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1.
J Inflamm (Lond) ; 13: 8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The polarized clinical presentations in leprosy are associated with differential immune activation. In tuberculoid leprosy, macrophages show a classical activation phenotype (M1), while macrophages in lepromatous disease display characteristics of alternative activation (M2). Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, which protects against leprosy, can promote sustained changes in monocyte response to unrelated pathogens and may preferentially direct monocytes towards an M1 protective phenotype. We previously reported that M. leprae can dampen the response of naïve human monocytes to a strong inducer of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as BCG. Here, we investigated the ability of the pathogen to alter the direction of macrophage polarization and the impact of BCG vaccination on the monocyte response to M. leprae. FINDINGS: We show that in vitro exposure of monocytes from healthy donors to M. leprae interferes with subsequent M1 polarization, indicated by lower levels of M1-associated cytokine/chemokines released and reduced expression of M1 cell surface markers. Exposure to M. leprae phenolic glycolipid (PGL) 1, instead of whole bacteria, demonstrated a similar effect on M1 cytokine/chemokine release. In addition, we found that monocytes from 10-week old BCG-vaccinated infants released higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß in response to M. leprae compared to those from unvaccinated infants. CONCLUSION: Exposure to M. leprae has an inhibitory effect on M1 macrophage polarization, likely mediated through PGL-1. By directing monocyte/macrophages preferentially towards M1 activation, BCG vaccination may render the cells more refractory to the inhibitory effects of subsequent M. leprae infection.

2.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 11(5): 626-30, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22527432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy was the first disease classified according to the thymus derived T-cell in the 1960s and the first disease classified by the cytokine profile as intact interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL2) or TH1 (tuberculoid) and deficient IFN-γ and IL2 or TH2 (lepromatous), in the 1980s. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we set out to explore the T helper 17 (TH17) lymphocyte subset, the hallmark of T-cell plasticity, in skin biopsies from patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) who were treated with thalidomide. METHOD: RNA was extracted from paraffin embedded tissue before and after thalidomide treatment of ENL and RT-PCR was performed. RESULTS: IL17A, the hallmark of TH17, was consistently seen before and after thalidomide treatment, confirming the TH17 subset to be involved in ENL and potentially up-regulated by thalidomide. CONCLUSION: A reduction in CD70, GARP, IDO, IL17B (IL-20), and IL17E (IL-25), coupled with increases in RORγT, ARNT, FoxP3, and IL17C (IL-21) following thalidomide treatment, opens the door to understanding the complexity of the immunomodulatory drug thalidomide, which can operate as an anti-inflammatory while simultaneously stimulating cell-mediated immunity (CMI). We conclude that TH17 is involved in the immunopathogenesis of ENL and that thalidomide suppresses inflammatory components of TH17, while enhancing other components of TH17 that are potentially involved in CMI.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Citocinas/imunologia , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Talidomida/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 32(1): 27-33, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21981546

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic but treatable infectious disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. M. leprae cell wall is characterized by a unique phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) reported to have several immune functions. We have examined the role of PGL-1 in the modulation of monocyte cytokine/chemokine production in naive human monocytes. PGL-1 in its purified form or expressed in a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Colmette-Guérin (BCG) background (rBCG-PGL-1) was tested. We found that PGL-1 selectively modulated the induction of specific monocyte cytokines and chemokines and, when used as prestimulus, exerted priming and/or inhibitory effects on the induction of selected cytokines/chemokines in response to a second stimulus. Taken together, the results of this study support a modulatory role for PGL-1 in the innate immune response to M. leprae. Thus, PGL-1 may play an important role in the development of the anergic clinical forms of disease and in tissue damage seen in lepromatous patients and during the reactional states of leprosy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
4.
Hum Immunol ; 71(10): 992-8, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20650301

RESUMO

Although genetic variants in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been associated with leprosy clinical outcomes, these findings have not been extensively validated. We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal, which included 240 patients with type I reversal reaction (RR), and 124 patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reactions. We compared genotype frequencies in 933 cases and 101 controls of seven polymorphisms, including a promoter region variant in TNF (G -308A), three polymorphisms in MBL (C154T, G161A and G170A), and three variants in VDR (FokI, BsmI, and TaqI). We observed an association between TNF -308A and protection from leprosy with an odds ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval = 0.29-0.95, p = 0.016). MBL polymorphism G161A was associated with protection from lepromatous leprosy (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.85, p = 0.010). VDR polymorphisms were not associated with leprosy phenotypes. These results confirm previous findings of an association of TNF -308A with protection from leprosy and MBL polymorphisms with protection from lepromatous leprosy. The statistical significance was modest and will require further study for conclusive validation.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/imunologia , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eritema Nodoso , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Nepal , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
5.
J Infect Dis ; 201(9): 1422-35, 2010 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20350193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and its well-defined immunological complications, leprosy is a useful disease for studying genetic regulation of the host response to infection. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene, for a cytosolic receptor known to detect mycobacteria, are associated with susceptibility to leprosy and its clinical outcomes. METHODS: We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal. Our study included 240 patients with type 1 (reversal) reactions and 124 patients with type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum) reactions. We compared the frequencies of 32 common polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene region between patients with the different clinical types of leprosy as well as between the patients and 101 control participants without leprosy. RESULTS: Four polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to leprosy when comparing allele frequencies, and 8 were associated when comparing genotype frequencies with a dominant model. Five polymorphisms were associated with protection from reversal reaction in an allelic analysis, and 7 were associated with reversal reaction with a dominant model. Four polymorphisms were associated with increased susceptibility to erythema nodosum leprosum in an allelic analysis, whereas 7 of 32 polymorphisms were associated with a dominant model. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NOD2 genetic variants are associated with susceptibility to leprosy and the development of leprosy reactive states.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eritema Nodoso/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/fisiologia
6.
Infect Immun ; 78(1): 293-300, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19841079

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic but treatable infectious disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. Host immunity to M. leprae determines the diversity of clinical manifestations seen in patients, from tuberculoid leprosy with robust production of Th1-type cytokines to lepromatous disease, characterized by elevated levels of Th2-type cytokines and a suboptimal proinflammatory response. Previous reports have indicated that M. leprae is a poor activator of macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro. To understand whether M. leprae fails to elicit an optimal Th1 immune response or actively interferes with its induction, we have examined the early interactions between M. leprae and monocytes from healthy human donors. We found that, in naïve monocytes, M. leprae induced high levels of the negative regulatory molecules MCP-1 and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), while suppressing IL-6 production through phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanisms. In addition, low levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in association with reduced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and delayed activation of IL-1beta-converting enzyme, ICE (caspase-1), in monocytes stimulated with M. leprae compared with Mycobacterium bovis BCG stimulation. Interestingly, although in itself a weak stimulator of cytokines, M. leprae primed the cells for increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-10 in response to a strongly inducing secondary stimulus. Taken together, our results suggest that M. leprae plays an active role to control the release of cytokines from monocytes by providing both positive and negative regulatory signals via multiple signaling pathways involving PI3K, NF-kappaB, and caspase-1.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/agonistas , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/agonistas
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 2(5): e231, 2008 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18461142

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important regulators of the innate immune response to pathogens, including Mycobacterium leprae, which is recognized by TLR1/2 heterodimers. We previously identified a transmembrane domain polymorphism, TLR1_T1805G, that encodes an isoleucine to serine substitution and is associated with impaired signaling. We hypothesized that this TLR1 SNP regulates the innate immune response and susceptibility to leprosy. In HEK293 cells transfected with the 1805T or 1805G variant and stimulated with extracts of M. leprae, NF-kappaB activity was impaired in cells with the 1805G polymorphism. We next stimulated PBMCs from individuals with different genotypes for this SNP and found that 1805GG individuals had significantly reduced cytokine responses to both whole irradiated M. leprae and cell wall extracts. To investigate whether TLR1 variation is associated with clinical presentations of leprosy or leprosy immune reactions, we examined 933 Nepalese leprosy patients, including 238 with reversal reaction (RR), an immune reaction characterized by a Th1 T cell cytokine response. We found that the 1805G allele was associated with protection from RR with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.87, p = 0.01). Individuals with 1805 genotypes GG or TG also had a reduced risk of RR in comparison to genotype TT with an OR of 0.55 (95% CI 0.31-0.97, p = 0.04). To our knowledge, this is the first association of TLR1 with a Th1-mediated immune response. Our findings suggest that TLR1 deficiency influences adaptive immunity during leprosy infection to affect clinical manifestations such as nerve damage and disability.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
8.
Public Health Rep ; 123(2): 206-12, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18457073

RESUMO

It has been speculated that, as seen in tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) co-infection may exacerbate the pathogenesis of leprosy lesions and/or lead to increased susceptibility to leprosy. However, to date, HIV infection has not appeared to increase susceptibility to leprosy. In contrast, initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been reported to be associated with anecdotal activation of M. leprae infection and exacerbation of existing leprosy lesions. To determine whether ART is associated with worsening of the manifestations of leprosy, a cohort of leprosy patients recruited between 1996 and 2006 at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) Leprosy Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied longitudinally. ART treatment of HIV/leprosy co-infection was associated with the tuberculoid type, paucibacillary disease, and lower bacillary loads. CD4 lymphocyte counts were higher among HIV/leprosy patients at the time of leprosy diagnosis, while viral loads were lower compared with the time of HIV diagnosis. The conclusion was that ART and immune reconstitution were critical factors driving the development and/or clinical appearance of leprosy lesions.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/etiologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Infect Immun ; 76(7): 3027-36, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18443098

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses a diversity of potential virulence factors including complex branched lipids such as the phenolic glycolipid PGL-tb. PGL-tb expression by the clinical M. tuberculosis isolate HN878 has been associated with a less efficient Th1 response and increased virulence in mice and rabbits. It has been suggested that the W-Beijing family is the only group of M. tuberculosis strains with an intact pks1-15 gene, required for the synthesis of PGL-tb and capable of producing PGL-tb. We have found that some strains with an intact pks1-15 do not produce PGL-tb while others may produce a variant of PGL-tb. We examined the early host cytokine response to infection with these strains in vitro to better understand the effect of PGL-tb synthesis on immune responses. In addition, we generated a PGL-tb-producing H37Rv in order to determine the effect of PGL-tb production on the host immune response during infection by a strain normally devoid of PGL-tb synthesis. We observed that PGL-tb production by clinical M. tuberculosis isolates affected cytokine production differently depending on the background of the strain. Importantly, while ectopic PGL-tb production by H37Rv suppressed the induction of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in vitro in human monocytes, it did not lead to increased virulence in infected mice and rabbits. Collectively, our data indicate that, while PGL-tb may play a role in the immunogenicity and/or virulence of M. tuberculosis, it probably acts in concert with other bacterial factors which seem to be dependent on the background of the strain.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/biossíntese , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/biossíntese , Glicolipídeos/biossíntese , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Coelhos , Especificidade da Espécie , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Virulência
10.
J Infect Dis ; 197(2): 253-61, 2008 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18177245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is characterized by a spectrum of clinical manifestations that depend on the type of immune response against the pathogen. Patients may undergo immunological changes known as "reactional states" (reversal reaction and erythema nodosum leprosum) that result in major clinical deterioration. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) polymorphisms on susceptibility to and clinical presentation of leprosy. METHODS: Three polymorphisms in TLR2 (597C-->T, 1350T-->C, and a microsatellite marker) were analyzed in 431 Ethiopian patients with leprosy and 187 control subjects. The polymorphism-associated risk of developing leprosy, lepromatous (vs. tuberculoid) leprosy, and leprosy reactions was assessed by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The microsatellite and the 597C-->T polymorphisms both influenced susceptibility to reversal reaction. Although the 597T allele had a protective effect (odds ratio [OR], 0.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.17-0.68]; P= .002 under the dominant model), homozygosity for the 280-bp allelic length of the microsatellite strongly increased the risk of reversal reaction (OR, 5.83 [95% CI, 1.98-17.15]; P= .001 under the recessive model). These associations were consistent among 3 different ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a significant role for TLR-2 in the occurrence of leprosy reversal reaction and provide new insights into the immunogenetics of the disease.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hanseníase/etnologia , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
J Immunol ; 178(1): 338-44, 2007 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17182571

RESUMO

Leprosy presents with a clinical spectrum of skin lesions that span from strong Th1-mediated cellular immunity and control of bacillary growth at one pole to poor Ag-specific T cell immunity with extensive bacillary load and Th2 cytokine-expressing lesions at the other. To understand how the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae is regulated, human dendritic cells (DC), potent inducers of adaptive immune responses, exposed to M. leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were studied for their ability to be activated and to prime T cell proliferation. In contrast with Mtb and BCG, M. leprae did not induce DC activation/maturation as measured by the expression of selected surface markers and proinflammatory cytokine production. In MLR, T cells did not proliferate in response to M. leprae-stimulated DC. Interestingly, M. leprae-exposed MLR cells secreted increased Th2 cytokines as well as similar Th1 cytokine levels as compared with Mtb- and BCG-exposed cells. Gene expression analysis revealed a reduction in levels of mRNA of DC activation and maturation markers following exposure to M. leprae. Our data suggest that M. leprae does not induce and probably suppresses in vitro DC maturation/activation, whereas Mtb and BCG are stimulatory.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos CD/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Fagocitose , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia
12.
J Infect Dis ; 192(12): 2045-53, 2005 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16288366

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory drug thalidomide is the treatment of choice for erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), an inflammatory cutaneous and systemic complication of multibacillary leprosy. To elucidate the mechanism of action of thalidomide in this syndrome, we prospectively investigated 20 patients with ENL who were treated with thalidomide for 21 days. All patients responded to treatment, with the majority of them having complete resolution of cutaneous lesions within 7 days. This response was associated with a marked but transient increase in ex vivo mitogen-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon- gamma by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that was observed on treatment day 7, but these returned to pretreatment levels by day 21. Plasma tumor necrosis factor- alpha levels were not high at baseline, and they increased modestly during treatment. Plasma levels of IL-12 increased steadily during thalidomide treatment. Hence, the therapeutic effect of thalidomide in ENL appears to be associated with transient immune stimulation, which suggests that the drug may promote an active immunoregulatory response.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema Nodoso/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Eritema Nodoso/patologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Pele/patologia , Talidomida/farmacologia
13.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1062: 79-94, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16461791

RESUMO

In humans, innate immune recognition of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, involves toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), expressed on immature dendritic cells (DCs), and the T-cell gammadelta receptor expressed by a subpopulation of T cells that utilize Vdelta2 (Vdelta2 T cells). To investigate modulatory relationships between these host-cell populations in a microbial context, in vitro experiments were performed with human DCs and Vdelta2 T cells stimulated with model TLR-2 ligands and phosphoantigens, respectively. We observed that TLR-2-stimulated DCs enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by Vdelta2 T cells; conversely, activated Vdelta2 T cells enhanced TLR-2-induced DC maturation via soluble factors including IFN-gamma, which costimulated interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70 secretion by DCs. Exposure of DCs to activated Vdelta2 T cells was critical for Th1 T-cell priming when TLR-2 stimulation was limiting. These results suggest that Vdelta2 T cells may play an adjuvant role in priming protective antimycobacterial immunity when TLR-2 stimulation is lacking, as may occur if the infectious inoculum is small, or if the pathogen is an intrinsically weak activator of DCs.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Imunidade Ativa , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/fisiologia
14.
J Infect Dis ; 188(2): 257-66, 2003 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12854081

RESUMO

To induce effector immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) must differentiate into fully mature cells. We show that, after human monocyte-derived DCs were infected with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, up-regulation of cellular-surface maturation markers was minimal and reversible. In the presence of a potent stimulus for maturation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, and prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]), M. tuberculosis inhibited phenotypic DC maturation. M. tuberculosis-infected DCs had an impaired ability to induce allogeneic lymphoproliferation and activated autologous memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells optimally only in the presence of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and PGE2. Thus, virulent M. tuberculosis inhibits phenotypic and functional maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs. This mechanism, which has been described elsewhere for various viruses and for the virulent mycobacterium M. leprae, may be a novel mechanism that this pathogen uses to evade the host's immune response.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
15.
J Infect Dis ; 186(2): 260-5, 2002 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12134264

RESUMO

This study investigated whether peripheral nerve damage in patients with leprosy impairs local cellular immune responses, thereby reducing wound healing and leading to chronic skin ulceration. Anesthetic and contralateral sensitive skin sites in 42 patients with leprosy were compared for delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. Leukocyte recruitment, epidermal activation, keratinocyte proliferation, and rates of wound healing after skin biopsy were compared. No significant differences in PPD-induced induration, epidermal activation and thickening or numbers of total T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD1a+ Langerhans cells, and proliferating Ki67+ keratinocytes were observed between anesthetic and sensitive skin sites. Similarly, rates of wound healing over 5 days after skin biopsy did not differ significantly. Thus, local leprosy-associated anesthesia does not appear to contribute to local immune compromise or impaired wound healing. Rather, chronic cutaneous ulceration in leprosy most likely results from repeated trauma associated with loss of sensation.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/imunologia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD1/análise , Biópsia , Complexo CD3/análise , Antígenos CD8/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurite (Inflamação)/metabolismo , Neurite (Inflamação)/patologia , Teste Tuberculínico
16.
Clin Immunol ; 102(3): 225-36, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11890709

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, is treated with immune suppressive drugs such as corticosteroids. Sarcoidosis patients have been reported to benefit clinically from treatment with thalidomide. We administered thalidomide for 16 weeks to eight patients with chronic skin sarcoidosis and evaluated the drug's effects before and with treatment. After thalidomide treatment, all skin biopsies showed decreases in granuloma size and reduction in epidermal thickness. We also observed extensive T cell recruitment into the granulomas, the appearance of multinucleated giant cells, and increased numbers of dermal Langerhans cells (CD1a(+)) and mature dendritic cells (CD83(+) or DC-LAMP(+)). Plasma IL-12 levels increased and remained elevated during the treatment period. We noted increased HLA-DR expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and a corresponding drop in the naive T cell marker CD45RA. Our data suggest that thalidomide treatment of sarcoidosis results in granuloma differentiation to a Th1-type cellular immune response usually associated with protective immunity to tuberculosis and tuberculoid leprosy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/imunologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/imunologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antígenos CD/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Antígenos HLA-DR/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-12/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Células de Langerhans/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose/imunologia , Sarcoidose/patologia , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos
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