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BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1065, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625080


BACKGROUND: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as podoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy mainly affect communities in low resource settings. These diseases are associated with physical disability due to lymphoedema as well as poor mental health and psychosocial outcomes. Integration of care across these NTDs at primary health care level, which includes mental health and psychosocial care alongside physical health care, is increasingly recommended. METHODS: A holistic integrated care package was developed and piloted as part of the EnDPoINT project in Gusha district, Awi zone, Ethiopia. The intervention was conducted at the health care organization, health facility and community levels. To assess the impact of the care package in terms of acceptability, scalability, sustainability and barriers to implementation, a qualitative study was conducted in January 2020. This included four focus group discussions (29 participants) and ten key informant interviews with decision makers, health professionals, patients, and community representatives. RESULTS: The integrated lymphoedema care package was found to be efficient compared to vertical programs in saving time and resources. It also resulted in improved awareness of the causes, treatment and prevention of lymphoedema, in marked improvements in the lymphoedema, and in reduced stigma and discrimination. The care package was found to be acceptable to patients, health professionals and decision makers. The barriers to integrated care were unrealistic patient expectations, inadequate dissemination across health workers, and poor transportation access. Health professionals, decision makers and patients believed the integrated lymphoedema care package to be scalable and sustainable. CONCLUSION: The integrated holistic care package was found to be acceptable to patients, health professionals and decision makers. We recommend its scale-up to other endemic districts.

Elefantíase , Linfedema , Atenção à Saúde , Etiópia , Humanos , Linfedema/terapia , Projetos Piloto
BMC Public Health ; 13: 298, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23556435


BACKGROUND: Health-related stigma adds to the physical and economic burdens experienced by people suffering from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Previous research into the NTD podoconiosis showed significant stigma towards those with the disease, yet no formal instrument exists by which to assess stigma or interventions to reduce stigma. We aimed to develop, pilot and validate scales to measure the extent of stigma towards podoconiosis among patients and in podoconiosis-endemic communities. METHODS: Indicators of stigma were drawn from existing qualitative podoconiosis research and a literature review on measuring leprosy stigma. These were then formulated into items for questioning and evaluated through a Delphi process in which irrelevant items were discounted. The final items formed four scales measuring two distinct forms of stigma (felt stigma and enacted stigma) for those with podoconiosis and those without the disease. The scales were formatted as two questionnaires, one for podoconiosis patients and one for unaffected community members. 150 podoconiosis patients and 500 unaffected community members from Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia were selected through multistage random sampling to complete the questionnaires which were interview-administered. The scales were evaluated through reliability assessment, content and construct validity analysis of the items, factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. RESULTS: All scales had Cronbach's alpha over 0.7, indicating good consistency. The content and construct validity of the scales were satisfactory with modest correlation between items. There was significant correlation between the felt and enacted stigma scales among patients (Spearman's r = 0.892; p < 0.001) and within the community (Spearman's r = 0.794; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We report the development and testing of the first standardised measures of podoconiosis stigma. Although further research is needed to validate the scales in other contexts, we anticipate they will be useful in situational analysis and in designing, monitoring and evaluating interventions. The scales will enable an evidence-based approach to mitigating stigma which will enable implementation of more effective disease control and help break the cycle of poverty and NTDs.

Elefantíase/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Etiópia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes