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1.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42: e20190520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the temporal trend of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in the State of Amapá. METHOD: Time series study, carried out in the Notifiable Diseases Information System. The indicators analyzed were: annual detection rate of new cases, detection rate of new cases in the population from 0 to 14 years old, rate of new cases with grade 2 of disability, proportion of new cases with grade 2 and proportion of new multibacillary cases, between 2005 and 2018. The analysis of the temporal evolution was made by linear regression. RESULTS: The detection rate of new cases and the rate of children under 15 years showed a decreasing trend. The rate of new cases with grade 2 of disability and the proportion of cases with grade 2 showed oscillation. The proportions of multibacillary remained constant. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological indicators analyzed suggest active transmission and late diagnosis, signaling a possible hidden endemic disease.

2.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(1): e20200532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to understand how the therapeutic itineraries of people affected by leprosy are processed. METHODS: this is a descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in April 2018 in Barão de Grajaú in Maranhão, with interviews in the form of narratives of seven patients who had a late leprosy diagnosis. RESULTS: the search for diagnosis is a major difficulty in accessing health services, resulting in a late diagnosis and, consequently, with the presence of visible deformities. It was noticed that the health units do not have a flow, nor protocols for comprehensive treatment, and these people are referred to a referral unit in another state to perform sputum smear microscopy. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: leprosy control actions need reformulations that seek the relationship between operational activities, epidemiological indicators and risk factors, in accordance with the real needs of each region, thus highlighting the gaps evidenced in the therapeutic itineraries.

3.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(2): 207-213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the clinically poorly delineated unclear margin of extramammary Paget disease, the recurrence rate after surgical resection is high. AIMS: To compare photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic plus reflectance confocal microscopy diagnosis in determining the tumor margins in patients with extramammary Paget disease. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with histopathologically confirmed primary extramammary Paget disease between January 2017 to June 2018 were included in the study. The skin lesion margins were preoperatively observed by the naked eye and with photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy and they were compared to the postoperative histopathological examination results. RESULTS: Among the 130 sections taken from 36 patients, 83 sections (63.8%, 83/130) had tumor margins beyond the macroscopic line with a distance of 3.5 ± 3.1mm and a median of 2.7mm. Forty-six sections (35.4%, 46/130) exceeded the photodynamic diagnosis marker line with a distance of 2.1 ± 1.7mm and a median of 1.5mm. Twenty seven sections (20.8%, 27/130) were obtained beyond the photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy marker line with a distance of 1.4 ± 1.2mm and a median of 0.9mm. LIMITATIONS: Photodynamic diagnosis and reflectance confocal microscopy detection can be used to observe only the superficial margin of the tumor and not the deep part. Moreover, reflectance confocal microscopy was not used alone as a control. CONCLUSION: In terms of determining the extramammary Paget disease margin invasively, photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy were found superior to observations made with the naked eye, while photodynamic diagnosis plus reflectance confocal microscopy was superior to photodynamic diagnosis alone.

4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(2): 199-206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of peripheral nerve thickening and nerve function impairment is crucial in the diagnosis and the management of leprosy. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: (1) To document the cross-sectional area, echotexture and blood flow of peripheral nerves in healthy controls and leprosy cases using high-resolution ultrasound, (2) to compare the sensitivities of clinical examination and high-resolution ultrasound in detecting peripheral nerve thickening in leprosy. METHODS: Peripheral nerves of 30 leprosy patients and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated clinically and by high-resolution ultrasound. When the cross-sectional area of a peripheral nerve on high-resolution ultrasound in a leprosy patient was more than the calculated upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for mean for that specific nerve in controls, that particular peripheral nerve was considered to be enlarged. RESULTS: Cross-sectional areas more than 7.1 mm2 for the radial nerve, 8.17 mm2 for ulnar, 10.17 mm2 for median, 9.50 mm2 for lateral popliteal and 11.21mm2 for the posterior tibial nerve were considered as nerve thickening on high-resolution ultrasound. High-resolution ultrasound detected 141/300 (47%) nerves enlarged in contrast to the 60 (20%) diagnosed clinically by palpation (P < 0.001). Clinical examination identified thickening in 31/70 (44.3%) nerves in cases with impairment of nerve function and 29/230 (12.6%) in the absence of nerve function impairment. High-resolution ultrasound detected thickening in 50/70 (71.4%) nerves with impairment of function and in 91/230 (39.6%) nerves without any impairment of function. LIMITATION: A single-centre study design was the major study limitation. CONCLUSION: High-resolution ultrasound showed greater sensitivity than clinical examination in detecting peripheral nerve thickening in leprosy cases. High-resolution ultrasound, may therefore improve the sensitivity of the diagnostic criterion of peripheral nerve enlargement in the diagnosis and classification of leprosy.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009201, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.

9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 36, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is known to be unevenly distributed between and within countries. High risk areas or 'hotspots' are potential targets for preventive interventions, but the underlying epidemiologic mechanisms that enable hotspots to emerge, are not yet fully understood. In this study, we identified and characterized leprosy hotspots in Bangladesh, a country with one of the highest leprosy endemicity levels globally. METHODS: We used data from four high-endemic districts in northwest Bangladesh including 20 623 registered cases between January 2000 and April 2019 (among ~ 7 million population). Incidences per union (smallest administrative unit) were calculated using geospatial population density estimates. A geospatial Poisson model was used to detect incidence hotspots over three (overlapping) 10-year timeframes: 2000-2009, 2005-2014 and 2010-2019. Ordinal regression models were used to assess whether patient characteristics were significantly different for cases outside hotspots, as compared to cases within weak (i.e., relative risk (RR) of one to two), medium (i.e., RR of two to three), and strong (i.e., RR higher than three) hotspots. RESULTS: New case detection rates dropped from 44/100 000 in 2000 to 10/100 000 in 2019. Statistically significant hotspots were identified during all timeframes and were often located at areas with high population densities. The RR for leprosy was up to 12 times higher for inhabitants of hotspots than for people living outside hotspots. Within strong hotspots (1930 cases among less than 1% of the population), significantly more child cases (i.e., below 15 years of age) were detected, indicating recent transmission. Cases in hotspots were not significantly more likely to be detected actively. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy showed a heterogeneous distribution with clear hotspots in northwest Bangladesh throughout a 20-year period of decreasing incidence. Findings confirm that leprosy hotspots represent areas of higher transmission activity and are not solely the result of active case finding strategies.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythema nodosum and erythema induratum of Bazin are similar inflammatory diseases of the lower extremities. These are clinically distinguishable entities, though overlap can occur. Both diseases are reported to be related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but it is very difficult to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis in skin lesions. AIM: This study aimed to develop a new nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the IS6110 insertion sequence of M. tuberculosis to improve the M. tuberculosis detection rate in skin lesions of erythema nodosum or erythema induratum of Bazin. METHODS: From May 2016 to Jan 2018, 14 patients with clinically suspicious erythema nodosum or erythema induratum were enrolled in the study. Two cases were classified as erythema nodosum and 12 as erythema induratum. Individual patients were subjected to a 4-mm punch biopsy, and their venous whole blood was sampled immediately after diagnosis. RESULTS: Eight patients were tested for M. tuberculosis using QuantiFERON, of which seven (87.5%) were positive. IS6110-nested polymerase chain reaction on all 14 patients identified 11 (78.6%) positive cases. Four of the eight (50%) individuals tested with QuantiFERON were also positive in the IS6110 nested polymerase chain reaction. The difference between the outcomes of the QuantiFERON and the IS6110-nested polymerase chain reaction tests was not statistically significant. There was also no significant agreement between the results of both assays. Sequencing the IS6110-nested polymerase chain reaction products showed a 97%-100% nucleotide sequence identity with the H37Rv genome. CONCLUSION: It is important to test for tuberculosis in patients with multiple tender subcutaneous nodules on their lower extremities in high-burden tuberculosis countries like Korea. LIMITATIONS: We need to register more suspicious patients to verify the association between erythema nodosum/erythema induratum of Bazin and M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the more sensitive polymerase chain reaction technique to identify M. tuberculosis directly in cutaneous lesions.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Biologics are a relatively new class of highly effective drugs in the management of psoriasis. They act on specific immune processes, achieve rapid and sustained clearance and do not cause target organ damage unlike conventional systemic therapy. It appears that their use in our country is not as widespread as in developed nations despite these benefits ; their prohibitive cost may be a major factor for the limited usage. This survey aimed to find out the extent of use and factors hindering usage of biologics for the management of psoriasis by Indian dermatologists. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study. The questionnaire was designed after a focussed group discussion, followed by validation. The survey was sent in the form of a link to Indian dermatologists. The responses were recorded in excel-sheet and the data was analyzed by SPSS ver 25. RESULTS: Of the 310 participants who took part, 287 completed the survey. Two hundred (70%) were users of biologics, while 87 (30%) had never used them. Cost was the major factor which prevented biologic use. Majority of the respondents used biologics in less than 2 cases per month. Secukinumab was the most common biologic used followed by etanercept. The factors which determined choice of biologics were convenience, cost, previous experience, co-morbid conditions and recommendations by an expert. LIMITATIONS: A small sample size was the limitation of the study. Dermatologists who do not use biologics may be under-represented in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Biologics are not used optimally by Indian dermatologists for management of psoriasis. The cost, fear of adverse effects, lack of awareness and inadequate felt need are major factors which prevent their regular use.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are the two most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections. For over two decades, treatment guidelines have recommended empirical co-treatment for N.gonorrhoeae and C.trachomatis as symptoms overlap and co-infection is common. Studies from India estimating the same are limited and mostly based on conventional techniques. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of N.gonorrhoeae and C.trachomatis coinfection using nucleic acid amplification tests. Further, we assessed the utility of pus cell estimation in Gram stained smears as a screening tool for inclusion of samples for molecular diagnosis. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at two tertiary care hospitals; 100 patients (55 females and 45 males) with genitourinary discharge attending STI clinics were recruited, and endocervical or urethral swabs were collected. PCRs for N.gonorrhoeae and C.trachomatis were put up. In addition, microscopy and culture for gonococcus was performed followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16 software. RESULTS: N.gonorrhoeae infection was more common than C.trachomatis. A total of 14 patients were positive by PCR (9 males and 5 females) for gonococcus. However, culture was positive only in 8 male patients. PCR for C.trachomatis was positive in 9 (4 males and 5 females) and the co-infection rate was 5%. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of pus cell estimation was 100% for males and 64% and 94.6% respectively for females. All isolates were susceptible to extended spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin. LIMITATION: The sample size of the study was small. CONCLUSION: Frequency of N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis coinfection in symptomatic STI patients is low. Coinfection is considerably overestimated and necessary confirmation of etiological diagnosis could reduce widespread empirical administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few studies on basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from India. Long-term follow-up is available in only one study and the aesthetic outcome of treatment has not been evaluated in Indian patients. AIMS: In this retrospective study on BCC, we compared treatment failure, recurrence rates and aesthetic outcomes on long-term follow-up between surgical excision and repair, and nonsurgical and ablative treatments. METHODS: Records of patients with BCC treated in the dermatologic surgery clinic over the past 10 years were analyzed. Patients with histopathologically confirmed BCC who could be contacted were evaluated for recurrence, treatment failure, overall satisfaction and aesthetic outcomes by global aesthetic improvement scale. RESULTS: Out of 98 patients, 72 were contactable. Four patients received both nonsurgical and ablative treatments and surgical excision and repair sequentially and were excluded. The mean age of patients was 57.9 ± 15.8 years (24-90 years) and the male: female ratio was 1.6:1. The most common site involved was the face (72.1%) followed by trunk and scalp, and the most common type of BCC was the pigmented superficial type (33.8%), followed by the pigmented noduloulcerative type (16.2%). There was no significant difference between the groups in the number of high-risk cases. The mean follow-up period was 37.1 ± 31.4 (range, 4-120) months. Fifty one patients were treated with surgical excision and repair, and 17 with nonsurgical and ablative treatments (9-imiquimod, 5-cryotherapy, 4-radiotherapy). Treatment failure was seen in 5 (7.4%) patients, all in the nonsurgical and ablative treatments group (P = 0.0006). Recurrence was seen in 2 (2.9%) patients, both in the surgical excision and repair group (P > 0.05). Mean patient satisfaction was significantly higher with surgical excision and repair, though there was no significant difference in the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale between the groups. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was low. Only telephonic and pictorial assessments were done where the patient could not come for follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical excision and repair was associated with better outcomes than nonsurgical and ablative treatments. Treatment failures and adverse events were high with nonsurgical and ablative treatments. The recurrence rate was low.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sensitive and definitive diagnostic tests are required for timely treatment of leprosy and to control its transmission. AIM: In the present study, we report the development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay using six primers targeting the RLEP gene sequence uniquely present in Mycobacterium leprae. METHODS: Tissue punch samples (n = 50) and slit aspirates (n = 50) from confirmed cases of leprosy (M. leprae positive by quantitative polymerase chain reaction), reporting at the Department of Dermatology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, were analyzed using newly developed closed tube loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. The sensitivity and specificity; positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated using MedCalc statistical software. RESULTS: The loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay specifically amplified M. leprae genomic DNA with an analytical sensitivity of 100 fg. About 47 Out of the 50 quantitative polymerase chain reactions confirmed M. leprae positive tissue samples, 47 were positive by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (sensitivity 94%; 95% confidence interval 83.5%-98.8%) while only 31/50 were positive by histopathology (sensitivity 62%; 95% confidence interval 47.2%-75.4%). Using slit aspirate samples of these 50 patients, 42 were positive by both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (sensitivity 84%; 95% confidence interval 70.9%-92.8%) while only 23/50 (sensitivity 46%; 95% confidence interval 31.8%-60.7%) were positive by microscopy. LIMITATIONS: In the present study, the leprosy patient cohort was not uniform, as it comprised of a lower number of paucibacillary cases (22%) compared to multibacillary (78%) cases. CONCLUSION: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay established here provides a rapid and accurate diagnostic test for leprosy in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The assay is simple to perform in comparison with other molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction/quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and has potential for field applicability.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil has the second highest prevalence of leprosy worldwide. Autoregressive integrated moving average models are useful tools in surveillance systems because they provide reliable forecasts from epidemiological time series. AIM: To evaluate the temporal patterns of leprosy detection from 2001 to 2015 and forecast for 2020 in a hyperendemic area in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using monthly leprosy detection from the Brazil information system for notifiable diseases. The Box-Jenkins method was applied to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model. Forecasting models (95% prediction interval) were developed to predict leprosy detection for 2020. RESULTS: A total of 44,578 cases were registered with a mean of 247.7 cases per month. The best-fitted model to make forecasts was the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average ((1,1,1); (1,1,1)). It was predicted 0.32 cases/100,000 inhabitants to January of 2016 and 0.38 cases/100,000 inhabitants to December of 2020. LIMITATIONS: This study used secondary data from Brazil information system for notifiable diseases; hence, leprosy data may be underreported. CONCLUSION: The forecast for leprosy detection rate for December 2020 was < 1 case/100,000 inhabitants. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model has been shown to be appropriate and could be used to forecast leprosy detection rates. Thus, this strategy can be used to facilitate prevention and elimination programmes.

18.
Immunol Rev ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709405

RESUMO

Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is still actively transmitted in endemic areas reflected by the fairly stable number of new cases detected each year. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of leprosy is challenging, especially at an early stage. Improved diagnostic tools, based on sensitive and specific biomarkers, that facilitate diagnosis of leprosy are therefore urgently needed. In this review, we address the challenges that leprosy biomarker research is facing by reviewing cell types reported to be involved in host immunity to M leprae. These cell types can be associated with different possible fates of M leprae infection being either protective immunity, or pathogenic immune responses inducing nerve damage. Unraveling these responses will facilitate the search for biomarkers. Implications for further studies to disentangle the complex interplay between host responses that lead to leprosy disease are discussed, providing leads for the identification of new biomarkers to improve leprosy diagnostics.

19.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(2): 154-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769736

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis has attained unprecedented dimensions in recent years in India. Its clinical presentation is now multifarious, often with atypical morphology, severe forms and unusually extensive disease in all age groups. We hesitate to call it an epidemic owing to the lack of population-based prevalence surveys. In this part of the review, we discuss the epidemiology and clinical features of this contemporary problem. While the epidemiology is marked by a stark increase in the number of chronic, relapsing and recurrent cases, the clinical distribution is marked by a disproportionate rise in the number of cases with tinea corporis and cruris, cases presenting with the involvement of extensive areas, and tinea faciei.

20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009279, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) program explored the feasibility and impact of contact tracing and the provision of single dose rifampicin (SDR) to eligible contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. As the impact of the programme is difficult to establish in the short term, we apply mathematical modelling to predict its long-term impact on the leprosy incidence. METHODOLOGY: The individual-based model SIMCOLEP was calibrated and validated to the historic leprosy incidence data in the study areas. For each area, we assessed two scenarios: 1) continuation of existing routine activities as in 2014; and 2) routine activities combined with LPEP starting in 2015. The number of contacts per index patient screened varied from 1 to 36 between areas. Projections were made until 2040. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all areas, the LPEP program increased the number of detected cases in the first year(s) of the programme as compared to the routine programme, followed by a faster reduction afterwards with increasing benefit over time. LPEP could accelerate the reduction of the leprosy incidence by up to six years as compared to the routine programme. The impact of LPEP varied by area due to differences in the number of contacts per index patient included and differences in leprosy epidemiology and routine control programme. CONCLUSIONS: The LPEP program contributes significantly to the reduction of the leprosy incidence and could potentially accelerate the interruption of transmission. It would be advisable to include contact tracing/screening and SDR in routine leprosy programmes.

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