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1.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 17(65): 40-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734677

RESUMO

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and leprosy are important public health problem in Nepal. Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) play pivotal role to promote community based health services. Therefore, we designed an implementation research to assess the effectiveness of active case detection (ACD) and information education and communication (IEC) campaign of Visceral leishmaniasis cases along with leprosy cases through Female Community Health Volunteers in Visceral leishmaniasis endemic 10 Village Development Committees of both Visceral leishmaniasis and leprosy prevalent Sarlahi district of Nepal. Objective To determine the effectiveness of active case search strategy of visceral leishmaniasis along with leprosy through Female Community Health Volunteers in Sarlahi district. Method One hundred fifty one Female Community Health Volunteers of twelve Village Development Committees were oriented on detection, identification and referral of Visceral leishmaniasis and leprosy patients. They were oriented on referring the patients to district hospital for confirmatory diagnosis and treatment. The intervention was continued up to ten months after training of Female Community Health Volunteers. Data on number of Visceral leishmaniasis and leprosy patients detected and referred by Female Community Health Volunteers and detected through passively at district hospital were collected and indicators was calculated. Result Altogether 151 Female Community Health Volunteers were trained from 12 (Village Development Committees) VDCs of Sarlahi district. Their knowledge on leprosy and Visceral leishmaniasis related information subsequently increased after training. None of the Visceral leishmaniasis or leprosy cases were detected actively through Female Community Health Volunteers. However, two leprosy cases were detected through household screening. Conclusion Female Community Health Volunteers should be provided sufficient knowledge to use them in community based active case detection of Visceral leishmaniasis and leprosy.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Voluntários/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/métodos
2.
Int J Dermatol ; 40(3): 179-84, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11422520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) manifests as a skin eruption after healing of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), either spontaneously or as a result of treatment. This study was undertaken to describe the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic features of PKDL in Nepal. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and histopathologic features and response to treatment were studied in 22 patients with PKDL from April 1998 to March 2000. RESULTS: PKDL accounted for 0.13% of all new dermatologic cases. There were 13 (59.1%) males and nine (40.9%) females. A past history of kala-azar was present in all but one patient. A family history of kala-azar was noted in eight (36.4%) patients. All patients presented with multiple types of lesion, except for two in whom only macular lesions were seen. Oral lesions in the form of nodules and plaques were seen in four patients. Generalized lymphadenopathy was present in five patients. Slit skin smears revealed Leishman-Donovan bodies (LDBs) in nine (40.9%) patients. In macular lesions, there was a sparse infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, or histiocytes in the upper dermis. There was a dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate comprising plasma cells, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and epithelioid cells in the entire dermis from papules, plaques, or nodules. Giemsa staining of biopsy specimens revealed LDBs in seven (38.9%) patients only. Fine needle aspiration from epitrochlear lymph nodes in two patients demonstrated LDBs. All patients responded well to treatment with minimal side-effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the need to be aware of the possibility of cases of PKDL in endemic regions of leprosy, as the conditions may be difficult to distinguish clinically and histopathologically.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pele/patologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17664746

RESUMO

A 55-year-old male presented with asymptomatic nodules and plaques on his scalp and pubic region of 2 months' duration. He was having productive cough, haemoptysis, chest pain, anorexia and weight loss and receiving antitubercular treatment for these symptoms for last 3 months. Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic disease was made. Chest x-ray revealed multiple coin shaped shadows on both sides with pleural effusion. Routine investigations were normal except for anemia and hyperuricemia. Biopsy of skin nodules showed features of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Features and significance of cutaneous metastases are discussed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10774675

RESUMO

Before field application of the direct agglutination test (DAT) for leishmaniasis, it was assessed as a diagnostic tool. Fifteen confirmed visceral leishmaniasis cases (bone marrow aspiration positive), 120 tuberculosis, 58 leprosy, 15 malaria, 26 intestinal parasitic infection cases, 24 endemic healthy controls from adjacent to the study area, and 18 controls from Kathmandu (who had never visited the VL endemic areas) were tested for anti-leishmanial antibody agglutination titers. Two of the tuberculosis cases were positive for anti-leishmanial agglutinating antibodies at 1:800. All the visceral leishmaniasis confirmed cases were reactive to anti-leishmanial antibody at > or = 1:3,200. Other specimens were negative for serology. The sensitivity of the direct agglutination test was 100% and the specificity was 99.2%. The direct agglutination test had positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 99.2% respectively. The direct agglutination test has been found to be simple, rapid, reliable, economic, safe and adaptable to micro-techniques using microtiter plates. It is specific and sensitive. The direct agglutination test is simple enough for it to be performed in a field laboratory.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Testes de Aglutinação/normas , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20944321

RESUMO

A 57-year-old obese patient presented with a 5 month history of tender, indurated, erythematous plaques with superficial ulceration on the right shin. The lesions closely mimicked cellulitis but were unresponsive to antibiotics. Though the patient was not a known diabetic, on investigations she was found to be a diabetic. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of necrobiosis lipoidica. This acutely inflammed presentation of necrobiosis lipoidica is extremely rare.

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