanced drug delivery. The GLB solubility, dissolution, and stability were greatly enhanced by the SD and ESD technology.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Glibureto , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Excipientes , Glicerídeos , Pós , Prótons , Solubilidade , Solventes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água , Difração de Raios X
18.
Curr Res Struct Biol ; 4: 278-284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186842

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), the deadly disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), kills more people worldwide than any other bacterial infectious disease. There has been a recent resurgence of TB drug discovery activities, resulting in the identification of a number of novel enzyme inhibitors. Many of these inhibitors target the electron transport chain complexes and the F1FO-ATP synthase; these enzymes represent new target spaces for drug discovery, since the generation of ATP is essential for the bacterial pathogen's physiology, persistence, and pathogenicity. The anti-TB drug bedaquiline (BDQ) targets the Mtb F-ATP synthase and is used as salvage therapy against this disease. Medicinal chemistry efforts to improve the physio-chemical properties of BDQ resulted in the discovery of 3,5-dialkoxypyridine (DARQ) analogs to which TBAJ-876 belongs. TBAJ-876, a clinical development candidate, shows attractive in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity. Both BDQ and TBAJ-876 inhibit the mycobacterial F1FO-ATP synthase by stopping rotation of the c-ring turbine within the FO domain, thereby preventing proton translocation and ATP synthesis to occur. While structural data for the BDQ bound state are available, no structural information about TBAJ-876 binding have been described. In this study, we show how TBAJ-876 binds to the FO domain of the M. smegmatis F1FO-ATP synthase. We further calculate the binding free energy of both drugs bound to their target and predict an increased affinity of TBAJ-876 for the FO domain. This approach will be useful in future efforts to design new and highly potent DARQ analogs targeting F-ATP synthases of Mtb, nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) as well as the M. leprosis complex.

19.
ACS Omega ; 7(38): 33783-33792, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36188311

RESUMO

For the first time, self-standing microfiltration (MF) hollow fiber membranes were prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) via the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method. The resultant membranes were compared with counterparts prepared from cellulose diacetate (CDA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP). Extensive solvent screening by considering the Hansen solubility parameters of the polymer and solvent, the polymer's solubility at high temperature, solidification of the polymer solution at low temperature, viscosity, and processability of the polymeric solution, is the most challenging issue for cellulose membrane preparation. Different phase separation mechanisms were identified for CTA, CDA, and CAP polymer solutions prepared using the screened solvents for membrane preparation. CTA solutions in binary organic solvents possessed the appropriate properties for membrane preparation via liquid-liquid phase separation, followed by a solid-liquid phase separation (polymer crystallization) mechanism. For the prepared CTA hollow fiber membranes, the maximum stress was 3-5 times higher than those of the CDA and CAP membranes. The temperature gap between the cloud point and crystallization onset in the polymer solution plays a crucial role in membrane formation. All of the CTA, CDA, and CAP membranes had a very porous bulk structure with a pore size of ∼100 nm or larger, as well as pores several hundred nanometers in size at the inner surface. Using an air gap distance of 0 mm, the appropriate organic solvents mixed in an optimized ratio, and a solvent for cellulose derivatives as the quench bath media, it was possible to obtain a CTA MF hollow fiber membrane with high pure water permeance and notably high rejection of 100 nm silica nanoparticles. It is expected that these membranes can play a great role in pharmaceutical separation.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233945

RESUMO

The interaction between the polymer and the materials in contact with it affects its applicability. This can be particularly important in applications such as packaging or controlled drug delivery systems. Because of these interactions, the adsorption and diffusion properties of polylactic acid (PLA) are important. The absorption capacity of different polylactic acid particles for different additives like essential oils (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, and Foeniculum vulgare essential oils) was investigated depending on the concentration of the essential oil. The PLA microparticles were prepared by the solvent evaporation emulsification method. The prepared particles had a degree of crystallinity of 0.1% and 16.1%, respectively, according to the granules used. This affects the particles' adsorption properties. The specific essential oil uptake of the more crystalline microparticles was on average 15% higher than that of the amorphous particles. The specific amount of essential oil adsorbed decreases with the decreasing concentration of essential oil in the solutions. We also investigated whether the amount of essential oil taken up was correlated with the solubility parameter of the essential oils. We concluded that the difference between the adsorption of the essential oils on the polymer was related to the essential oils' Hansen solubility parameter.

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