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1.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(6): 708-716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332088

RESUMO

Pustules in a neonate can be due to various causes. Though the majority of conditions causing pustules in a neonate are benign, it is essential to clearly differentiate these from serious ones. A systematic approach based on detailed history and clinical examination of the neonate along with basic laboratory evaluation narrows down diagnostic possibilities and aids in the correct diagnosis. This review outlines a step-by-step approach so as to avoid clinical dilemmas and unnecessary intervention.


Assuntos
Vesícula , Exantema , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Vesícula/etiologia , Exantema/complicações
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962510

RESUMO

Background Information on bullous pemphigoid in an Indian context is scarce. Aim To report clinico-demographic profile, associated comorbidities and prescription pattern of bullous pemphigoid patients in India. Methods This was a retrospective study, where past records of all bullous pemphigoid patients diagnosed and treated between November 2013 and October 2019 were accessed and analysed. Patients having a compatible clinical presentation with either histopathological and/or direct immunofluorescence evidence of bullous pemphigoid were included. Results There were 96 bullous pemphigoid patients, with a male: female ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 62.5 ± 2.2 years, with mean duration of illness 27.5 ± 4.5 months before presentation. Comorbidities were present in 80 (83%) patients, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (38.5%), hypertension (36.4%) and neurological illness (16.7%) being the commonest ones. Clinically, blisters were the predominant presentation in 81 (84.4%) patients. The majority (87.5%) of patients showed a predominant eosinophilic infiltrate on histopathology. Direct immunofluorescence revealed immunoglobulin G deposits with complement C3 in 77 (80.2%) cases. The majority of patients (77.1%) were treated with oral prednisolone, either alone (11.5%) or in combination (65.6%) with other topical and systemic agents. Topical steroids were used in 29.1%, azathioprine in 28%, dapsone in 16.7% and omalizumab in 6.2% of patients. Limitations The study is retrospective. Immunofluorescence on salt split skin, direct immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis, and immunoblotting were not performed. Hence, there is a possibility that a few included cases were suffering from other subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases like epidermolysis bullosa acquisita or anti-p200 pemphigoid. Conclusion Bullous pemphigoid patients in this study had a younger age of onset and showed male preponderance. Comorbidities like type 2 diabetes, hypertension and neurological disorders were frequent. Cutaneous blisters were the most frequent clinical presentation. Systemic corticosteroids comprised the mainstay of therapy.

3.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 177-183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) has not been evaluated in Indian patients having epidermolysis bullosa (EB). AIMS: The aims of the study were to measure health-related QoL in Indian patients having EB using the quality of life in epidermolysis bullosa (QoLEB) questionnaire, and to find its correlation with clinically measured disease severity. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study, the QoLEB questionnaire was translated from English to Hindi (QoLEB-Hin) and culturally adapted without a change in concept following standard guidelines. QoLEB-Hin and three clinical scores that have been independently validated in EB, that is, Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa severity score (BEBs), Instrument for Scoring Clinical Outcomes of Research for Epidermolysis Bullosa (iscorEB) and Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease Activity and Scarring Index (EBDASI), were administered to EB patients/their parents in the presence of an expert. This was followed by validity and correlation studies. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were recruited (19-females, 35-males; median age 5 years, range 0.025-36 years and 12 patients with an age >13 years). The parents answered the questions for 42 patients (age <13 years). Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa was diagnosed in 32 (59.2%) patients (dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa [DDEB]-19 [35.2%] and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa [RDEB]-13 [24.1%]). Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) were each diagnosed in 11 (20.4%) patients. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of QoLEB-Hin score of all epidermolysis bullosa patients was 11.3 ± 7.6 (range 0-28; median and interquartile range [IQR], 10, 10) and reflected an overall moderate degree of affliction on QoL of patients. Mean ± SD of QoLEB-Hin scores for EBS, JEB, DDEB and RDEB were 5.4 ± 3.7 (range, 1-13; median and IQR, 6, 6), 11 ± 6.2 (range, 1-22; median and IQR, 10, 6), 9 ± 5.7 (range, 0-19; median and IQR, 10, 10) and 20.1 ± 6.4 (range, 12-28; median and IQR, 19, 12.5), respectively (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.946 was obtained for all items indicating excellent internal consistency and reliability. Mean sample adequacy was 0.91; absolute fit based off diagonal values was 0.99; indices root mean square error of approximation and root mean square residual were 0.04 and 0.05, respectively, and Tucker Lewis index was >1 indicating overfit. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 6.1 min (range, 6-8 min). QoLEB-Hin correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with BEBs (ρ = 0.79), iscorEB (ρ= 0.63) and EBDASI (ρ = 0.77). Three multiple linear regression models were used to ascertain the strength of relationship between QoL-Hin, and BEBs, iSCOREB and EBDASI, respectively, after adjusting for age, gender and disease subtype. The EBDASI clinical score accounted for approximately 74% (R2 = 0.736, P < 0.001) of the variability in QOL-Hin, as compared to 73% and 55% by BEBs (R2 = 0.731, P < 0.001) and iscorEB (R2 = 0.545, P < 0.001), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Parents filled out the questionnaires for many patients and probably led to an overall moderate degree of affliction of QoL. Comparison with Dermatology Life Quality Index and other QoL scores were not done in this study. Furthermore, the scoring was done at one point in time, and test-retest measurements could not be performed. CONCLUSION: This study validated QoLEB-Hin in an Indian population finding an overall moderate reduction in QoL due to EB. Maximally affected QoL was seen in patients with RDEB. Furthermore, QoLEB-Hin had a variable positive correlation and association with all clinical severity assessment scores.


Assuntos
Epidermólise Bolhosa/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
5.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(5): 611-620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245525

RESUMO

Autoimmune bullous diseases can be intraepidermal (pemphigus group of disorders) or subepidermal (pemphigoid group of disorders). The treatment of these disorders chiefly comprises corticosteroids and immunosuppressant adjuvants like azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil. Autoantibodies are the main mediators of these diseases. Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody targeting B-cells, has emerged as an excellent treatment option for refractory pemphigus vulgaris in the last decade. Since then, many new biologics have been proposed/explored for managing autoimmune bullous diseases. These hold potential for greater efficacy and lesser adverse effects than conventional immunosuppressants. In this review, we discuss the role of various biologics in the treatment of autoimmune bullous diseases, followed by a brief discussion on the drawbacks to their use and new developments in this area.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for the treatment of alopecia areata. Recently, topical latanoprost has been found effective in the treatment of eyelash alopecia areata. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of topical latanoprost ophthalmic solution (group 1) with that of topical betamethasone diproprionate lotion (group 2) in the treatment of localized alopecia areata. METHODS: This was a single-centre, randomized, two-armed, parallel-group efficacy trial. Fifty consecutive patients with localized alopecia areata were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either topical latanoprost 0.005% ophthalmic solution or topical betamethasone diproprionate 0.05% lotion. Of these 50 patients, 44 patients (21 in group 1 and 23 in group 2) completed the treatment protocol. RESULTS: The percentage reduction in area involved with alopecia areata at 16 weeks (primary outcome) was lower in latanoprost vs. betamethasone group (median [interquartile range], 11.1 [0-99.1] vs. 100% [13.6-100], P = 0.02). Significantly lesser patients in the latanoprost group had a complete response to treatment as compared to the betamethasone group (6 [24%] vs. 14 [56%], P = 0.02). The median (interquartile range) hair regrowth score was significantly lower in the latanoprost vs. the betamethasone group (1 [0-4.5] vs. 5 [1-5], P = 0.02). Subjects in the betamethasone group showed a more rapid reduction in the involved area. LIMITATIONS: Short duration of treatment and follow-up were limitations of this study. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that topical latanoprost 0.005% ophthalmic solution is less effective but safer than topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% lotion in the treatment of localized alopecia areata (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02350023).


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas/tratamento farmacológico , Betametasona/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Latanoprosta/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(6): 826-830, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients who receive orthopedic implants have been shown to develop sensitivity to its components and there are concerns that this sensitivity might lead to contact dermatitis or implant-related problems like loosening and/or failure. The objective of the study was to determine the sensitizing potential of orthopedic implants. METHODS: Fifty-four patients undergoing knee, hip, or shoulder replacement surgeries between July 2014 and July 2015 were recruited. Patch tests were performed before the implant surgery with 10 allergens likely to be implicated in metal hypersensitivity. Postimplant patch test was performed 6 months after surgery. A majority of the patch tests were applied on the arms. RESULTS: Four positive reactions were recorded in the preimplant patch tests - three positive reactions to nickel and one to chromium. Thirty patients made themselves available for the follow-up patch test. The incidence of new contact sensitivity to components of implants was 13.8% (4/29) at 6 months. One patient who had undergone knee replacement developed eczematous lesions around the knee joint after surgery. This patient tested negative to patch test at both the times. LIMITATIONS: Short follow-up duration and performing patch tests on the arms, a site known to elicit less positive patch test response compared to the back in sensitized individuals, are limitations of the study. CONCLUSION: There is an increase in the sensitivity to implanted components after 6 months of joint replacement surgery. The incidence of new sensitivity to a component of the implant was 13.8% (4/29). In this context, nickel is a good sensitizer and could sensitize 50% of patients who received a nickel-containing implant.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes do Emplastro , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(6): 649-655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many international guidelines on psoriasis management have emphasized upon the need to identify risk factors for liver fibrosis and that the risk may be increased after a certain total cumulative dose of methotrexate. METHODS: Consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were assessed for liver fibrosis using transient elastography and noninvasive scores. Based on the presence of significant liver fibrosis, the Odds ratio associated with various factors was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to find maximal cutoff values of noninvasive tests to detect fibrosis. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, 134 patients completed the study. Significant fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement ≥7, corresponding to F2 fibrosis or higher) was seen in 33 (24.6%) patients. Neither methotrexate exposure nor total cumulative dose of ≥1.5 was associated with significant fibrosis. Female sex (P = 0.024) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.034) were the two variables associated with significant liver fibrosis. On logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the female gender and metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 2.51 (95% confidence interval - 1.09-5.81) and 2.33 (95% confidence interval - 1.03-5.27), respectively. Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease score and the fibrosis-4 index had low sensitivity in comparison to transient elastography. LIMITATIONS: These included small sample size, small number of patients with a total cumulative methotrexate dose of >3-4.5 g, and lack of control group consisting of healthy persons. Another is the absence of liver biopsies considered as the gold standard in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome and female sex are associated with the development of significant liver fibrosis in patients with psoriasis. Methotrexate exposure does not seem to be significantly associated with significant liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(3): 233-239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pemphigus vulgaris is a potentially fatal autoimmune epidermal blistering disease with a chronic and relapsing course. It is difficult to predict clinical relapse. Identification of clinical and immunological factors that are associated with early clinical relapse in a prospective study design may help in planning treatment for better maintenance of clinical remission. AIM: The aim of our study was to identify clinical and immunological factors associated with clinical relapse within 9 months of study inclusion in patients with pemphigus vulgaris in clinical remission. METHODS: Forty consecutive consenting patients who had been diagnosed to have pemphigus vulgaris and were in clinical remission on minimal therapy or off therapy were included. The patients were followed up every 3 months until 9 months. Clinical factors considered relevant were recorded at the beginning of the study. Immunological factors such as CD19+ B-cell count and CD19+CD27+ memory B cells/plasma cell count in peripheral blood were assessed at baseline [anti-desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3 titers were first assessed at 3 months, not at baseline] and repeated every 3 months, until 9 months or clinical relapse whichever was earlier. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) of skin biopsy specimen was performed at study initiation and again at the time of clinical relapse or study completion, whichever occurred earlier. All patients completed the study. RESULTS: Of 40 patients, 11 (27.5%) experienced relapse as per definition, while 29 (72.5%) remained in complete remission. Clinical relapse during study duration was significantly more common in those who had onset of disease in oral mucosa [odds ratio (OR), 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-94.86, P = 0.02], pruritus (OR 8.4; 95% CI 1.76-40.02, P = 0.01), and extensive cutaneous involvement during previous disease activity (OR 7.36; 95% CI 1.34-40.55, P = 0.03) and also pruritus during remission (P = 0.004). Immunological factors found to be significantly associated with early clinical relapse were raised CD19+ B-cell count at baseline (OR 7.84; 95% CI 1.39 - 53.41, P = 0.01), immunoglobulin G (OR 4.85; 95% CI 1.09-23.44, P = 0.04), and C3 (OR 20.33; 95% CI 3.02-199.5, P < 0.001) positivity in the intercellular space of the epidermis on DIF at study onset and rising anti-Dsg 3 antibody titers (OR 19.96; 95% CI 1.85- 310.9, P = 0.03). LIMITATIONS: Limited sample size, short follow-up duration, and inability to perform anti-Dsg enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for all the patients at all the time points of assessment are limitations of this study. CONCLUSION: Immunological relapse can be determined before clinical relapse, so that treatment can be restarted/modified and clinical remission can be maintained.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Pênfigo/diagnóstico , Pênfigo/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Pênfigo/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab is being increasingly used for the treatment of pemphigus. Data derived from single-center studies following a uniform treatment protocol are limited. Effect of demography and disease type on treatment response is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of biosimilar rituximab in pemphigus patients who had received rituximab as per rheumatoid arthritis protocol (2 doses, 1g each, infused 14 days apart). METHODS: It was a retrospective review of 146 eligible patients to assess the proportion of patients achieving complete remission off treatment, time to achieve complete remission off treatment, proportion of patients who relapsed after achieving complete remission off treatment, time taken to relapse, duration and total cumulative dose of corticosteroids administered after rituximab. Additionally, we tried to find whether a correlation existed between age, gender, total duration of illness before rituximab and pemphigus disease type with the above-mentioned outcome measures. RESULTS: Of 146 patients, 107 (73.3%) attained complete remission off treatment. Mean interval between first dose rituximab administration and complete remission off treatment was 6.6 ± 3.4months. Complete remission off treatment was sustained for a mean duration of 9.1 ± 8.5 months before relapse. Over a mean follow-up duration of 24.9 ± 17.1 months (median 23, maximum 68 months), 75 of 107 patients (76.5%) who had achieved complete remission after first cycle of rituximab relapsed. A mean total cumulative dose of 3496 ± 2496 mg prednisolone was prescribed over a mean duration of 7.2 ± 4.7 months after first cycle of rituximab. Time taken to achieve remission was significantly longer in pemphigus foliaceus and these patients required significantly higher cumulative dose of prednisolone over a longer duration after rituximab. No deaths and long-term complications were recorded. LIMITATIONS: Only clinical parameters were assessed. Immunological parameters including B-cell counts and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-desmoglein antibody titers were not carried out. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the beneficial role of rituximab in pemphigus. Pemphigus foliaceus patients required a higher total cumulative dose of prednisolone over a longer time to achieve remission and the remission lasted longer than that in pemphigus vulgaris.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(3): 278-283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lichen planus-like lesions on oral mucosa occasionally occur in Indian patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Its significance, both clinical and pathological, is yet to be elucidated. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and pathological characteristics of clinically apparent oral mucosal lichen planus-like lesions in pemphigus patients and to assess their relation with pemphigus disease activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 patients with pemphigus vulgaris who had oral lichen planus-like lesions were included and classified as 'cases,' and eight diagnosed cases of pemphigus vulgaris without lichenoid 'hue' were included as controls. The biopsy specimens were subjected to routine histopathologic examination, immunohistochemistry with FasL, and caspase-3 and direct immunofluorescence. RESULTS: On histopathologic examination, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, 'overlap' and 'nonspecific' were rendered in 19 (59.4%), 4 (12.5%), 5 (15.6%) and 4 (12.5%) cases, respectively. On immunohistochemistry, FasL was positive in epithelial cells in 16 (50%) cases and 4 (12.5%) controls (P = 0.066). Caspase-3 stained positively in 18 (56.2%) cases and 20 (62.5%) controls (P = 0.77). Direct immunofluorescence was positive in 77.8% (21/27) of the cases. LIMITATIONS: Relatively small number of controls is the limitation of this study. CONCLUSION: Lichen planus-like lesions in pemphigus should not be labeled as inactive disease or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Apoptosis followed by pigment incontinence seems to explain such lesions with 'lichen planus-like appearance' in oral pemphigus vulgaris. Active pemphigus smoulders in a majority of these lesions.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Pênfigo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Líquen Plano Bucal/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pênfigo/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 85(5): 462-465, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoralen with ultraviolet A is an effective photochemotherapeutic modality. A subtype of this, PUVAsol, uses sunlight as the natural source of ultraviolet A. The amount of sunlight received and the consequent ultraviolet A exposure vary according to the month in the year, time of the day and geographical location of a place. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine irradiance of ultraviolet A in ambient sunlight and optimum exposure time for PUVAsol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational study carried out at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (30.7333°N, 76.7794°E), India using a photometer. Ultraviolet A irradiance was recorded at a fixed place at 10 AM, once weekly for a period of 12 months. RESULTS: The irradiance of peak ultraviolet A was found to be 3.1 mW/cm2 in June 2016 while irradiance of 0.64 mW/cm2 was recorded in January 2017. The exposure time needed for therapeutic dose of 2 J/cm2 was 11 min 6 s in June 2016 while exposure time for achieving therapeutic dose of 2 J/cm2 was 52 min 5 s in January 2017. The duration of exposure was found to be significantly longer in the winter months. LIMITATION: The limitation of the study is not determining ultraviolet B radiation and infrared exposure. Other limitation of this study is that the irradiance was measured only at 10 am. This data cannot be used to determine irradiance at different time points in the day as the patient may expose himself/herself to sunlight anytime depending on his/her convenience. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates the mean exposure time required for a given therapeutic dose of ultraviolet A in different months. The wide variation in ultraviolet A irradiance in natural sunlight over the year in different months also suggests that exposure times for PUVAsol should be based on the season and geographical location at the site of therapy and not based on uniform guidelines.


Assuntos
Ficusina/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Raios Ultravioleta , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Luz Solar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 84(2): 174-178, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of glucocorticoids in various forms of administration is complicated by their systemic side effects. Although intravenous pulse therapy is considered to have lesser systemic side effects, there are few studies in literature comparing the effects of intravenous pulse glucocorticoids versus oral daily glucocorticoids on bone mineral density. AIM: To compare the effects of intravenous pulse glucocorticoids and oral daily glucocorticoids on bone mineral density with the aim of finding any site-specific osteopenic side effect. METHODS: The study was conducted by the department of dermatology of Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. The study comprised of two groups of patients. Group A consisted of 28 patients with pemphigus vulgaris who received intravenous pulses of dexamethasone at 4 weekly intervals. Group B consisted of 21 patients with airborne contact dermatitis who received oral daily prednisolone therapy. All the patients had a dual X-ray absorptiometry scan at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. The results were analyzed as changes in bone mineral density. RESULTS: There was loss of bone mineral density at lumbar spine and the head of radius in both the groups. At the lumbar spine, Group B showed more reduction in bone mineral density at 3 months whereas in Group A it was more at the head of radius. In patients on oral steroids, the lumbar spine was significantly more affected than the head of radius at both 3 and 6 months of follow-up. However, in patients on intravenous pulse steroids, both the sites were equally affected at 3 and 6 months. LIMITATIONS: In our study, we used different glucocorticoids in the two groups: prednisolone in the oral daily group and dexamethasone in the intravenous pulse steroids group. A similar reduction in bone mineral density in both the groups may have been due to a longer half-life or more bone-directed side effects of dexamethasone as compared to prednisolone. CONCLUSION: Dermatologists need to be aware of the detrimental effects of high-dose intravenous pulsed glucocorticoids on bone mineral density and assessment of this parameter should be done before the initiation of therapy and also at regular intervals thereafter. During follow up, either the lumbar spine or the head of radius can be used to assess the osteopenic effect of intravenous pulse steroids, whereas the lumbar spine is a better site for this evaluation in patients on oral steroids.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Dermatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pulsoterapia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
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