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1.
Indian J Lepr ; 78(4): 329-37, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17402345

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Leprosy still remains a public health problem mainly in Asia, Africa and South America. The WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy recommended, in 1997, the simplified treatment of leprosy for multibacillary (MB) cases, by reducing the duration of treatment from 24 to 12 months. From the operational point of view even this reduced duration is still long and monthly supervised drug administration may not always be practical in those areas where the accessibility is difficult and health infrastructure weak. The present study was carried out to compare the safety and efficacy of a new fixed duration regimen consisting of four bactericidal drugs with WHO/MDT (MB). METHODS: Thirty adult patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (18 patients) received a new regimen of daily rifampicin 600 mg, sparfloxacin 200 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and minocycline 100 mg for 12 weeks. Group 2 (12 patients) received WHO/MDT (MB) for 12 months. A detailed clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations, BI and MI were done at the baseline, every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, and thereafter every 8 weeks till 48 weeks. Skin biopsies were taken and chest X-rays were done at 0, 12 and 48 weeks. RESULTS: At 48 weeks, the net percentage clinical improvement in group 1 was 73.92% and in group 2 it was 66.66%. The net percentage reduction (NPR) in BI in group 1 was 19.17% and in group 2 it was 18.87% (p = 0.09). NPR in MI in both groups was 100% by 8 weeks, and somewhat faster in group 1. In group 1, 8 patients had mild gastrointestinal side-effect, and 16 had minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation. Three patients in group 1 developed type I reversal reactions. CONCLUSION: The regimen containing daily doses of rifampicin 600 mg, sparfloxacin 200 mg, minocycline 100 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg for 12 weeks was found to be an acceptable, effective and safe alternative regimen for MB leprosy with an additional operational advantage of shorter duration of treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16394433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis follows an attack of visceral leishmaniasis and is caused by the same organism, i.e. Leishmania donovani. METHODS: In the present study, biopsy specimens from hypopigmented macules, nodules or plaques of 25 patients clinically diagnosed as PKDL were evaluated for epidermal and dermal changes and for the presence or absence of Leishmania donovani bodies (LDBs). RESULTS: The hypopigmented macules showed a patchy perivascular and periappendageal infiltrate with no demonstrable LDBs in any of the biopsies. In the nodular and plaque lesions, the infiltrate was diffuse, beneath an atrophic epidermis (74%) and follicular plugging (95.6%) was seen in most biopsies. The infiltrate consisted of lymphocytes, histiocytes and plasma cells in decreasing order of presence. LDBs could be demonstrated in only 10 (43.5%) biopsy specimens from nodular and plaque lesions and were never numerous. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological features of PKDL are elucidated and discussed.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Índia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17642637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lesions of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) usually affect the skin. Uncommonly, the involvement of oral and genital mucosae has been reported. METHODS: Twenty five patients clinically diagnosed as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were studied for periorificial and mucosal lesions. Clinical examination, skin smears and biopsy were done for the patients with periorificial or mucosal lesions. RESULTS: Out of 25 patients of PKDL, seven patients had lesions on the oral and/or genital mucosa. Three cases had oral lesions; two had only genital lesions and three patients had both sites involved. All the patients were having skin lesions elsewhere too either as nodules and/or plaque or macules. CONCLUSION: While examining a case of PKDL, mucosal involvement must also be examined carefully.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17642948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drugs used in PKDL include parenteral sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), amphotericin-B, pentamidine, and ketoconazole (KTZ). SAG is the most effective one. Given alone, SAG has to be given for a long duration, leading to poor patient compliance and treatment failure. This study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of SAG alone and a combination of SAG and KTZ for sixty days. METHODS: Ten patients of PKDL were included in the study. Five patients (Group A) were given SAG intravenously, in the dose of 20 mg/kg per day and five (Group B) were given SAG (intravenously 20 mg/kg per day) and KTZ (200 mg twice daily orally). Both treatment regimens were given for sixty days. RESULTS: In Group A, the nodules and/or plaques showed approximate 80-85% clinical improvement, and macules showed 25-30% improvement. In group B (SAG + KTZ), there was 90-95% clinical improvement in the nodules and/or plaques and 25-30% in macules. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the therapeutic superiority of the combination treatment regimen in a shorter duration but is not conclusive as the number of patients was low. Further trials are recommended.

5.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 24(5): 317-21, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11335960

RESUMO

The role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of benign skin lesions has been restricted primarily to the evaluation of bacteriologic and morphologic indices in leprosy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis and classification of lepromatous lesions. Aspirates of 94 newly diagnosed cases of leprosy were studied, and the bacterial load was determined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain. A skin biopsy was taken from the same site at the same sitting. Frozen and paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and ZN stains were examined from the biopsy specimen. In 61 of 94 cases (64.9%), the aspirates were satisfactory. Both diagnosis and classification of leprosy were possible in 40 of these 61 cases; the rest of the aspirates showed nonspecific chronic inflammation. The 39 cases of leprosy where a biopsy was available from the same site were classified on FNAC into tuberculoid (TT and BT), lepromatous (LL and BL), and midborderline (BB) subtypes. Taking the histologic diagnosis and Ridley-Jopling classification to be the gold standard, a strong concordance in tuberculoid leprosy cases (18 of 20 cases, 90%) and in lepromatous cases (15 of 16 cases, 93.7%) was observed. Midborderline cases of leprosy posed a problem, and a correct cytohistological correlation was observed in only one of the three cases.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/classificação , Hanseníase/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eritema Nodoso/classificação , Eritema Nodoso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase Dimorfa/classificação , Hanseníase Dimorfa/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/classificação , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/classificação , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20877122
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20921702

RESUMO

Two hundred and ten patients with chronic urticaria were divided into two groups; one group was treated with Loratadine 10mg daily while the other with cetirizine 10mg daily. The total duration of treatment was four weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment evaluations were made. It was noticed that loratadine was superior to cetirizine in terms of a rapid onset of actions, overall clinical efficacy and minimal side effects.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20944293

RESUMO

Olmsted syndrome is characterised by mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma with peri-orificial hyperkeratosis. We report the case of an 8-year old boy who presented with severe keratoderma of the soles since birth and of the palms from the age of 3 years. At 3 years of age hyperkeratotic plaques appeared on the elbows and knees. The child developed keratotic lesions at the angle of the mouth 1 year later. The child had sparse thin easily pluckable hair. Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of the hair revealed several hair shaft abnormalities. Though the psychomotor development of the child was normal till 1 year of age, thereafter the keratoderma had largely restricted the child's mobility. There was no history of hyperhidrosis and no dental abnormality was detected. The lesions had been unresponsive to keratolytics and had recurred after surgical removal. The patient was started on oral retinoids and topical keratolytics and had partially responded in 2 months.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20944290

RESUMO

Several occupational hazards especially exposure to silica have been implicated as eliciting factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. We here report a case of manual stone-cutter who developed progressive scleroderma, interstitial lung disease and decreased oesophageal motility after several years of exposure to silica dust.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20944365

RESUMO

A patient with pityriasis lichenoides chronica (PLC) during the course of her skin disease developed tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes. Anti-tuberculosis treatment resulted in remission of PLC. Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be one of the triggering agent in pityriasis lichenoides.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20948074

RESUMO

A 26-year-old male presented with asymptomatic, flesh coloured nodules on right elbow, forehead and right retroauricular region. A skin biopsy form the nodule stained with hematoxylin and eosin and special stain (mucicarmine) showed focal deposition of mucin in the dermis.

14.
Indian J Lepr ; 67(4): 467-71, 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8849922

RESUMO

Population influx into urban areas like Delhi has encouraged mushrooming of numerous slums where about 30% population of the city is living. A survey was conducted in four resettlement colonies of Delhi. Of the 6,876 persons examined, 43 (6.25 per 1000) subjects were found to have clinical and histologic evidence of leprosy. Fifteen (35%) patients of neuritic leprosy, eight (19%) with tuberculoid leprosy, 12 (38%) of borderline tuberculoid, three (4%) each with borderline and borderline lepromatous and one (2%) each of lepromatous and indeterminate leprosy were diagnosed. The study revealed that 21% of the patients were less than 20 years of age.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20952946
18.
Indian J Lepr ; 62(4): 443-7, 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2086679

RESUMO

Hepatic Sonography was done in 36 patients with lepromatous Leprosy and 3 patients with borderline lepromatous leprosy with the view to assess abnormalities of size, changes in the echotexture and to observe the presence of any nodules and calcification in the liver. Routine liver function tests were also done in these patients. No definite abnormal sonographic findings were seen in the liver in a large majority of these patients. One patient, however, showed nodular changes in the liver.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/fisiopatologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Hanseníase Dimorfa/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia
19.
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 55(6): 351-355, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128114
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