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1.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 13(3): 340-345, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226023

RESUMO

Introduction: Presently the leprosy program has no defined surveillance protocols for patients who complete the fixed duration multidrug therapy and are released from treatment (RFT). Hence, the information about the post-RFT events in these patients is sparse and qualitative and quantitative data regarding their health care requirements is missing. During the DermLep survey carried out by the Indian Association of Dermatologists,Venereologists and Leprologists (IADVL), a number of patients presented to dermatologists during the post RFT period for a variety of symptoms. This paper analyses the events in these patients during the post RFT period. Results: Out of a total of 3701 leprosy patients who presented to 201 dermatologists across India during the DermLep survey, 708 (26.2%) were in the post RFT period (488 males; 220 females). Of these, 21% were PB and 79% MB patients as per their treatment records. Majority were in the age group of 31-59 years (55.5%); however, a significant proportion of them (20.7%) were elderly (>60 years). Majority of the patients (45.5%) presented within the first year of RFT with variable symptoms; 28% were between 1-5 years, 5.5% between 5-10 years; and 11.0% presented more than 10 years after RFT. Most common presenting complaint being persistent skin lesions as perceived by patients in 21.2%, followed by neuritis in 14.5%; trophic ulcers in 13.8%; deformities in 67 (11.8%); lepra reactions in 66 (11.6%); and recurrence of original symptoms in 6.7%. Conclusion: The DermLep Survey highlights the importance of 'post RFT' patients as an important subset of leprosy patients who visit dermatologists for various health related issues. The most common complaints in this subset were active/persistent skin lesions, lepra reactions and neuritis. In these patients, who are a sub-group of 'persons affected with leprosy' the disease related issues can persist for many years post RFT. Hence, it is important to provide services in the programme to monitor and manage these complications for the prevention of impairments, disability and the related social issues.

6.
J Ultrasound ; 25(2): 265-272, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Grayscale ultrasonography when complemented with shear wave elastography helps in better evaluation of treatment response of leprosy neuropathy and in guiding appropriate management of the patient. There is limited literature regarding the use of shear wave elastography in ulnar nerve neuropathy. Our purpose was to evaluate the role of shear wave elastography in assessing stiffness changes within the ulnar nerve during treatment of leprosy. METHODS: This was a prospective study which included 30 patients diagnosed with leprosy neuropathy. Recruited patients were followed up, during the course of treatment, i.e. for 1 year. Serial ultrasonography of these patients was done at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months interval. RESULTS: Significant (P < 0.05) decrease in elastography parameters was seen in transverse imaging plane between first and third, as well as first and fourth visits (mean stiffness and velocity pretreatment ~ 25.78 ± 18 kPa and 2.74 ± 0.98 m/s, mean stiffness and velocity post-treatment 15.67 ± 5.89 kPa and 2.24 ± 0.428 m/s). Although elastography parameters decreased during these visits in the long-axis imaging plane, they were not found to be statistically significant. However, gross morphology and cross-sectional area of the nerve did not change significantly across visits. Interestingly, elastography values were higher in patients with neuritis, though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Shear wave elastography is a novel, upcoming modality in musculoskeletal imaging especially in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy. It can act as an adjunct to grey-scale imaging, which can help in early diagnosis and in guiding treatment of leprosy neuropathy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hanseníase , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Neuropatias Ulnares , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico por imagem , Hanseníase/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Trop Doct ; 52(1): 226-227, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787533

RESUMO

We read with interest the short report by Rani et al. entitled "An uncommon variant of erythema nodosum leprosum responding well to methotrexate: Report of two cases." The article describes two cases of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with 'atypical features' and good response to low dose methotrexate. The authors address a few concerns regarding methotrexate in ENL, emphasizing the rational usage of this agent.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of skin diseases has increased over the last few decades, and they contribute to a significant burden on health-care systems across the world. Aims/Objective: This report looks at the burden of skin and subcutaneous diseases in terms of years lived with disability and agestandardised years lived with disability in India using the Global Burden of Disease Study results from 2017. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease online interactive tool. Updated estimates of the world's health for 359 diseases and injuries and 84 risk factors from 1990 to 2017 are available in this interactive tool. RESULTS: Years lived with disability due to skin and subcutaneous diseases accounted for 4.02% of the total years lived with disability in India in 2017. There was an increase of 53.7% in all age standardised years lived with disability for all the skin and subcutaneous diseases from 1990 to 2017. Among skin and subcutaneous diseases, dermatitis contributed maximum years lived with disability (1.40 million; 95% uncertainty interval, 0.82-2.21) in 2017, followed by urticaria (1.02 million; 95% uncertainty interval, 0.06-1.44) with percentage increases of 48.9% and 45.7% respectively. CONCLUSION: The burden due to infectious skin diseases (e.g., scabies, fungal skin disease and bacterial skin disease) and non-infectious diseases (e.g., dermatitis, urticaria and psoriasis) has increased over the past three decades, however the age-standardised years lived with disability for leprosy, scabies, fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections and non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) has decreased. The high burden of skin and subcutaneous diseases demand that they be given due importance in the national programmes and health policy of India.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 697804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336901

RESUMO

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), also known as type 2 reaction (T2R) is an immune complex mediated (type III hypersensitivity) reactional state encountered in patients with borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy (BL and LL) either before, during, or after the institution of anti-leprosy treatment (ALT). The consequences of ENL may be serious, leading to permanent nerve damage and deformities, constituting a major cause of leprosy-related morbidity. The incidence of ENL is increasing with the increasing number of multibacillary cases. Although the diagnosis of ENL is not difficult to make for physicians involved in the care of leprosy patients, its management continues to be a most challenging aspect of the leprosy eradication program: the chronic and recurrent painful skin lesions, neuritis, and organ involvement necessitates prolonged treatment with prednisolone, thalidomide, and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, which further adds to the existing morbidity. In addition, the use of immunosuppressants like methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or biologics carries a risk of reactivation of persisters (Mycobacterium leprae), apart from their own end-organ toxicities. Most ENL therapeutic guidelines are primarily designed for acute episodes and there is scarcity of literature on management of patients with chronic and recurrent ENL. It is difficult to predict which patients will develop chronic or recurrent ENL and plan the treatment accordingly. We need simple point-of-care or ELISA-based tests from blood or skin biopsy samples, which can help us in identifying patients who are likely to require prolonged treatment and also inform us about the prognosis of reactions so that appropriate therapy may be started and continued for better ENL control in such patients. There is a significant unmet need for research for better understanding the immunopathogenesis of, and biomarkers for, ENL to improve clinical stratification and therapeutics. In this review we will discuss the potential of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear granulocytes) as putative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers by virtue of their universal abundance in human blood, functional versatility, phenotypic heterogeneity, metabolic plasticity, differential hierarchical cytoplasmic granule mobilization, and their ability to form NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). We will touch upon the various aspects of neutrophil biology relevant to ENL pathophysiology in a step-wise manner. We also hypothesize about an element of metabolic reprogramming of neutrophils by M. leprae that could be investigated and exploited for biomarker discovery. In the end, a potential role for neutrophil derived exosomes as a novel biomarker for ENL will also be explored.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contacts of leprosy patients have an increased risk of infection with Mycobacterium leprae. Contact tracing and chemo- or immunoprophylaxis are important means of preventing leprosy transmission. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis with Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine in reducing anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 titers in household contacts of leprosy patients. METHODS: This prospective single-center study was conducted in a tertiary care center in North India from January 2015 to December 2016. Contacts of leprosy patients (both paucibacillary and multibacillary) were screened for anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 antibodies with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Those found positive were given immunoprophylaxis with a single dose of Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine, and anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 titers were evaluated at six and 12 months. All contacts were clinically followed for three years. RESULTS: Of the 135 contacts of 98 leprosy patients that were screened, 128 were recruited. Seventeen of these contacts were positive for anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 antibodies and were given Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine. Two contacts were lost to follow-up. After immunoprophylaxis, anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 titers were negative in all patients at all intervals, and no contact developed any clinical signs or symptoms of leprosy during the three-year follow-up. LIMITATIONS: The small number of contacts studied, the short follow-up period and the absence of a control group were limitations of this study. Dicussion: We could not find any papers on natural decline of PGL 1 titres in contacts, although in leprosy patients, these titres may even increase after completion of treatment. However the titres do correlate with bacterial load (reference: Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1998 Sep;66(3):356-64) so if the tires decrease or become negative it may be considered as an indirect evidence of bacillary clearance. Hence we may suggest the protective efficacy. Furthermore, as the editor mentioned, considering the small number of positive patients, a control group was not possible in the present pilot study, but such studies may be carried out in the future. CONCLUSION: Immunoprophylaxis with Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine is effective and safe in preventing disease in contacts of leprosy patients. However, these findings need to be replicated in larger studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Identification of the host genes that influence disease susceptibility and can potentially guide future, targeted therapy is the need of the hour. AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene polymorphisms, that is, a 5-8-CATT tetra nucleotide repeats at -794 (-794*CATT5-8) and a single-nucleotide polymorphism at -173 (-173*G/C) with the risk of chronic plaque psoriasis and to observe the correlation, if any, of disease determinants with genetic functional variants and circulating MIF levels. METHODS: Five hundred and seventeen individuals (265 psoriasis patients and 252 controls) were genotyped for MIF gene polymorphisms. Data were analyzed with respect to disease susceptibility, serum MIF levels, disease severity, age at onset, disease duration and presence of comorbidities. RESULTS: The presence of co-morbidities was more frequently noted in patients with late onset disease (P = 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed either in genotype (P = 0.680) or allele frequency (P = 0.69) with respect to distribution of MIF-173*G/C polymorphism between patients and controls. The frequencies of genotypes -794*CATT 5/7 and 7/7 were significantly lower in patients (P = 0.027* and 0.038*, respectively). CATT*5/MIF-173*C haplotype occurred at a higher frequency in patients (odds ratio 3.03, 95% confidence intervals 1.09-8.47, P = 0.02). The mean serum MIF levels were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls (P < 0.001). The presence of either extended MIF -794*CATT repeats or C allele did not reveal any significant association with serum MIF levels or age at onset. Analysis of effect of various disease determinants revealed no significant association with genetic variants and serum MIF levels. LIMITATIONS: The lesional expression of MIF could not be studied. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that CATT*5/MIF-173*C haplotype is associated with increased susceptibility to psoriasis vulgaris.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1305-1308, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591935

RESUMO

Palmoplantar involvement has been infrequently reported in leprosy and is an easily misdiagnosed entity. The institutional database of leprosy clinic from 2015 to 2018 was accessed. Details pertaining to demography, clinical presentation, comorbidities (if any), treatment received, and outcome were analyzed in leprosy patients with palmoplantar involvement. Among the 520 patients studied, the involvement of palms and/or soles was reported in 49 (9.4%) patients. Isolated palm involvement was the most frequent (26/49, 53.1%), followed by both palm and sole involvement (12/49, 24.5%) and sole involvement alone (11/49, 22.4%). A higher incidence of lepra reactions and disabilities was noted in patients with palmoplantar involvement than in those without (P < 0.0001). Palmoplantar involvement in leprosy, although uncommon, is associated with a higher risk of reactions and disabilities. A knowledge of this aspect of leprosy can help in maintaining a high index of suspicion and reduce misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Mãos/patologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Feminino , Pé/microbiologia , Pé/patologia , Mãos/microbiologia , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(6): e15125, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490707

RESUMO

Management of chronic/recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is challenging. The majority of these patients become steroid-dependent and suffer from the adverse effects of long-term corticosteroid use. Minocycline has shown promising results in a small series of chronic/recurrent ENL patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of minocycline and clofazimine in patients with chronic/recurrent ENL. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 60 participants with chronic/recurrent ENL were randomized (1:1) to receive either minocycline 100 mg once daily or clofazimine 100 mg thrice daily for 12 weeks along with prednisolone according to WHO protocol and followed up for 6 months. The outcome measures were mean time for initial control of ENL, proportion of patients having a recurrence of ENL, mean time for recurrence after initial control, additional prednisolone requirement, and frequency of adverse events. Initial control of ENL was achieved earlier in the minocycline group as compared to the clofazimine group (2.97 ± 1.9 weeks vs. 4 ± 1.96 weeks, respectively; p-0.048). The number of participants having ENL flares/recurrences during the study period was comparable in both groups (71.4% in clofazimine vs. 55.2% in minocycline group; p-0.2). The participants in the minocycline group remained in remission for a longer duration after initial control of ENL as compared to the clofazimine group (p-0.001). Mean additional prednisolone dose required for control of ENL flares/recurrences was also comparable in both groups (p-0.09). The minocycline group had fewer side effects than the clofazimine group (p-0.047). Minocycline led to a rapid and sustained improvement of ENL episodes with fewer adverse events showing a superior efficacy to clofazimine.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Clofazimina/efeitos adversos , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 12(Suppl 1): S24-S30, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976878

RESUMO

The Special Interest Group (SIG) on leprosy thought it to be prudent to revisit its previous practice recommendations through this update. During this period, the pandemic course shifted to a 'second wave' riding on the 'delta variant'. While the number of cases increased manifold, so did the research on all aspects of the disease. Introduction of vaccination and data from various drug trials have an impact on current best practices on management of diseases including leprosy. The beneficial results of using steroids in management of COVID-19, gives elbow room regarding its usage in conditions like lepra reactions. On the other hand, the increase in cases of Mucormycosis again underlines applying due caution while recommending immunosuppressants to a patient already suffering from COVID-19. This recommendation update from SIG leprosy reflects current understanding about managing leprosy while the dynamic pandemic continues with its ebbs and flows.

19.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 9(4): 445-447, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323664

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with varied presentation. Hypopigmented or erythematous patches and plaques, skin-colored nodules, and diffuse cutaneous infiltration are the different types of cutaneous lesions seen among patients of leprosy. Verrucous lesions are an uncommon finding of the disease and may be misdiagnosed in the present times due to its rarity. We have herein described two such patients, one of whom had verrucous lesions as the only evident manifestation of leprosy, while the other developed verrucous plaque as the part of leprosy relapse.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana
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