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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitiligo places a significant psycho-social burden on caregivers and family members. AIMS: The aim of the study was to develop and preliminarily validate a scale to measure the psychosocial impact of vitiligo on adult family members. METHODS: Themes that emerged from qualitative interviews and a focus group discussion with family members were used to generate items for a preliminary scale, followed by pre-testing and scale development. The new scale was then tested with two comparator scales and a global question. RESULTS: A preliminary scale with 32 items was pilot tested on 30 participants. Following this, the scale was condensed to 16 items in 12 domains that were administered to 159 participants. Scale scores ranged from 0 to 48 with a mean of 19.75 ± 12.41. The scale had excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92 (0.70-0.95) and also showed good test-retest reliability at two weeks (r = 0.946). The scale showed criterion, convergent and known group validity. LIMITATIONS: It was conducted in a large teaching hospital which may have resulted in selection of patients with persistent or progressive disease and more worried family members. Vitiligo is highly stigmatized in our country and the performance of the scale may need to be evaluated in other communities and cultures as well where stigma is less oppressive. CONCLUSION: Family Vitiligo Impact Scale appears to be an easy-to-complete, reliable and valid instrument to measure the psychosocial impact of vitiligo in family members of patients. It may be useful as an outcome measure in both clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitiligo/psicologia , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria
3.
Nepal J Ophthalmol ; 1(1): 2-8, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21141014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: odular complications of leprosy can lead to blindness. OBJECTIVE: to report the pattern and determinants of ocular complications in patients with leprosy from eastern Nepal. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out analyzing one hundred and eighty six patients of leprosy presenting between Jan 2002-Nov 2004. All the patients were categorized using WHO and Ridley and Jopling classification. After determining bacillary indices in all of them, a detailed ocular examination was carried out. Independent risk factors were determined for ocular involvement. RESULTS: ocular complications were found in 30.65% of the leprosy patients; lagophthalmos (17.74%) was the most frequent followed by uveitis (8.60%). Most of the patients having visual loss had it due to corneal complications and none of the patients with uveitis had vision <6/18. The patients released from treatment (83.33%) and those currently on treatment (31.63%) had higher occurrence of complications. Risk factors for ocular involvement were higher bacillary index, longer disease duration (p-=0.031, RR=1.109, 95% CI=1.009-01.218) and decreased corneal sensation(p=0.001, RR=3.564; 95 % C I=2.014-6.306). Higher Schirmer values (p=0.012, RR=0.935, 95% CI=0.888-0.985) were found to be protective for ocular complications. STASTICS: SPSS ver 10.0 was used for data analysis. The P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of complications is high in patients released from treatment for leprosy. Cornea-related complications are the most important cause of visual disability and blindness. Risk factors for ocular complications are higher bacillary index, longer disease duration and decreased corneal sensation.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 3(3): 217-21, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18650579

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are various controversial reports on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with leprosy. PURPOSE: The current study was undertaken to study the level of intraocular pressure in leprosy patients and its association with the risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross sectional comparative study. An ophthalmologist and a dermatologist evaluated consecutive 93 patients with leprosy. The risk factors studied were age, gender, bacillary index, clinical diagnosis, duration of disease and treatment; and ocular complications. The IOP in these patients was compared with healthy age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: A total of 186 leprosy patients (93) and healthy controls (93) were studied. The mean applanation IOP for the right and left eyes in leprosy patients was 12.87 1.20 mm of Hg and 13.222.70 mm of Hg respectively. This was found to be significantly lesser (p<0.001) than in the controls (RE=15.142.58 and LE=15.412.36 mmHg). The untreated leprosy patients had significantly lower IOP than those with treatment (p<0.001). None of the risk factors were found to be independently associated with the decrease in IOP. The duration of treatment, however, showed a trend towards having a significant association (p=0.057) with the lower level of IOP. CONCLUSION: The level of IOP is lower in leprosy patients than in the healthy controls. Age, gender, bacillary index and presence of ocular complications due to leprosy are not independently associated with the decrease in IOP. The untreated leprosy patient tends to have a lower IOP. This finding can be used to monitor effectiveness of treatment of leprosy.


Assuntos
Pressão Intraocular , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Indian J Lepr ; 76(1): 71-7, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15527060

RESUMO

The case of a male patient diagnosed to have lepromatous leprosy with type 2 reaction on multibacillary multidrug therapy, with unusual, widespread involvement of genitalia in the form of plaque and nodules of leprosy over scrotum and perimeatal region of glans, necrotic lesions of erythema nodosum leprosum over scrotum, neuritis of genital branch of genitofemoral nerve bilaterally, and azoospermia, is reported.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Lepr Rev ; 75(2): 177-80, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15282970

RESUMO

A patient with lepromatous leprosy, while on WHO multidrug therapy (MDT) for multibacillary disease, was diagnosed as having dapsone syndrome with recurrent episodes of bullous lesions on the lower extremities for 4-5 years. The lesions were associated with high-grade fever. Examination revealed multiple hypopigmented macules on the limbs. Multiple atrophic scars were also found on the buttocks and lower limbs. Bilateral ulnar, radial cutaneous and lateral popliteal nerves were thickened. On day 10 of WHO-MB-MDT he developed a flaccid bulla on the lower leg. Skin slit smear showed a bacterial index (BI) of 3+ and the histopathology was consistent with type II reaction. High dose corticosteroid therapy was started but he continued to have new lesions, and was therefore referred to a centre where thalidomide was available. Clinical response was good and he remained symptom-free after gradual reduction in dosage. ENL should be differentiated from bullous drug reactions, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid and other blistering diseases.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17642862

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was assessment of prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) test for its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi, India. Thirty male patients with symptoms of dysuria showing polymorphs in their gram stained urethral smears with no evidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and negative for Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by wet mount were subjected to DFA test for detection of C. trachomatis in urethral samples. Microscopic examination of gram stained urethral smears revealed 5-7 polymorphs/HPF in 90% of the patients. Evidence of C. trachomatis with DFA (MicroTrak) was detected in 11 cases (36.67%) when a cut off of 10 elementary bodies was considered essential. It is concluded that C. trachomatis is an important cause of non gonococcal urethritis in male patients in New Delhi and DFA test is a useful diagnostic tool in its detection. Where facilities are not available for its detection antichlamydial therapy should be recommended emperically.

9.
Indian J Lepr ; 75(1): 47-52, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15253394

RESUMO

A hospital-based retrospective study on childhood leprosy was carried out at B.R. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, covering the period April 1998-April 2002. 20 (4.45%) leprosy patients were detected in children aged 6-14 years. The male:female ratio was 4:1. History of contact was found in 10% of the patients. The commonest type of leprosy was borderline tuberculoid leprosy (550%), followed by borderline lepromatous leprosy (301%). Most of the patients had more than one lesion. Nerve involvement and grade 2 deformity were noted in 55% and 20% of the patients respectively. Slit skin smear was positive in 30% of patients.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
Int J Dermatol ; 40(3): 179-84, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11422520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) manifests as a skin eruption after healing of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), either spontaneously or as a result of treatment. This study was undertaken to describe the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic features of PKDL in Nepal. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and histopathologic features and response to treatment were studied in 22 patients with PKDL from April 1998 to March 2000. RESULTS: PKDL accounted for 0.13% of all new dermatologic cases. There were 13 (59.1%) males and nine (40.9%) females. A past history of kala-azar was present in all but one patient. A family history of kala-azar was noted in eight (36.4%) patients. All patients presented with multiple types of lesion, except for two in whom only macular lesions were seen. Oral lesions in the form of nodules and plaques were seen in four patients. Generalized lymphadenopathy was present in five patients. Slit skin smears revealed Leishman-Donovan bodies (LDBs) in nine (40.9%) patients. In macular lesions, there was a sparse infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, or histiocytes in the upper dermis. There was a dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate comprising plasma cells, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and epithelioid cells in the entire dermis from papules, plaques, or nodules. Giemsa staining of biopsy specimens revealed LDBs in seven (38.9%) patients only. Fine needle aspiration from epitrochlear lymph nodes in two patients demonstrated LDBs. All patients responded well to treatment with minimal side-effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the need to be aware of the possibility of cases of PKDL in endemic regions of leprosy, as the conditions may be difficult to distinguish clinically and histopathologically.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pele/patologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20877042

RESUMO

A 38-year -old male farmer presented with a solitary, asymptomatic, cystic lesion on the palm since last four years. He underwent excision of this cyst two times during this period but the lesion recurred near the same site. The histopathology and the microbiological examination led to the diagnosis of the rare subcutaneous cystic type of chromomycosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20877088

RESUMO

The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7%) out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3%) out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3%) out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5%) were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23%) were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae); Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi) 18 cases (14.3%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) 11 cases (8.7%). Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium) was observed in 8 cases (6.3%) which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20921795

RESUMO

The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7%) out of 350 female SID cases' and in 56 (82.3%) out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5%) were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23%) with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3%) with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%), Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3%) which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

18.
Indian J Lepr ; 56(3): 615-21, 1984.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6549330

RESUMO

A cross sectional clinical study was done in slums and adjoining village of Raipur town. All the children in 100 families, in which at least one patient of proved leprosy was present were examined. Children of 100 non-leprosy families served as control. In leprous families prevalence was 14.2 times higher in comparison to children in control group. Also prevalence was higher in children of those families in which number of patients were more than one, or there was lepromatous leprosy. In children the common type of lesion were tuberculoid, indeterminate, borderline and pure neural type in that order, while no case of lepromatous leprosy was seen.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino
19.
Indian J Lepr ; 56(1): 24-9, 1984.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6332865

RESUMO

One hundred twenty five cases of lepromatous leprosy and 25 cases of tuberculoid leprosy were investigated for audiovestibular status. Impaired hearing was detected in 52 percent and vestibular hypofuction in 7.2 per cent of lepromatous cases. Conductive deafness was due to eustachian tube catarrh secondary to atrophic rhinitis associated with the disease. The perceptive deafness and vestibular hypofuction were due to end organ lesion probably due to E.N.L. reaction. The vestibulococlear nerve involvement was considered to be unlikely. In tuberculoid leprosy derangement in hearing was not observed in any cases.


Assuntos
Surdez/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/complicações , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Doenças do Labirinto/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Vestibular
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