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1.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(12): 916-925, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficulties in reliably diagnosing podoconiosis have severely limited the scale-up and uptake of the World Health Organization-recommended morbidity management and disability prevention interventions for affected people. We aimed to identify a set of clinical features that, combined into an algorithm, allow for diagnosis of podoconiosis. METHODS: We identified 372 people with lymphoedema and administered a structured questionnaire on signs and symptoms associated with podoconiosis and other potential causes of lymphoedema in northern Ethiopia. All individuals were tested for Wuchereria bancrofti-specific immunoglobulin G4 in the field using Wb123. RESULTS: Based on expert diagnosis, 344 (92.5%) of the 372 participants had podoconiosis. The rest had lymphoedema due to other aetiologies. The best-performing set of symptoms and signs was the presence of moss on the lower legs and a family history of leg swelling, plus the absence of current or previous leprosy, plus the absence of swelling in the groin, plus the absence of chronic illness (such as diabetes mellitus or heart or kidney diseases). The overall sensitivity of the algorithm was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.6 to 94.4) and specificity was 95% (95% CI 85.45 to 100). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a clinical algorithm of clinical history and physical examination that could be used in areas suspected or endemic for podoconiosis. Use of this algorithm should enable earlier identification of podoconiosis cases and scale-up of interventions.


Assuntos
Elefantíase , Linfedema , Algoritmos , Animais , Elefantíase/diagnóstico , Elefantíase/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Linfedema/etiologia , Wuchereria bancrofti
2.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(12): 983-994, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that cause lymphoedema. When left untreated, they lead to substantial disability. This study determined the quality of life (QOL) and depression associated with lymphoedema in patients with podoconiosis, LF and leprosy. The study was conducted in northwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: This baseline cross-sectional study, nested within an interventional, non-comparative, longitudinal study, included patients with lymphoedema. Depression and QOL were assessed using versions of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI), respectively, that had been translated into Amharic and validated. Factors associated with depression and QOL were assessed using multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 251 patients with lymphoedema included in the study, 119 (47.4%) had moderate to severe depression and overall QOL was poor (mean±standard deviation [SD] DLQI score: 11.4±4.2). Disability was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.26 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.19 to 0.33]). Currently receiving treatment (ß=-3.05 [95% CI -5.25 to -0.85), disability (ß=-0.08 [95% CI -0.15 to -0.01]) and social support (moderate support: ß=-2.27 [95% CI -3.66 to -0.89] and strong support: ß=-2.87 [95% CI -5.35 to -0.38]) were significantly associated with better QOL. CONCLUSION: High levels of depression and low QOL were found among patients with lymphoedema due the three NTDs in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática , Elefantíase , Hanseníase , Linfedema , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Elefantíase/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/complicações , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Linfedema/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037675, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060082

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) causing lower limb lymphoedema such as podoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy are common in Ethiopia. Routine health services for morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) of lymphoedema caused by these conditions are still lacking, even though it imposes a huge burden on affected individuals and their communities in terms of physical and mental health, and psychosocial and economic outcomes. This calls for an integrated, holistic approach to MMDP across these three diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The 'Excellence in Disability Prevention Integrated across NTDs' (EnDPoINT) implementation research study aims to assess the integration and scale-up of a holistic package of care-including physical health, mental health and psychosocial care-into routine health services for people with lymphoedema caused by podoconiosis, LF and leprosy in selected districts in Awi zone in the North-West of Ethiopia. The study is being carried out over three phases using a wide range of mixed methodologies. Phase 1 involves the development of a comprehensive holistic care package and strategies for its integration into the routine health services across the three diseases, and to examine the factors that influence integration and the roles of key health system actors. Phase 2 involves a pilot study conducted in one subdistrict in Awi zone, to establish the care package's adoption, feasibility, acceptability, fidelity, potential effectiveness, its readiness for scale-up, costs of the interventions and the suitability of the training and training materials. Phase 3 involves scale-up of the care package in three whole districts, as well as its evaluation in regard to coverage, implementation, clinical (physical health, mental health and psychosocial) and economic outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for the study has been obtained in the UK and Ethiopia. The results will be disseminated through publications in scientific journals, conference presentations, policy briefs and workshops.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática , Elefantíase , Hanseníase , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Elefantíase/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Etiópia , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Projetos Piloto
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(4): 1075-1081, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460727

RESUMO

Leprosy and podoconiosis (podo) are neglected tropical diseases that cause severe disfigurement and disability, and may lead to catastrophic health expenditure and hinder economic development of affected persons and households. This study compared economic costs of both diseases on affected households with unaffected neighboring households in the Northwest Region (N.W.R.) of Cameroon. A matched comparative cross-sectional design was used enrolling 170 households (43 podo case households, 41 podo control households, 43 leprosy case households, and 43 leprosy control households) from three health districts in the N.W.R. Direct treatment costs for podo averaged 142 United State dollar (USD), compared with zero for leprosy (P < 0.001). This was also reflected in the proportion of annual household income consumed (0.4 versus 0.0, respectively, P < 0.001). Both diseases caused considerable reductions in working days (leprosy 115 versus podo 135 days. P for comparison < 0.001). The average household income was considerably lower in podo-affected households than unaffected households (410 versus 913 USD, P = 0.01), whereas income of leprosy-affected households was comparable to unaffected households (329 versus 399 USD, P = 0.23). Both leprosy and podo cause financial burdens on affected households, but those on podo-affected families are much greater. These burdens occur through direct treatment costs and reduced ability to work. Improved access to public health interventions for podo including prevention, morbidity management and disability prevention are likely to result in economic returns to affected families. In Cameroon, one approach to this would be through subsidized health insurance for these economically vulnerable households.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Elefantíase/economia , Hanseníase/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
BMC Public Health ; 13: 298, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23556435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related stigma adds to the physical and economic burdens experienced by people suffering from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Previous research into the NTD podoconiosis showed significant stigma towards those with the disease, yet no formal instrument exists by which to assess stigma or interventions to reduce stigma. We aimed to develop, pilot and validate scales to measure the extent of stigma towards podoconiosis among patients and in podoconiosis-endemic communities. METHODS: Indicators of stigma were drawn from existing qualitative podoconiosis research and a literature review on measuring leprosy stigma. These were then formulated into items for questioning and evaluated through a Delphi process in which irrelevant items were discounted. The final items formed four scales measuring two distinct forms of stigma (felt stigma and enacted stigma) for those with podoconiosis and those without the disease. The scales were formatted as two questionnaires, one for podoconiosis patients and one for unaffected community members. 150 podoconiosis patients and 500 unaffected community members from Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia were selected through multistage random sampling to complete the questionnaires which were interview-administered. The scales were evaluated through reliability assessment, content and construct validity analysis of the items, factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. RESULTS: All scales had Cronbach's alpha over 0.7, indicating good consistency. The content and construct validity of the scales were satisfactory with modest correlation between items. There was significant correlation between the felt and enacted stigma scales among patients (Spearman's r = 0.892; p < 0.001) and within the community (Spearman's r = 0.794; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We report the development and testing of the first standardised measures of podoconiosis stigma. Although further research is needed to validate the scales in other contexts, we anticipate they will be useful in situational analysis and in designing, monitoring and evaluating interventions. The scales will enable an evidence-based approach to mitigating stigma which will enable implementation of more effective disease control and help break the cycle of poverty and NTDs.


Assuntos
Elefantíase/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Etiópia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 5: 240, 2012 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23095679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. RESULTS: This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. CONCLUSION: Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle
7.
Ethiop Med J ; 48(3): 195-202, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21073080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality tuberculosis care plays an important role in the status of tuberculosis (TB) control, treatment completion and adherence. Nonetheless, very little is known about the quality of TB care in public health facilities in Ethiopia. In this study we assessed the quality of TB care delivery in Afar Region of Ethiopia. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional health institution based survey with both semi-structured and structured questionnaires was employed. A mix of complementary techniques was administered Data were collected between 5th February and 10th March 2007 from six health institutions. Records were reviewed for 270 patients, exit interviews were made for 209 patients, six providers were interviewed & 49 patients were observed Data was collected by trained nurses and analyzed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software. RESULTS: The study had showed that delivery of materials, drugs and supplies for tuberculosis control activities were fairly good. Staffing qualities were poor and patterns of supervision were weak. A relatively higher proportion of patients were dissatisfied with the appropriateness and adequacy of working hours (63.6%) and waiting time (70.3%). Statistically significant correlation was observed between process quality and output quality (clients' satisfaction) parameters (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Continues quality improvement mechanisms to improve the different aspects of the programme and adherence to the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program guideline could be important interventions to enhance the quality of care delivery. An expanded community-based study to better guide quality DOTS program in pastoralist communities is crucial.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Diretamente Observada/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
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