Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36
Filtrar
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621273

RESUMO

Despite being treatable, leprosy still represents a major public health problem, and many mechanisms that drive leprosy immunopathogenesis still need to be elucidated. B cells play important roles in immune defense, being classified in different subgroups that present distinct roles in the immune response. Here, the profile of B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of patients with paucibacillary (TT/BT), multibacillary (LL/BL) and erythema nodosum leprosum was analyzed. B cell subpopulations (memory, transition, plasmablasts, and mature B cells) and levels of IgG were analyzed by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. It was observed that Mycobacterium leprae infection can alter the proportions of B cell subpopulations (increase of mature and decrease of memory B cells) in patients affected by leprosy. This modulation is associated with an increase in total IgG and the patient's clinical condition. Circulating B cells may be acting in the modulation of the immune response in patients with various forms of leprosy, which may reflect the patient's ability to respond to M. leprae.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009972, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695167

RESUMO

Transcriptional profiling is a powerful tool to investigate and detect human diseases. In this study, we used bulk RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the transcriptomes in skin lesions of leprosy patients or controls affected by other dermal conditions such as granuloma annulare, a confounder for paucibacillary leprosy. We identified five genes capable of accurately distinguishing multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy from other skin conditions. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) expression alone was highly discriminatory, followed by TLR10, BLK, CD38, and SLAMF7, whereas the HS3ST2 and CD40LG mRNA separated multi- and paucibacillary leprosy. Finally, from the main differentially expressed genes (DEG) and enriched pathways, we conclude that paucibacillary disease is characterized by epithelioid transformation and granuloma formation, with an exacerbated cellular immune response, while multibacillary leprosy features epithelial-mesenchymal transition with phagocytic and lipid biogenesis patterns in the skin. These findings will help catalyze the development of better diagnostic tools and potential host-based therapeutic interventions. Finally, our data may help elucidate host-pathogen interplay driving disease clinical manifestations.

3.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571865

RESUMO

Leprosy reactional episodes are acute inflammatory events that may occur during the clinical course of the disease. Type 1 reaction (T1R) is associated with an increase in neural damage, and the understanding of the molecular pathways related to T1R onset is pivotal for the development of strategies that may effectively control the reaction. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a key cytokine associated with T1R onset and is also associated with autophagy induction. Here, we evaluated the modulation of the autophagy pathway in Mycobacterium leprae-stimulated cells in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We observed that IFN-γ treatment promoted autophagy activation and increased the expression of genes related to the formation of phagosomes, autophagy regulation and function, or lysosomal pathways in M. leprae-stimulated cells. IFN-γ increased interleukin (IL)-15 secretion in M. leprae-stimulated THP-1 cells in a process associated with autophagy activation. We also observed higher IL15 gene expression in multibacillary (MB) patients who later developed T1R during clinical follow-up when compared to MB patients who did not develop the episode. By overlapping gene expression patterns, we observed 13 common elements shared between T1R skin lesion cells and THP-1 cells stimulated with both M. leprae and IFN-γ. Among these genes, the autophagy regulator Translocated Promoter Region, Nuclear Basket Protein (TPR) was significantly increased in T1R cells when compared with non-reactional MB cells. Overall, our results indicate that IFN-γ may induce a TPR-mediated autophagy transcriptional program in M. leprae-stimulated cells similar to that observed in skin cells during T1R by a pathway that involves IL-15 production, suggesting the involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of T1R.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Interleucina-15/genética , Hanseníase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Células THP-1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 698495, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447763

RESUMO

Leprosy remains endemic in several developing countries, such as India and Brazil, in part due to delayed diagnosis that facilitates ongoing transmission. Although immunoglobulins against several Mycobacterium leprae antigens have been indicated for the early diagnosis, and IgA participates in the early stages of leprosy and in subclinical infection, relatively little research has examined anti-M. leprae IgA responses. Here, we investigated serum IgA reactivity against NDO-HSA, LID-1 and NDO-LID, in paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) patients and their household contacts, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Diagnostic accuracy of each ELISA was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Our data reveal elevated IgA serum levels against the three M. leprae specific antigens in MB patients, whereas IgA reactivity in PB patients was increased only to NDO-HSA. Further, MB and PB household contacts displayed higher IgA reactivity to NDO-HSA than non-endemic controls. Our data suggest measurement of serum IgA against NDO-HSA as an additional tool in the diagnosis and classification of the disease, with potential utility for household contact follow-up.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009434, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449765

RESUMO

Pyruvate kinase (PK), encoded by the PKLR gene, is a key player in glycolysis controlling the integrity of erythrocytes. Due to Plasmodium selection, mutations for PK deficiency, which leads to hemolytic anemia, are associated with resistance to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and with susceptibility to intracellular pathogens in experimental models. In this case-control study, we enrolled 4,555 individuals and investigated whether PKLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) putatively selected for malaria resistance are associated with susceptibility to leprosy across Brazil (Manaus-North; Salvador-Northeast; Rondonópolis-Midwest and Rio de Janeiro-Southeast) and with tuberculosis in Mozambique. Haplotype T/G/G (rs1052176/rs4971072/rs11264359) was associated with leprosy susceptibility in Rio de Janeiro (OR = 2.46, p = 0.00001) and Salvador (OR = 1.57, p = 0.04), and with tuberculosis in Mozambique (OR = 1.52, p = 0.07). This haplotype downregulates PKLR expression in nerve and skin, accordingly to GTEx, and might subtly modulate ferritin and haptoglobin levels in serum. Furthermore, we observed genetic signatures of positive selection in the HCN3 gene (xpEHH>2 -recent selection) in Europe but not in Africa, involving 6 SNPs which are PKLR/HCN3 eQTLs. However, this evidence was not corroborated by the other tests (FST, Tajima's D and iHS). Altogether, we provide evidence that a common PKLR locus in Africans contribute to mycobacterial susceptibility in African descent populations and also highlight, for first, PKLR as a susceptibility gene for leprosy and TB.


Assuntos
Malária/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Piruvato Quinase/genética , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Piruvato Quinase/deficiência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113346

RESUMO

Pathogenic mycobacteria species may subvert the innate immune mechanisms and can modulate the activation of cells that cause disease in the skin. Cutaneous mycobacterial infection may present different clinical presentations and it is associated with stigma, deformity, and disability. The understanding of the immunopathogenic mechanisms related to mycobacterial infection in human skin is of pivotal importance to identify targets for new therapeutic strategies. The occurrence of reactional episodes and relapse in leprosy patients, the emergence of resistant mycobacteria strains, and the absence of effective drugs to treat mycobacterial cutaneous infection increased the interest in the development of therapies based on repurposed drugs against mycobacteria. The mechanism of action of many of these therapies evaluated is linked to the activation of autophagy. Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that has been associated with the control of the mycobacterial bacillary load. Here, we review the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of cutaneous mycobacterial infection and discuss the perspectives of autophagy as a target for drug development and repurposing against cutaneous mycobacterial infection.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/patologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/patologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Mycobacterium
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 167, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease classified into two subgroups for therapeutic purposes: paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB), closely related to the host immune responses. In this context it is noteworthy looking for immunological biomarkers applicable as complementary diagnostic tools as well as a laboratorial strategy to follow-up leprosy household contacts. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 49 participants, including 19 patients and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and incubated in the presence of Mycobacterium leprae bacilli. The cells were prepared for surface (CD4+ and CD8+) and intracytoplasmic cytokine staining (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10). Multiple comparisons amongst groups were carried out by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Student T or Mann-Whitney test. Comparative analysis of categorical variables was performed by Chi-square. Functional biomarker signature analysis was conducted using the global median values for each biomarker index as the cut-off edge to identify the proportion of subjects with high biomarker levels. RESULTS: The cytokine signature analysis demonstrated that leprosy patients presented a polyfunctional profile of T-cells subsets, with increased frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cell subsets along with IL-10+ and IL-4+ from CD4+ T-cells, as compared to health Controls (Venn diagram report). Moreover, statistical analysis was carried out using parametric or non-parametric variance analysis followed by pairwise multiple comparisons, according to the data normality distribution. L(PB) displayed a polyfunctional profile characterized by enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ produced by most T-cell subsets, as compared to L(MB) that presented a more restricted cytokine functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells with minor contribution of IFN-γ produced by CD4+ T-cells. Noteworthy was that HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB) that presented a cytokine profile limited to IL-10 and IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that L(PB) displayed enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ as compared to L(MB) that presented functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells and HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB). Together, our findings provide additional immunological features associated with leprosy and household contacts. These data provide evidence that biomarkers of immune response can be useful complementary diagnostic/prognostic tools as well as insights that household contacts should be monitored to access putative subclinical infection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Hanseníase/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/imunologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/classificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849508

RESUMO

In HIV-infected individuals, a paradoxical clinical deterioration may occur in preexisting leprosy when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated reversal reaction (RR) develops. Leprosy-HIV co-infected patients during HAART may present a more severe form of the disease (RR/HIV), but the immune mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of leprosy-HIV co-infection remain unknown. Although the adaptive immune responses have been extensively studied in leprosy-HIV co-infected individuals, recent studies have described that innate immune cells may drive the overall immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. Monocytes are critical to the innate immune system and play an important role in several inflammatory conditions associated with chronic infections. In leprosy, different tissue macrophage phenotypes have been associated with the different clinical forms of the disease, but it is not clear how HIV infection modulates the phenotype of innate immune cells (monocytes or macrophages) during leprosy. In the present study, we investigated the phenotype of monocytes and macrophages in leprosy-HIV co-infected individuals, with or without RR. We did not observe differences between the monocyte profiles in the studied groups; however, analysis of gene expression within the skin lesion cells revealed that the RR/HIV group presents a higher expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MRS1), CD209 molecule (CD209), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), arginase 2 (ARG2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) when compared with the RR group. Our data suggest that different phenotypes of tissue macrophages found in the skin from RR and RR/HIV patients could differentially contribute to the progression of leprosy.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diferenciação Celular , Coinfecção , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038662

RESUMO

Pain is a frequent symptom in leprosy patients. It may be predominantly nociceptive, as in neuritis, or neuropathic, due to injury or nerve dysfunction. The differential diagnosis of these two forms of pain is a challenge in clinical practice, especially because it is quite common for a patient to suffer from both types of pain. A better understanding of cytokine profile may serve as a tool in assessing patients and also help to comprehend pathophysiology of leprosy pain. Patients with leprosy and neural pain (n = 22), neuropathic pain (n = 18), neuritis (nociceptive pain) (n = 4), or no pain (n = 17), further to those with diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain (n = 17) were recruited at Souza Araujo Out-Patient Unit (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Serum levels of IL1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF, CCL-2/MCP-1, IFN-γ, CXCL-10/IP-10, and TGF-ß were evaluated in the different Groups. Impairment in thermal or pain sensitivity was the most frequent clinical finding (95.5%) in leprosy neuropathy patients with and without pain, but less frequent in Diabetic Group (88.2%). Previous reactional episodes have occurred in patients in the leprosy and Pain Group (p = 0.027) more often. Analysis of cytokine levels have demonstrated that the concentrations of IL-1ß, TNF, TGF-ß, and IL-17 in serum samples of patients having leprosy neuropathy in combination with neuropathic or nociceptive pain were higher when compared to the samples of leprosy neuropathy patients without pain. In addition, these cytokine levels were significantly augmented in leprosy patients with neuropathic pain in relation to those with neuropathic pain due to diabetes. IL-1ß levels are an independent variable associated with both types of pain in patients with leprosy neuropathy. IL-6 concentration was increased in both groups with pain. Moreover, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10 levels were higher in patients with diabetic neuropathy over those with leprosy neuropathy. In brief, IL-1ß is an independent variable related to neuropathic and nociceptive pain in patients with leprosy, and could be an important biomarker for patient follow-up. IL-6 was higher in both groups with pain (leprosy and diabetic patients), and could be a therapeutic target in pain control.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Hanseníase/sangue , Neuralgia/sangue , Neurite (Inflamação)/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/epidemiologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/diagnóstico , Neurite (Inflamação)/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051758

RESUMO

Chronic infection by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae may lead to the development of leprosy. Of note, in the lepromatous clinical form of the disease, failure of the immune system to constrain infection allows the pathogen to reproduce to very high numbers with minimal clinical signs, favoring transmission. The bacillus can modulate cellular metabolism to support its survival, and these changes directly influence immune responses, leading to host tolerance, permanent disease, and dissemination. Among the metabolic changes, upregulation of cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acid biosynthesis is particularly important, as it leads to lipid accumulation in the host cells (macrophages and Schwann cells) in the form of lipid droplets, which are sites of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediator biosynthesis that modulate the inflammatory and immune responses. In Schwann cells, energy metabolism is also subverted to support a lipogenic environment. Furthermore, effects on tryptophan and iron metabolisms favor pathogen survival with moderate tissue damage. This review discusses the implications of metabolic changes on the course of M. leprae infection and host immune response and emphasizes the induction of regulatory T cells, which may play a pivotal role in immune modulation in leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Colesterol , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae , Células de Schwann
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17931, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784594

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of leprosy is challenging, particularly its inflammatory reactions, the major cause of irreversible neuropathy in leprosy. Current diagnostics cannot identify which patients are at risk of developing reactions. This study assessed blood RNA expression levels as potential biomarkers for leprosy. Prospective cohorts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients, including reactions, and healthy controls were recruited in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia and Nepal. RNA expression in 1,090 whole blood samples was determined for 103 target genes for innate and adaptive immune profiling by dual color Reverse-Transcription Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (dcRT-MLPA) followed by cluster analysis. We identified transcriptomic biomarkers associated with leprosy disease, different leprosy phenotypes as well as high exposure to Mycobacterium leprae which respectively allow improved diagnosis and classification of leprosy patients and detection of infection. Importantly, a transcriptomic signature of risk for reversal reactions consisting of five genes (CCL2, CD8A, IL2, IL15 and MARCO) was identified based on cross-sectional comparison of RNA expression. In addition, intra-individual longitudinal analyses of leprosy patients before, during and after treatment of reversal reactions, indicated that several IFN-induced genes increased significantly at onset of reaction whereas IL15 decreased. This multi-site study, situated in four leprosy endemic areas, demonstrates the potential of host transcriptomic biomarkers as correlates of risk for leprosy. Importantly, a prospective five-gene signature for reversal reactions could predict reversal reactions at least 2 weeks before onset. Thus, transcriptomic biomarkers provide promise for early detection of these acute inflammatory episodes and thereby help prevent permanent neuropathy and disability in leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/genética , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/sangue , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Nepal/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915584

RESUMO

Leprosy reactions are responsible for incapacities in leprosy and represent the major cause of permanent neuropathy. The identification of biomarkers able to identify patients more prone to develop reaction could contribute to adequate clinical management and the prevention of disability. Reversal reaction may occur in unstable borderline patients and also in lepromatous patients. To identify biomarker signature profiles related with the reversal reaction onset, multibacillary patients were recruited and classified accordingly the occurrence or not of reversal reaction during or after multidrugtherapy. Analysis of skin lesion cells at diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy demonstrated that in the group that developed reaction (T1R) in the future there was a downregulation of autophagy associated with the overexpression of TLR2 and MLST8. The autophagy impairment in T1R group was associated with increased expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 (p10) and IL-1ß production. In addition, analysis of IL-1ß production in serum from multibacillary patients demonstrated that patients who developed reversal reaction have significantly increased concentrations of IL-1ß at diagnosis, suggesting that the pattern of innate immune responses could predict the reactional episode outcome. In vitro analysis demonstrated that the blockade of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) in Mycobacterium leprae-stimulated human primary monocytes increased the assembly of NLRP3 specks assembly, and it was associated with an increase of IL-1ß and IL-6 production. Together, our data suggest an important role for autophagy in multibacillary leprosy patients to avoid exacerbated inflammasome activation and the onset of reversal reaction.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Hanseníase Multibacilar/etiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Hanseníase Multibacilar/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 518, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643852

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease that may present different clinical forms depending on host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Several studies have clarified the role of various T cell populations in leprosy; however, recent evidences suggest that local innate immune mechanisms are key determinants in driving the disease to its different clinical manifestations. Leprosy is an ideal model to study the immunoregulatory role of innate immune molecules and its interaction with nervous system, which can affect homeostasis and contribute to the development of inflammatory episodes during the course of the disease. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and keratinocytes are the major cell populations studied and the comprehension of the complex networking created by cytokine release, lipid and iron metabolism, as well as antimicrobial effector pathways might provide data that will help in the development of new strategies for leprosy management.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Hanseníase/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia
15.
Trials ; 19(1): 244, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The annual new-case detection rate for leprosy, while generally stable over the last decade, shows that transmission rates have remained stagnant despite the successful worldwide administration of multidrug therapy since the 1980s. As such, novel control strategies are urgently needed. Focusing on managing leprosy patient contacts, the most susceptible to contracting the disease, has been seen as a potential strategy in limiting the spread of leprosy as shown by a number of recent epidemiological studies. Immunoprophylaxis with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been seen as an effective preventive measure due to its ability to stimulate the development of cellular immunity which is essential in controlling the disease, especially in its multibacillary (MB) forms. The association of immunoprophylaxis with chemoprophylaxis in a single dose of rifampicin has been shown to be a promising preventive strategy, although a variety of studies have found instances of early case detection just a few months after BCG vaccination. METHODS/DESIGN: The present study is a phase IV chemoprophylactic clinical trial consisting of administration of a single dose of rifampicin in MB leprosy patient contacts under care at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic/FIOCRUZ as part of a randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. It is comprised of two groups: 1) rifampicin + BCG; and 2) placebo + BCG. DISCUSSION: The aim is to evaluate whether the use of chemoprophylaxis with a single dose of rifampicin in MB leprosy patient contacts prior to the BCG vaccine would be able to prevent the onset of leprosy in those cases that may occur just a few months after vaccination. Contact subclinical infections (polymerase chain reaction) and the immunological parameters (anti-PGL-1, anti-LID-1, and IFN-γ) will be evaluated and the results will be compared after 12 months of follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC), RBR-69QK5P . Retrospectively registered on 1 June 2017.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Busca de Comunicante , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase Multibacilar/prevenção & controle , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos Fase IV como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase Multibacilar/imunologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/microbiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170467, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leprosy remains a health problem in many countries, with difficulties in diagnosis resulting in delayed treatment and more severe disabilities. Antibodies against several Mycobacterium leprae antigens have, however, shown value as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin (Ig) IgM and IgG subclass reactivity against three M. leprae specific antigens: NDO-HSA, a conjugate formed by natural octyl disaccharide bound to human serum albumin; LID-1, the fusion protein product of the ml0405 and ml2331 genes; and NDO-LID, a combination of LID-1 and NDO. METHODS Sera from healthy controls, paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients, and their respective household contacts, were evaluated for the presence of antigen-specific IgM, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity and specificity of each ELISA were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. FINDINGS Our data confirm that serum IgM antibodies against NDO-HSA and IgG antibodies against LID-1, as well as IgG/M antibodies against NDO-LID, are markedly increased in MB patients. For the first time, our data reveal a selective increase in IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against LID-1 and NDO-LID in MB patients, demonstrating that these antibody isotypes are suitable for differentiation between MB and PB patients. ROC curve analysis indicates an improved capacity for diagnosing MB leprosy patients using the detection of IgG antibodies, particularly the IgG1 isotype, specific to LID-1 and NDO-LID over the performance levels attained with NDO-HSA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that serological tests based on the detection of antigen-specific IgG1 antibodies are a useful tool to differentiate MB from PB patients, and indicate the enhanced performance of the LID-1 and NDO-LID antigens in the serodiagnosis of leprosy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Busca de Comunicante , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Hanseníase Multibacilar/imunologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170467, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-894925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leprosy remains a health problem in many countries, with difficulties in diagnosis resulting in delayed treatment and more severe disabilities. Antibodies against several Mycobacterium leprae antigens have, however, shown value as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin (Ig) IgM and IgG subclass reactivity against three M. leprae specific antigens: NDO-HSA, a conjugate formed by natural octyl disaccharide bound to human serum albumin; LID-1, the fusion protein product of the ml0405 and ml2331 genes; and NDO-LID, a combination of LID-1 and NDO. METHODS Sera from healthy controls, paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients, and their respective household contacts, were evaluated for the presence of antigen-specific IgM, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity and specificity of each ELISA were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. FINDINGS Our data confirm that serum IgM antibodies against NDO-HSA and IgG antibodies against LID-1, as well as IgG/M antibodies against NDO-LID, are markedly increased in MB patients. For the first time, our data reveal a selective increase in IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against LID-1 and NDO-LID in MB patients, demonstrating that these antibody isotypes are suitable for differentiation between MB and PB patients. ROC curve analysis indicates an improved capacity for diagnosing MB leprosy patients using the detection of IgG antibodies, particularly the IgG1 isotype, specific to LID-1 and NDO-LID over the performance levels attained with NDO-HSA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that serological tests based on the detection of antigen-specific IgG1 antibodies are a useful tool to differentiate MB from PB patients, and indicate the enhanced performance of the LID-1 and NDO-LID antigens in the serodiagnosis of leprosy.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Infect Dis ; 216(12): 1635-1643, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272525

RESUMO

Background: Leprosy, the leading infectious cause of disability worldwide, remains a major public health challenge in the most severely affected countries despite the sharp decline in new cases in recent years. The search for biomarkers is essential to achieve a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease. Methods: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) analyses of sera from 87 leprosy patients with or without reactions were conducted via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In situ identification of PTX3 in skin lesion was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assays. Results: We found that PTX3 serum levels were higher in multibacillary patients when evaluated before the onset of acute erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) and persistently elevated during reaction. Thalidomide treatment reduced PTX3 in the serum 7 days after starting treatment. In situ analyses have also demonstrated enhancement of PTX3 in ENL lesions and showed that treatment with thalidomide reduced its expression and the prominent neutrophilic infiltrate, a hallmark of the disease. Conclusions: In summary, our study provides in vivo evidence that PTX3 is enhanced during ENL but not in reversal reaction and provides a new molecular target in ENL pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Pele/patologia , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(7): e0005754, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715406

RESUMO

The pathways that trigger exacerbated immune reactions in leprosy could be determined by genetic variations. Here, in a prospective approach, both genetic and non-genetic variables influencing the amount of time before the development of reactional episodes were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the genetic effect was estimated by the Cox proportional-hazards regression model. In a sample including 447 leprosy patients, we confirmed that gender (male), and high bacillary clinical forms are risk factors for leprosy reactions. From the 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 8 candidate genes genotyped (TNF/LTA, IFNG, IL10, TLR1, NOD2, SOD2, and IL6) we observed statistically different survival curves for rs751271 at the NOD2 and rs2069845 at the IL6 genes (log-rank p-values = 0.002 and 0.023, respectively), suggesting an influence on the amount of time before developing leprosy reactions. Cox models showed associations between the SNPs rs751271 at NOD2 and rs2069845 at IL6 with leprosy reactions (HRGT = 0.45, p = 0.002; HRAG = 1.88, p = 0.0008, respectively). Finally, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were confirmed as high, while IL-10 titers were low in the sera of reactional patients. Rs751271-GT genotype-bearing individuals correlated (p = 0.05) with lower levels of IL-6 in sera samples, corroborating the genetic results. Although the experimental size may be considered a limitation of the study, the findings confirm the association of classical variables such as sex and clinical forms with leprosy, demonstrating the consistency of the results. From the results, we conclude that SNPs at the NOD2 and IL6 genes are associated with leprosy reactions as an outcome. NOD2 also has a clear functional pro-inflammatory link that is coherent with the exacerbated responses observed in these patients.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Hanseníase/patologia , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Hanseníase/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Microbes Infect ; 19(11): 505-514, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28684130

RESUMO

Our previous study has demonstrated that IL-10 may modulate both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and CD163 expression in lepromatous leprosy (LL) cells, favoring Mycobacterium leprae persistence through induction of regulatory pathways and iron storage. Here, we observed that in LL lesion cells there is an increase in the expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism such as hemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin, heme oxygenase 1 and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) when compared to tuberculoid leprosy (BT) cells. We also found increased iron deposits and diminished expression of the iron exporter ferroportin 1 in LL lesion cells. Hemin, but not FeSO4 stimulation, was able to enhance M. leprae viability by a mechanism that involves IDO. Analysis of cell phenotype in lesions demonstrated a predominance of M2 markers in LL when compared with BT lesion cells. A positive correlation between CD163 and PPARG with the bacillary index (BI) was observed. In contrast, TNF, STAT1 and CSF2 presented a negative correlation with the BI. In summary, this study demonstrates that iron may regulate IDO expression by a mechanism that involves IL-10, which may contribute for the predominance of M2-like phenotype in LL lesions that favors the phagocytosis and maintenance of M. leprae in host cells.


Assuntos
Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/fisiologia , Ferro/fisiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA