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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1758-1760, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013859

RESUMO

Mycobacterium leprae was detected by optical microscopy, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and molecular detection in feces collected for the diagnosis of Entamoeba coli enteritis in a leprosy patient in Burkina Faso. This observation raises questions about the role of fecal excretion of M. leprae in the natural history and diagnosis of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mycobacterium leprae/genética
2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(6): e1202, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233019

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp with special structure has become a good reference sample in paleomicrobiology-related blood-borne diseases, many pathogens were detected by different methods based on the diagnosis of nucleic acids and proteins. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to propose the preparation process from ancient teeth collection to organic molecule extraction of dental pulp and summary, analyze the methods that have been applied to detect septicemic pathogens through ancient dental pulps during the past 20 years following the first detection of an ancient microbe. METHODS: The papers used in this review with two main objectives were obtained from PubMed and Google scholar with combining keywords: "ancient," "dental pulp," "teeth," "anatomy," "structure," "collection," "preservation," "selection," "photography," "radiography," "contamination," "decontamination," "DNA," "protein," "extraction," "bone," "paleomicrobiology," "bacteria," "virus," "pathogen," "molecular biology," "proteomics," "PCR," "MALDI-TOF," "LC/MS," "ELISA," "immunology," "immunochromatography," "genome," "microbiome," "metagenomics." RESULTS: The analysis of ancient dental pulp should have a careful preparation process with many different steps to give highly accurate results, each step complies with the rules in archaeology and paleomicrobiology. After the collection of organic molecules from dental pulp, they were investigated for pathogen identification based on the analysis of DNA and protein. Actually, DNA approach takes a principal role in diagnosis while the protein approach is more and more used. A total of seven techniques was used and ten bacteria (Yersinia pestis, Bartonella quintana, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi C, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia prowazeki, Staphylococcus aureus, Borrelia recurrentis, Bartonella henselae) and one virus (Anelloviridae) were identified. Y. pestis had the most published in quantity and all methods were investigated for this pathogen, S. aureus and B. recurrentis were identified by three different methods and others only by one. The combining methods interestingly increase the positive rate with ELISA, PCR and iPCR in Yersinia pestis diagnosis. Twenty-seven ancient genomes of Y. pestis and one ancient genome of B. recurrentis were reconstructed. Comparing to the ancient bone, ancient teeth showed more advantage in septicemic diagnosis. Beside pathogen identification, ancient pulp help to distinguish species. CONCLUSIONS: Dental pulp with specific tissue is a suitable sample for detection of the blood infection in the past through DNA and protein identification with the correct preparation process, furthermore, it helps to more understand the pathogens of historic diseases and epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , DNA Antigo , Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Fósseis/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132193

RESUMO

Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and it remains underdiagnosed in Burkina Faso. We investigated the use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting M. leprae in 27 skin samples (skin biopsy samples, slit skin samples, and skin lesion swabs) collected from 21 patients from Burkina Faso and three from Côte d'Ivoire who were suspected of having cutaneous leprosy. In all seven Ziehl-Neelsen-positive skin samples (four skin biopsy samples and three skin swabs collected from the same patient), FISH specifically identified M. leprae, including one FISH-positive skin biopsy sample that remained negative after testing with PCR targeting the rpoB gene and with the GenoType LepraeDR assay. Twenty other skin samples and three negative controls all remained negative for Ziehl-Neelsen staining, FISH, and rpoB PCR. These data indicate the usefulness of a microscopic examination of skin samples after FISH for first-line diagnosis of cutaneous leprosy. Accordingly, FISH represents a potentially useful point-of-care test for the diagnosis of cutaneous leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Burkina Faso , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Pele
4.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 51(2): 235-238, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711677

RESUMO

In the Horn of Africa, there is a high prevalence of tuberculosis that is reported to be partly driven by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strictu sensu strains. We conducted a prospective study to investigate M. tuberculosis complex species causing tuberculosis in Djibouti, and their in vitro susceptibility to standard anti-tuberculous antibiotics in addition to clofazimine, minocycline, chloramphenicol and sulfadiazine. Among the 118 mycobacteria isolates from 118 successive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, 111 strains of M. tuberculosis, five Mycobacterium canettii, one 'Mycobacterium simulans' and one Mycobacterium kansasii were identified. Drug-susceptibility tests performed on the first 78 isolates yielded nine MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. All isolates were fully susceptible to clofazimine, minocycline and chloramphenicol, and 75 of 78 isolates were susceptible to sulfadiazine. In the Horn of Africa, patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by an in vitro susceptible strain may benefit from anti-leprosy drugs, sulfamides and phenicol antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium kansasii/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Clofazimina/farmacologia , Djibuti , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minociclina/farmacologia , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
5.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 49(5): 554-557, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336312

RESUMO

Recently, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a therapeutic challenge. In addition to drug resistance, drug adverse events, intravenous delivery, cost and availability of some antibiotics in low-income countries have led to a look back to old drugs, especially those efficient against closely related organisms such as Mycobacterium leprae. Here we review the available drugs that respect the conditions above and could be upgraded to first-line therapy for treating MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Claritromicina/efeitos adversos , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Clofazimina/efeitos adversos , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Fenotiazinas/efeitos adversos , Fenotiazinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
6.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 28(1): 208-36, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25567228

RESUMO

A pure bacterial culture remains essential for the study of its virulence, its antibiotic susceptibility, and its genome sequence in order to facilitate the understanding and treatment of caused diseases. The first culture conditions empirically varied incubation time, nutrients, atmosphere, and temperature; culture was then gradually abandoned in favor of molecular methods. The rebirth of culture in clinical microbiology was prompted by microbiologists specializing in intracellular bacteria. The shell vial procedure allowed the culture of new species of Rickettsia. The design of axenic media for growing fastidious bacteria such as Tropheryma whipplei and Coxiella burnetii and the ability of amoebal coculture to discover new bacteria constituted major advances. Strong efforts associating optimized culture media, detection methods, and a microaerophilic atmosphere allowed a dramatic decrease of the time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. The use of a new versatile medium allowed an extension of the repertoire of archaea. Finally, to optimize the culture of anaerobes in routine bacteriology laboratories, the addition of antioxidants in culture media under an aerobic atmosphere allowed the growth of strictly anaerobic species. Nevertheless, among usual bacterial pathogens, the development of axenic media for the culture of Treponema pallidum or Mycobacterium leprae remains an important challenge that the patience and innovations of cultivators will enable them to overcome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/história , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/tendências , Microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Microbiologia/história , Microbiologia/tendências
7.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e106994, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25210972

RESUMO

The repertoire of microeukaryotes in the human gut has been poorly explored, mainly in individuals living in northern hemisphere countries. We further explored this repertoire using PCR-sequencing and culture in seven individuals living in four tropical countries. A total of 41 microeukaryotes including 38 different fungal species and three protists were detected. Four fungal species, Davidiella tassiana, Davidiella sp., Corticiaceae sp., and Penicillium sp., were uniquely detected by culture; 27 fungal species were uniquely detected using PCR-sequencing and Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon asahii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Malassezia restricta, and Malassezia sp. were detected using both molecular and culture methods. Fourteen microeukaryotes were shared by the seven individuals, whereas 27 species were found in only one individual, including 11 species in Amazonia, nine species in Polynesia, five species in India, and two species in Senegal. These data support a worldwide distribution of Malassezia sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp. in the gut mycobiome. Here, 13 fungal species and two protists, Stentor roeseli and Vorticella campanula, were observed for first time in the human gut. This study revealed a previously unsuspected diversity in the repertoire of human gut microeukaryotes, suggesting spots for further exploring this repertoire.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Estômago/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Eucariotos/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Senegal
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 11(8): 641-50, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21672667

RESUMO

Genome-scale analysis suggests that the last common ancestor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium leprae diverged 36 million years ago, and members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex differentiated 40,000 years ago. Analysis of palaeomicrobiological data from a 17,000-year-old sample from a bison and a 9000-year-old sample from a human being suggested that M tuberculosis preceded Mycobacterium bovis and related species. Whole-genome comparisons show that members of the M tuberculosis complex form a unique bacterial species with distinct ecotypes that are transmissible from any infected mammalian species to several others. Genomic deletions identified several M tuberculosis lineages that could be placed on a phylogeographical map, suggesting adaptation to local host populations. The degrees of transmissibility and virulence vary between M tuberculosis clones, with increased virulence mainly linked to gene loss in regulatory pathways. Such data suggest that most M tuberculosis clones have a restricted spreading capacity between the host population, allowing unpredictable bursts of highly transmissible, virulent, and successful clones, such as the east Asian (Beijing) clone. Advances in genomics have helped the development of molecular techniques for accurate identification of species and clones in the M tuberculosis complex, which is essential for tracing the source of infections.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Animais , Epidemias , Humanos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
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