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2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008678, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035210

RESUMO

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), or type 2 lepra reaction, is a multi-system immune-mediated complication in patients with multibacillary leprosy, frequently associated with chronicity and recurrences. Management of ENL requires high doses of oral corticosteroids, which may not be universally effective and pose serious adverse effects. Thalidomide has proven to be a steroid-sparing agent and is useful in controlling the reactions. However, many centres do not employ it in outpatient settings due to adverse effects and teratogenicity risk. Hence, we studied the feasibility of treating ENLs and reported the therapeutic outcome.This is a five-year record-based analysis of ENL leprosy patients treated with thalidomide, includingdescriptive statistics of demographic variables. Clinical characteristics were stratified by treatment compliance status (yes/no). Incidence rates and rate ratios for recovery stratified by bacillary index, type of ENL presentation and MDT treatment status were calculated.Out of 102 ENL patients treated with thalidomide, 68 (66.7%) were compliant and improved. Among them, ENL recurrence was noted in 11(16.2%) patients. The commonest thalidomide side effect was pedal oedema (73.5%). Patients with bacillary index (BI) less than or equal to 4.0 had a 37% increase in the incidence of recovery. Patients with acute ENL were almost twice as likely to recover as those with chronic ENL. Also, the improvement was two and a half times greater among those who completed MDT as compared to those on MDT. The study showed that thalidomide treatment for patients with ENL is possible in outpatientclinics. We also successfully prevented pregnancies to a larger extent through counselling for contraception.We observed that early institution of thalidomide induces faster remission and prevents ENL recurrence.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008393, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-healing plantar ulcers are one of the significant causes of disability in leprosy patients. Plantar ulcers often take months or years to heal, affecting the patient's quality of life. Presence of comorbid conditions in these patients can delay wound healing. The study aimed to evaluate the role of associated comorbid conditions as risk factors in ulcer healing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 66 leprosy patients with plantar ulcers registered at LEPRA Society-Blue Peter Public Health and Research Center (BPHRC), Hyderabad, India from June 2018 to June 2019 were studied. Comprehensive clinical assessment was done, including screening for comorbid conditions and treated as per the recommended guidelines. About two-thirds of the participants were aged 50 and above, of which more than half were illiterates, and 93.5% were living below the poverty line. Majority of ulcers were seen on the forefoot; with the head of meta-tarsal bone 27 (41.6%) as the commonest site, followed by calcaneum 23 (38.3%) and great toe 10 (16.6%). Mean ulcer depth was 0.61 (0.57) cm, the area was 5.24 (6.73) cm2 and ulcer volume was 4.72 (14.33) cm3. Ulcer dimensions were significantly associated with low body mass index, hypertension and smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identifying the risk factors delaying wound healing and detailed assessment of ulcers are of profound importance to predict the outcome of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients. The study findings indicate the need for better policies by the leprosy control program for the comprehensive management of plantar ulcers.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Úlcera do Pé/complicações , Hanseníase/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , , Úlcera do Pé/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Cicatrização
5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 3(4)2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275432

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and mainly affects skin, peripheral nerves, and eyes. Suitable tools for providing bacteriological evidence of leprosy are needed for early case detection and appropriate therapeutic management. Ideally these tools are applicable at all health care levels for the effective control of leprosy. This paper presents a systematic review analysis in order to investigate the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vis-à-vis slit skin smears (SSS) in various clinical settings and its potential usefulness as a routine lab test for leprosy diagnosis. Records of published journal articles were identified through PubMed database search. Twenty-seven articles were included for the analysis. The evidence from this review analysis suggests that PCR on skin biopsy is the ideal diagnostic test. Nevertheless, PCR on SSS samples also seems to be useful with its practical value for application, even at primary care levels. The review findings also indicated the necessity for improving the sensitivity of PCR and further research on specificity in ruling out other clinical conditions that may mimic leprosy. The M. leprae-specific repetitive element (RLEP) was the most frequently-used marker although its variable performance across the clinical sites and samples are a matter of concern. Undertaking further research studies with large sample numbers and uniform protocols studied simultaneously across multiple clinical sites is recommended to address these issues.

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