Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 193
Filtrar
1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 27(4): 713-21, 1998 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9758130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) soluble antigen (MLSA) reagents have been developed with the aim of finding a reagent, comparable to tuberculin, which could identify individuals infected with the leprosy bacillus. They have yet to be evaluated fully in human populations. METHODS: More than 15000 individuals living in a leprosy endemic area of northern Malawi were skin tested with one of five batches of MLSA prepared using two different protocols. The main difference in preparation was the introduction of a high G centrifugation step in the preparation of the last three ('second-generation') batches. RESULTS: The prevalence of skin-test positivity (delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)) and association with the presence of a BCG scar were greater for first (batches A6, A22) than second (batches AB53, CD5, CD19) generation reagents. The association of positivity with M. leprae infection was investigated by comparing results among known (household) contacts of leprosy cases, and among newly diagnosed leprosy patients with those in the general population. While positivity to 'first-generation' antigens appeared to be associated with M. leprae infection, positivity to later antigens was unrelated either to exposure to leprosy cases or presence of leprosy disease. There were geographical differences in the prevalence of DTH to the various batches, probably reflecting exposure to various mycobacteria in the environment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the 'second-generation' batches have lost antigens that can detect M. leprae infections, but that they retain one or more antigens which are shared between M. leprae and environmental mycobacteria. Natural exposure to these both sensitizes individuals and provides natural protection against M. leprae infection or disease. Identification of antigens present in these groups of skin test reagents may assist in production of improved skin test reagents.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/microbiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais , Testes Cutâneos
2.
Lancet ; 344(8932): 1245-9, 1994 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7967984

RESUMO

There is a longstanding debate over the implications of natural and vaccine-induced delayed type hypertensivity for protective immunity to mycobacterial infections. The identification of correlates of vaccine-induced protective immunity should help explain the inconsistent behaviour of BCG vaccines in different populations and assist in efforts to devise improved vaccines. More than 70,000 subjects in Karonga District, northern Malawi were skin tested with soluble antigens of the tubercle and leprosy bacilli, and then followed up for five years for tuberculosis and leprosy incidence. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to compare subjects with different levels of prior skin test sensitivity, after controlling for the effects of age, sex and previous BCG vaccination. BCG vaccination protected against leprosy without persistent delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin or to soluble antigens of the leprosy bacillus. In subjects who had not received BCG, hypersensitivity to tuberculin or to antigens of the leprosy bacillus was associated with strong protection against leprosy. In BCG-vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects, there was a J-shaped relation between hypersensitivity to tuberculin and subsequent rates of tuberculosis, with lowest rates associated with low grade sensitivity (induration 1-10 mm). This study shows that delayed-type hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens has different implications for tuberculosis and leprosy: low-level hypersensitivity (probably attributable to environmental mycobacteria) is associated with protection, but persistent vaccine-associated hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens is not a correlate of vaccine-derived protection against mycobacterial diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/epidemiologia , Imunidade Celular , Incidência , Lactente , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Cutâneos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
3.
In. Hastings, Robert C. Leprosy. London, Churchill, 2 ed; 1994. p.49-83, ilus, tab, graf.
Monografia em Inglês | SES-SP, SES-SP, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1244871
4.
Lepr Rev ; 64(4): 338-56, 1993 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8127221

RESUMO

In this report the methods of the Karonga Prevention Trial, a double-blind leprosy and tuberculosis vaccine trial in Karonga District, Northern Malawi, are described in detail. During a total population house-to-house survey, which lasted from November 1985 until August 1989, 121,008 people (57,892 males and 63,116 females) were vaccinated. A further 5835 people refused vaccination and 5757 were ineligible for vaccination, 2652 of them because they had a history or signs of leprosy, or because they were suspected to have early leprosy. A total of 66,145 individuals, without evidence of prior BCG vaccination, received one of the following: BCG, BCG + 5 x 10(7) killed Mycobacterium leprae, or BCG + 6 x 10(8) killed M. leprae; 54,863 individuals found with a typical or a doubtful BCG scar received either placebo or BCG, or (from mid-1987 onwards) BCG + 6 x 10(8) killed M. leprae. Side-effects were not looked for systematically, but 4 individuals self-reported with glandular abscesses, 9 with large post-vaccination ulcers (> 25 mm in diameter) and 2 with ulcers which persisted for more than 1 year. BCG vials collected from paraffin refrigerators in the field showed satisfactory concentrations of viable BCG throughout the trial. Post-vaccination skin test (RT23 and M. leprae soluble antigen) results and post-vaccination ulcer rates indicate that few mistakes were made in the field when recording the vaccine codes.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Vacinas Bacterianas , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Lepr Rev ; 61(1): 25-31, 1990 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2181222

RESUMO

The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to Mycobacterium leprae and BCG were studied in two groups of leprosy patients: a group of 8 lepromatous patients who had been on treatment for more than 20 years (TLL) and a group of 8 untreated lepromatous leprosy patients (ULL). The mean response to M. leprae of the TLL group was 6195 cpm with 5 of the 8 patients responding positively. The mean response to M. leprae of the ULL group was 617 cpm, with only 1 patient showing a positive response. The corresponding proliferative responses to BCG were 19,908 cpm in the TLL group and 7908 in the ULL group. Thirteen M. leprae reactive clones were established from 2 TLL patients and 5 M. leprae reactive clones were established from 2 tuberculoid leprosy patients. Seven of these clones, 4 from the TLL patients and 3 from the tuberculoid (TT) patients could be studied further. Three of the TLL clones responded specifically to M. leprae, while one of the clones exhibited a broad cross-reactivity to other mycobacteria. All of these clones were of the CD4+CD8- phenotype. Our findings suggest that responsiveness to M. leprae can be detected in vitro in a proportion of LL patients who have undergone prolonged chemotherapy, and that this response involves M. leprae reactive CD8+CD8- T cells, of which some appear to be specific to M. leprae.


Assuntos
Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Células Clonais , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Linfocitária
7.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 77(2): 226-9, 1989 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2673590

RESUMO

In order to test a published claim that the inclusion of Mycobacterium leprae antigens with a tuberculin skin test reagent can suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to tuberculin in both paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy cases, 109 leprosy cases and 104 non-leprosy controls were skin-tested simultaneously with tuberculin with and without M. leprae soluble antigens. Tests were randomized between arms and carried out double-blind. There was a clear tendency for larger DTH responses with the combined tuberculin plus M. leprae antigen than with tuberculin alone in paucibacillary leprosy cases and in non-leprosy controls. No evidence for M. leprae antigen-mediated suppression of DTH was observed in any group. It is unclear whether the difference between the results reported here, which were obtained in Malawi, and those in the published literature which were obtained in India, is attributable to geographic differences in important biological variables or to differences in the experimental protocols. The need for methodological rigour in skin-test studies is stressed.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Teste Tuberculínico
8.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 57(1): 38-44, 1989 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2659700

RESUMO

In an attempt to achieve maximal skin-test positivity to leprosin A in children of leprosy patients living in Baba Baghi Leprosy Sanatorium in Iranian Azerbaijan, two new vaccines have been employed. Children without scars of previous BCG and without response to leprosin A were given a vaccine containing 10(8) viable units of BCG Glaxo plus 10(7) killed Mycobacterium vaccae per dose (vaccine B). Children with BCG Pasteur (Teheran) scars but without response to leprosin A were given a vaccine containing 10(8) killed M. vaccae alone (vaccine D). Eight years later skin testing was repeated, and both new vaccines were found to have significantly increased the numbers of children responding to leprosin A above the level that would have been expected had they received BCG Pasteur alone. This increase was due in large part to increases in the proportions of individuals responding to group i (common mycobacterial) antigens, and known as category 1 responders. The use of suspensions of killed M. vaccae in conjunction with BCG may represent a considerable advance in inducing protection from multibacillary leprosy in close contacts of leprosy patients if leprosin A positivity is truly a correlate of protective immunity. A comparison, using the same criteria, with the other proposed vaccines for leprosy would be very interesting.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Testes Cutâneos , Vacinação , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
9.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 57(1): 45-53, 1989 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2659701

RESUMO

The purpose of this study carried out in Iranian Azerbaijan was to determine the pattern of skin-test positivity to mycobacterial antigens in children living in the valley, and to assess the effect on this of a series of vaccines against mycobacterial disease. Set up in 1978, 1707 tuberculin-negative children without scars of previous BCG vaccination were vaccinated with BCG Glaxo alone (vaccine A) or with the addition of a suspension of killed Mycobacterium vaccae (vaccine B). One hundred children were vaccinated with BCG Glaxo plus a suspension of M. leprae (vaccine C). Eight to 10 years later about half of the children were found for follow up. At this time further children were skin tested, and the results obtained were related to whether or not they had scars of vaccination with BCG Pasteur (Teheran) given by the local health authorities. Between setting up the study and the first follow up, cases of leprosy or tuberculosis had occurred in some of the villages, although not among those we had vaccinated. Differences between the effects of the vaccines were only found in villages with cases of leprosy. In these villages positivity to leprosin A was significantly greater after vaccine B (49%) than after vaccine A (36%; p less than 0.04). The results for scrofulin and vaccine were the same after both vaccines, and significantly lower than in the villages without cases of leprosy. The general reduction in skin-test positivity in the villages with leprosy cases was mainly due to a loss of category 1 responders to group i, common mycobacterial, antigens. It was concluded that where casual contact with cases of leprosy occurs the combination of BCG with killed M. vaccae is likely to be a better vaccine for leprosy than is BCG alone. Although few children received the combination with M. leprae, the results obtained were not particularly promising.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos , Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinação , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
10.
Infect Immun ; 57(2): 653-5, 1989 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2643581

RESUMO

Intradermal immunization with killed Mycobacterium leprae renders mice immune to infection with viable M. leprae. This protection is long lasting and systemic in that immunization in the left flank results in protection in both the left and right footpads. Immunization with Mycobacterium vaccae was ineffective in protecting mice against M. leprae infection, while Mycobacterium bovis BCG provided partial protection. Mycobacterium habana TMC 5135 (now known as Mycobacterium simiae) was found to be as effective as M. leprae in protecting mice against footpad infection.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Animais , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
12.
Tubercle ; 69(4): 293-8, 1988 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3151532

RESUMO

Quadruple skin testing with new tuberculins was used to evaluate the effects of previously administered BCG Madras in children attending schools in the slums, or living in Kopri Leprosy Colony in Bombay. There were differences between schools both in the level of sensitisation of children without BCG scars and in the effects of BCG vaccination. Results obtained at one school resembled those obtained in a previous study in Agra, where BCG was thought to be ineffective. Results from the other schools and Kopri were more like those previously reported from Ahmednagar, where BCG was considered to be much more effective. Thus within the same city groups of children of the same social status may vary widely both in their contact with mycobacteria and in their capacity to benefit from BCG vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Teste Tuberculínico
13.
Lepr Rev ; 59(3): 193-4, 1988 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3200084
19.
Nature ; 330(6150): 690, 1987.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3696230
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA