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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010799, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is rare in the United Kingdom (UK), but migration from endemic countries results in new cases being diagnosed each year. We documented the clinical presentation of leprosy in a non-endemic setting. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on all new cases of leprosy managed in the Leprosy Clinic at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 1995 and 2018 were analysed. RESULTS: 157 individuals with a median age of 34 (range 13-85) years were included. 67.5% were male. Patients came from 34 different countries and most contracted leprosy before migrating to the UK. Eighty-two (51.6%) acquired the infection in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. 30 patients (19.1%) acquired leprosy in Africa, including 11 from Nigeria. Seven patients were born in Europe; three acquired their leprosy infection in Africa, three in South East Asia, and one in Europe. The mean interval between arrival in the UK and symptom onset was 5.87 years (SD 10.33), the longest time to diagnosis was 20 years. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy (n = 71, 42.0%), and lepromatous leprosy (n =, 53 33.1%) were the commonest Ridley Jopling types. Dermatologists were the specialists diagnosing leprosy most often. Individuals were treated with World Health Organization recommended drug regimens (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). CONCLUSION: Leprosy is not a disease of travellers but develops after residence in an leprosy endemic area. The number of individuals from a leprosy endemic country reflect both the leprosy prevalence and the migration rates to the United Kingdom. There are challenges in diagnosing leprosy in non-endemic areas and clinicians need to recognise the symptoms and signs of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Londres , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Nigéria
2.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida;Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; 20220906. 212 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397766

RESUMO

Olhando para a trajetória histórica compreende-se melhor a relação entre "Democracia e Saúde" estabelecida para 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde realizada em 2019, pois a luta pelo direito à saúde e a implementação do SUS está vinculada a busca pela redemocratização e a ampliação dos direitos sociais no Brasil. As instâncias do controle social se consolidaram no decorrer das três décadas de sua existência, os movimentos sociais, bem como, as mais diversas organizações da sociedade civil, ocuparam estes espaços e buscaram transformá-los numa arena democrática de defesa da sua concepção de saúde, de política pública, de Estado, de desenvolvimento e de direitos humanos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Conferências de Saúde , Conselhos de Saúde , Participação Social , Política de Saúde , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal , Democracia , Direito à Saúde
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010695, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy or Hansen's disease is known to cause disability and disfigurement. A delay in case detection of leprosy patients can lead to severe outcomes. In Ethiopia, the disability rates caused by leprosy among new cases are relatively high compared to other endemic countries. This suggests the existence of hidden leprosy cases in the community and a delay in timely detection. To reduce disability rates, it is crucial to identify the factors associated with this delay. This study aimed to determine the extent of delay in case detection among leprosy cases in Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional explorative study was conducted in January and February 2019 among 100 leprosy patients diagnosed ≤6 months prior to inclusion. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, including the initial onset of symptoms, and the reasons for delayed diagnosis. Descriptive statistics, including percentages and medians, were used to describe the case detection delay. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the predictors of delay in case detection of >12 months. FINDINGS: The median age of patients was 35 years, with a range of 7 to 72 years. The majority were male (80%) and rural residents (90%). The median delay in case detection was 12 months (interquartile range 10-36 months) among the included patients. The mean delay in case detection was 22 months, with a maximum delay of 96 months. The overall prevalence of disability among the study population was 42% (12% grade I and 30% grade II). Fear of stigma (p = 0.018) and experiencing painless symptoms (p = 0.018) were highly associated with a delay in case detection of >12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Being afraid of stigma and having painless symptoms, which are often misinterpreted as non-alarming at the onset of the disease, were associated with a delay in case detection. This study showed the need to increase knowledge on early symptoms of leprosy among affected communities. Furthermore, it is important to support initiatives that reduce leprosy related stigma and promote health worker training in leprosy control activities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2255-2258, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649013

RESUMO

Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious, systemic or localized dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium lepra. In Brazil, the magnitude and high disabling power keep the disease as a public health problem. Skin spotting and numbness are pathognomonic signs and symptoms in leprosy. The Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2019 National Health Survey (PNS-2019) considered the following question as a proxy to estimate its magnitude in the country. "Do you have a spot with numbness or part of the skin with numbness?". In Brazil, 1,921,289 adults reported having a patch or part of the skin with numbness, with no regional differences. As for the age group, the older, the higher the prevalence, for example, between 18 to 29 years old (235,445) and 30 to 39 years old (236,485), 0.7% had the condition, between 40 to 59 years old (827,887), 1.5% and among the elderly, 1.8% (621,472). Being able to estimate, in population-based surveys, with statistical representativeness, a reported morbidity such as leprosy is essential to support the formulation of public policies, notably those related to primary health care actions. In this way, the IBGE fulfills its constitutional role of portraying the reality of the Brazilian population and today it is the main external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS) and of public policies developed by the federal level.


A hanseníase é uma doença dermato-neurológica, infecciosa, sistêmica ou localizada, debilitante, causada por Mycobacterium leprae. No Brasil, a magnitude e o alto poder incapacitante mantêm a doença como um problema de saúde pública. Mancha na pele e dormência são sinais e sintomas patognomônicos na hanseníase. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019 (PNS-2019), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), considerou a seguinte pergunta como proxy para estimar sua magnitude no país. "O(a) sr(a). tem mancha com dormência ou parte da pele com dormência?". No Brasil, 1.921.289 adultos referiram ter mancha ou parte da pele com dormência, sem diferenças regionais. Com relação ao grupo etário, quanto mais velho, maior a prevalência. Por exemplo, entre os de 18 a 29 anos (235.445) e de 30 a 39 anos (236.485), 0,7% possuía a condição, entre 40 e 59 anos (827.887), 1,5%, e entre os idosos, 1,8% (621.472). Poder estimar, em pesquisas de base populacional, com representatividade estatística, uma morbidade referida tal como a hanseníase é fundamental para apoiar a formulação de políticas públicas, notadamente as relativas às ações da atenção primária à saúde. Dessa forma, o IBGE cumpre seu papel constitucional de retratar a realidade da população brasileira e hoje é o principal avaliador externo do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e das políticas públicas instituídas no âmbito federal.


Assuntos
Hipestesia , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
6.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; 20220324. 210 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377854

RESUMO

Em um contexto de retrocessos políticos, sociais, sanitários e civilizatórios, deparamo-nos com a 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde, carinhosamente apelidada de 8ª + 8, para tornar visível o encontro com a conferência-marco da reforma sanitária brasileira. Durante a conferência foi realizada a pesquisa "Saúde e democracia: estudos integrados sobre participação social na 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde", cujo objetivo foi analisar a participação social no processo da 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde em dimensões que permitissem sistematizar evidências da relevância e da abrangência do processo participativo nas etapas e atividades que a compuseram. A partir das experiências vivenciadas pelos estudantes pesquisadores, afetivamente reconhecidos como "verdinhos e verdinhas", em alusão à camiseta de cor verde que os identificava entre os participantes da 16ª CNS, elaborou-se a chamada de manuscritos que culminou neste livro. Encontram-se aqui reunidos aproximadamente 30 narrativas, somadas a alguns manuscritos feitos sob demanda dos organizadores. Agradecemos a cada uma das pessoas que ofereceu sua narrativa, a cada esforço necessário para compor uma estética capaz de dizer do lugar de aprendizagem que cada um e cada uma das pessoas que estiveram conosco nesse grande laboratório de democracia e cidadania que foi a 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde. E a cada leitor e leitora que, sensivelmente, compreender que cada um dos textos é um convite para a defesa do SUS, do ensino da saúde pautado pelo compromisso ético com todas as saúdes dos territórios e com o SUS como política pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Participação da Comunidade , Conferências de Saúde , Conselhos de Planejamento em Saúde , Política Pública , Sistema Único de Saúde , Conselhos de Saúde , Participação Social
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0009850, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180224

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Timely detection is a challenge in leprosy diagnosis, relying on clinical examination and trained health professionals. Furthermore, adequate care and transmission control depend on early and reliable pathogen detection. Here, we describe a qPCR test for routine diagnosis of leprosy-suspected patients. The reaction simultaneously amplifies two specific Mycobacterium leprae targets (16S rRNA and RLEP), and the human 18S rRNA gene as internal control. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.29 copies of the M. leprae genome. Analytical specificity was evaluated using a panel of 20 other skin pathogenic microorganisms and Mycobacteria, showing no cross-reactivity. Intra- and inter-operator Cp variation was evaluated using dilution curves of M. leprae DNA or a synthetic gene, and no significant difference was observed between three operators in two different laboratories. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 97 patient samples with clinical and histopathological leprosy confirmation, displaying high diagnostic sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%). Validation tests in an independent panel of 50 samples confirmed sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 98%, respectively. Importantly, assay performance remained stable for at least five months. Our results show that the newly developed multiplex qPCR effectively and specifically detects M. leprae DNA in skin samples, contributing to an efficient diagnosis that expedites the appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/normas , Lactente , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010038, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay in case detection is a risk factor for developing leprosy-related impairments, leading to disability and stigma. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to determine the leprosy case detection delay, defined as the period between the first signs of the disease and the moment of diagnosis, calculated in total number of months. The instrument was developed as part of the PEP4LEP project, a large-scale intervention study which determines the most effective way to implement integrated skin screening and leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis with a single-dose of rifampicin (SDR-PEP) administration in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature review was conducted and leprosy experts were consulted. The first draft of the questionnaire was developed in Ethiopia by exploring conceptual understanding, item relevance and operational suitability. Then, the first draft of the tool was piloted in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. The outcome is a questionnaire comprising nine questions to determine the case detection delay and two annexes for ease of administration: a local calendar to translate the patient's indication of time to number of months and a set of pictures of the signs of leprosy. In addition, a body map was included to locate the signs. A 'Question-by-Question Guide' was added to the package, to provide support in the administration of the questionnaire. The materials will be made available in English, Oromiffa (Afaan Oromo), Portuguese and Swahili via https://www.infolep.org. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that the developed case detection delay questionnaire can be administered quickly and easily by health workers, while not inconveniencing the patient. The instrument has promising potential for use in future leprosy research. It is recommended that the tool is further validated, also in other regions or countries, to ensure cultural validity and to examine psychometric properties like test-retest reliability and interrater reliability.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010132, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb disorders including lymphoedema create a huge burden for affected persons in their physical and mental health, as well as socioeconomic and psychosocial consequences for them, their families and communities. As routine health services for the integrated management and prevention of lower limb disorders are still lacking, the 'Excellence in Disability Prevention Integrated across Neglected Tropical Diseases' (EnDPoINT) study was implemented to assess the development and delivery of an integrated package of holistic care-including physical health, mental health and psychosocial care-within routine health services for persons with lower limb disorders caused by podoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis and leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was part of the first of three phases within EnDPoINT, involving the development of the integrated care package. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were undertaken with 34 participants between January-February 2019 in Awi zone, Ethiopia, in order to assess the draft care package's feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness. Persons affected by lower limb disorders such as lymphoedema experience stigma, exclusion from families, communities and work as well as physical and financial hardship. Beliefs in disease causation inhibit affected persons from accessing care. Ignorance was a barrier for health care providers as well as affected persons. Training and education of affected persons, communities and caregivers is important in improving care access. It also requires time, space, materials and financial resources. Both top-down and grass roots input into service development are key, as well as collaboration across stakeholders including charities, community leaders and "expert patients". CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlighted the need for the EnDPoINT integrated care package and provided suggestions for solutions according to its three aspects of integrated care (integration into routine care; integration of mental health and psychosocial care; and integration of care across the three diseases), thereby giving support for its feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Elefantíase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Linfedema/psicologia , Adulto , Elefantíase/psicologia , Elefantíase/terapia , Filariose Linfática/psicologia , Filariose Linfática/terapia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Hanseníase/psicologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Linfedema/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 201-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to be the reservoir of infection for visceral leishmaniasis in South Asia. The development of strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of PKDL are important for the implementation of the visceral leishmaniasis elimination program. AIMS: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) has been an overwhelming success in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, the empirical three-week regimen of L-AMB proposed for PKDL was shown to be inadequate, especially in the macular variant. This study aimed to delineate response of the different variants of PKDL to L-AMB. METHODS: Skin biopsies were collected from PKDL cases at disease presentation and upon completion of treatment with L-AMB. Parasite DNA was detected by Internal Transcribed Spacer-1 PCR (ITS-1 PCR) and quantified by amplification of parasite kDNA. CD68 + macrophages were estimated in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Treatment with L-AMB decreased the parasite load by 97% in polymorphic cases but only by 45% in macular cases. The median parasite load (89965 vs 5445 parasites/µg of genomic DNA) as well as infiltration by CD68+ cells before treatment was much greater in the polymorphic cases. LIMITATIONS: Although monitoring of the parasite load for 12 months post-treatment would have been ideal, this was not possible owing to logistical issues as well as the invasive nature of biopsy collection procedure. CONCLUSION: A dramatic decrease in the parasite burden was noted in patients with polymorphic lesions. Although patients with macular disease also had a decrease in parasite burden, this was not as marked as in the polymorphic cases. There was also a significantly greater infiltration of CD68 + macrophages in polymorphic PKDL before therapy.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Parasitária , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 177-183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) has not been evaluated in Indian patients having epidermolysis bullosa (EB). AIMS: The aims of the study were to measure health-related QoL in Indian patients having EB using the quality of life in epidermolysis bullosa (QoLEB) questionnaire, and to find its correlation with clinically measured disease severity. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study, the QoLEB questionnaire was translated from English to Hindi (QoLEB-Hin) and culturally adapted without a change in concept following standard guidelines. QoLEB-Hin and three clinical scores that have been independently validated in EB, that is, Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa severity score (BEBs), Instrument for Scoring Clinical Outcomes of Research for Epidermolysis Bullosa (iscorEB) and Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease Activity and Scarring Index (EBDASI), were administered to EB patients/their parents in the presence of an expert. This was followed by validity and correlation studies. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were recruited (19-females, 35-males; median age 5 years, range 0.025-36 years and 12 patients with an age >13 years). The parents answered the questions for 42 patients (age <13 years). Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa was diagnosed in 32 (59.2%) patients (dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa [DDEB]-19 [35.2%] and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa [RDEB]-13 [24.1%]). Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) were each diagnosed in 11 (20.4%) patients. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of QoLEB-Hin score of all epidermolysis bullosa patients was 11.3 ± 7.6 (range 0-28; median and interquartile range [IQR], 10, 10) and reflected an overall moderate degree of affliction on QoL of patients. Mean ± SD of QoLEB-Hin scores for EBS, JEB, DDEB and RDEB were 5.4 ± 3.7 (range, 1-13; median and IQR, 6, 6), 11 ± 6.2 (range, 1-22; median and IQR, 10, 6), 9 ± 5.7 (range, 0-19; median and IQR, 10, 10) and 20.1 ± 6.4 (range, 12-28; median and IQR, 19, 12.5), respectively (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.946 was obtained for all items indicating excellent internal consistency and reliability. Mean sample adequacy was 0.91; absolute fit based off diagonal values was 0.99; indices root mean square error of approximation and root mean square residual were 0.04 and 0.05, respectively, and Tucker Lewis index was >1 indicating overfit. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 6.1 min (range, 6-8 min). QoLEB-Hin correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with BEBs (ρ = 0.79), iscorEB (ρ= 0.63) and EBDASI (ρ = 0.77). Three multiple linear regression models were used to ascertain the strength of relationship between QoL-Hin, and BEBs, iSCOREB and EBDASI, respectively, after adjusting for age, gender and disease subtype. The EBDASI clinical score accounted for approximately 74% (R2 = 0.736, P < 0.001) of the variability in QOL-Hin, as compared to 73% and 55% by BEBs (R2 = 0.731, P < 0.001) and iscorEB (R2 = 0.545, P < 0.001), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Parents filled out the questionnaires for many patients and probably led to an overall moderate degree of affliction of QoL. Comparison with Dermatology Life Quality Index and other QoL scores were not done in this study. Furthermore, the scoring was done at one point in time, and test-retest measurements could not be performed. CONCLUSION: This study validated QoLEB-Hin in an Indian population finding an overall moderate reduction in QoL due to EB. Maximally affected QoL was seen in patients with RDEB. Furthermore, QoLEB-Hin had a variable positive correlation and association with all clinical severity assessment scores.


Assuntos
Epidermólise Bolhosa/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
13.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 38(1): 90-93, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug and first choice in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Given its teratogenic potential, it is essential that an effective contraceptive method is used, especially a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. The subdermal etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing implant is an adequate method due to the high effectiveness and long-term use. However, interaction between thalidomide and ENG has not been well documented. Concern arises because thalidomide interacts with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes that metabolize sexual steroids. AIM: We aimed to study the effectiveness and safety of the ENG-implant in a thalidomide user. METHODS: Case report of a sexually active 21-year-old patient with both Hansen's disease and leprosy reaction type 2 treated with thalidomide requiring effective contraception. Follow-up was up to 36 months after implant placement. RESULTS: Contraception with ENG-implant was effective and safe, based on clinical parameters (reduction of menstrual flow and cervical mucus thickening) and laboratory parameters (gonadotropins and sexual steroids). CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported which presents a patient in simultaneous use of thalidomide and ENG-implant. Although this case report preliminary supports effectiveness and safety of ENG-implant as a contraceptive option in women using thalidomide, rigorous drug-drug interaction research is needed to better characterize the interaction between thalidomide and the ENG-implant.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Teratógenos , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Desogestrel/efeitos adversos , Implantes de Medicamento , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(1): e1-e5, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare radiographic findings in supination external (SE)2 injuries versus stress (+) SE4 injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Academic Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: The study included 350 skeletally mature patients at a single Level 1 trauma center who presented with an isolated, Lauge-Hansen type supination-external rotation pattern, Weber B lateral malleolar fracture, OTA/AO 44-B. RESULTS: We reviewed 350 patients (185 men and 165 women), 18-95 years of age (avg 45), with isolated SE pattern lateral malleolar fractures. One hundred nine had SE4 injuries [medial clear space (MCS) = 8.3 mm]. Two hundred forty-one ankles were stressed; 164 were unstable and 77 were stable (SE2). Avg MCS at presentation and on stress radiographs was 3.59 mm for the SE2 (no widening) and 3.86 mm and 5.94 mm for the stress (+) SE4 group, respectively. The fibular displacement for the SE2, stress (+) SE4, and SE4 groups was 1.5 (0-4.5), 3.5 (0-6.6), and 4.1 (0-30.5), respectively. Sixteen of the 77 (20%) SE2 and 24 of the 164 (15%) stress (+) SE4 fractures had no displacement of the fibula on the lateral view. Similarly, 53 of the 77 (68%) SE2 and 91 of the 164 (55%) stress (+) SE4 had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement Fibular displacement of ≤2 mm on the lateral radiograph corresponded with 0.69 sensitivity and only 0.37 positive predictive value for stable ankle mortise on stress examination. CONCLUSIONS: Previous work indicated that patients with an isolated SE pattern fibula fracture, a normal MCS, and ≤2 mm of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph have a high rate of ankle stability, with a positive predictive value of approximately 97%. We were unable to confirm this finding because 15% of unstable ankles had 0 mm and 55% had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement. We conclude that stability may not be inferred from a lack of fibular displacement on the lateral view in this population of patients. If stability is to be determined, it must be tested irrespective of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas Ósseas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 121-127, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391473

RESUMO

Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença crônica, infectocontagiosa e considerada um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o seguimento farmacoterapêutico de pacientes com diagnóstico de hanseníase. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com pacientes com hanseníase multibacilar do município de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso. O seguimento farmacoterapêutico foi realizado a partir de uma versão adaptada do Método Dáder. Para análise de dados aplicou-se a estatística descritiva e o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson.Resultados: Uma frequência de 95,6% dos participantes apresentou problemas relacionados aos medicamentos, 59,1% apresentaram 3 ou mais problemas, os mais frequentes foram administração errada do medicamento e interação medicamento/nutriente. A inefetividade não quantitativa foi o resultado negativo associado ao medicamento mais evidenciado. Os indivíduos acompanhados em um serviço especializado apresentaram menor número de problemas relacionados aos medicamentos quando comparados àqueles da Estratégia Saúde da Família (p = 0,027).Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes acompanhados apresentou problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos. O método Dáder possibilitou realizar o seguimento farmacoterapêutico de indivíduos com hanseníase.


Introduction: Leprosy is a chronic, infectious, and contagious disease considered a public health problem in Brazil. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study of patients with multibacillary leprosy in the city of Rondonópolis, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Pharmacotherapy follow-up was conducted based on an adapted version of the Dáder method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Drug-related problems (DRP) were reported in 95.6% of patients, among whom 59.1% had 3 or more problems DRPs. The most common DRPs were incorrect drug administration and drug-nutrient interaction. Nonquantitative ineffectiveness was the most common drug-related negative outcome. Patients monitored in a leprosy treatment center had fewer DRPs than those monitored by a Family Health Strategy team (p = 0.027). Conclusion: Most patients had DRPs. The Dáder method allowed pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients with leprosy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Hanseníase Multibacilar/tratamento farmacológico
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010029, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879060

RESUMO

Leprosy is the second most prevalent mycobacterial disease globally. Despite the existence of an effective therapy, leprosy incidence has consistently remained above 200,000 cases per year since 2010. Numerous host genetic factors have been identified for leprosy that contribute to the persistently high case numbers. In the past decade, genetic epidemiology approaches, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), identified more than 30 loci contributing to leprosy susceptibility. However, GWAS loci commonly encompass multiple genes, which poses a challenge to define causal candidates for each locus. To address this problem, we hypothesized that genes contributing to leprosy susceptibility differ in their frequencies of rare protein-altering variants between cases and controls. Using deep resequencing we assessed protein-coding variants for 34 genes located in GWAS or linkage loci in 555 Vietnamese leprosy cases and 500 healthy controls. We observed 234 nonsynonymous mutations in the targeted genes. A significant depletion of protein-altering variants was detected for the IL18R1 and BCL10 genes in leprosy cases. The IL18R1 gene is clustered with IL18RAP and IL1RL1 in the leprosy GWAS locus on chromosome 2q12.1. Moreover, in a recent GWAS we identified an HLA-independent signal of association with leprosy on chromosome 6p21. Here, we report amino acid changes in the CDSN and PSORS1C2 genes depleted in leprosy cases, indicating them as candidate genes in the chromosome 6p21 locus. Our results show that deep resequencing can identify leprosy candidate susceptibility genes that had been missed by classic linkage and association approaches.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hanseníase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteína 10 de Linfoma CCL de Células B/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24431, 2021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952925

RESUMO

Several Mycobacterial infections including leprosy and tuberculosis are known to evoke autoimmune responses by modulating homeostatic mechanism of the host. Presence of autoantibodies like, rheumatoid factor, anti-nuclear factor and antibodies to host, collagen, keratin, myelin basic protein (MBP) and myosin, have been earlier reported in leprosy patients. In the present study, we detected the role of mimicking epitopes between Mycobacterium leprae and host components in the induction of autoimmune response in leprosy. Based on our previous findings, we predicted and synthesized a total of 15 mimicking linear B cell epitopes (BCE) and 9 mimicking linear T cell epitopes (TCE) of keratin and MBP. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against these epitopes were investigated in Non-reaction (NR), Type 1 reaction (T1R) leprosy patients, and healthy controls. We observed significantly higher levels of antibodies against 8 BCE in T1R in comparison to NR leprosy patients. Further, we also found 5 TCE significantly associated with lymphocyte proliferation in the T1R group. Our results indicated that these epitopes play a key role in the induction of autoimmune response in leprosy and are also strongly associated with the inflammatory episodes of T1R. Conclusively, these molecules may be employed as a biomarker to predict the inflammatory episodes of T1R.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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