Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.864
Filtrar
Mais filtros


Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 191-204, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739615

RESUMO

The overuse of insecticides to control vector insects such as Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in citrus groves has altered the population dynamics of pest mites. Among phytophagous mites, population outbreaks of citrus leprosis mite, Brevipalpus yothersi Baker, have been increasingly intense and frequent in Brazilian citrus groves. Despite the great importance of the B. yothersi mite for citrus production, the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on this mite have not yet been studied. Therefore, in this study, the effects of insecticides commonly used for D. citri control on B. yothersi mortality, reproduction, and instantaneous growth rate were assessed. For this, two experiments were carried out, one under controlled conditions and another in a greenhouse. The insecticides tested were beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, pyriproxyfen, and thiamethoxam at 0 (control), 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and twofold the recommended insecticide concentration for D. citri control. The pyriproxyfen insecticide provided high mortality of B. yothersi even at low concentrations. Furthermore, this insecticide negatively interfered with the reproduction of this mite. Beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and thiamethoxam, in the tested concentrations, showed low impact on citrus leprosis mite. Regarding the reproduction of the mite, no significant increase in fecundity was observed on B. yothersi females exposed to insecticide residues, regardless of the concentration tested. Therefore, the application of these insecticides in the management of pest insects is unlikely to promote an increase in the citrus leprosis mite population.


Assuntos
Citrus , Inseticidas , Ácaros , Animais , Fertilidade , Reprodução
2.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 682021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642290

RESUMO

Although intranuclear coccidiosis was first identified in chelonians less than 30 years ago, it is now considered an important emerging disease. Symptoms include anorexia, weakness and weight loss, potentially leading to death of the infected animal. The use of molecular tools has led to improved diagnosis and has also led to an increase in known host species. Here we report a putative intranuclear coccidium in Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger), from Morocco, based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of this parasite from a freshwater terrapin species.


Assuntos
Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccídios/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Marrocos
3.
Acta Trop ; 224: 106126, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537185

RESUMO

Laboratory diagnosis of leishmaniasis shows variable efficacy in detecting infected mammalian hosts and there is a need to identify suitable antigens to improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests. In the present study, a L. infantum hypothetical protein called LiHyQ was evaluated for the diagnosis of tegumentary (TL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis using canine and human samples. A collection of dog sera (n=155) were tested and contained samples from asymptomatic (n=20) and symptomatic (n=25) VL animals, from healthy dogs living in endemic (n=25) or non-endemic (n=25) areas of disease, from Leish-Tec® vaccinated dogs (n=20) or from dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis (n=15), Babesia canis (n=10) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=15). Sensitivity (Se), Specificity (Sp), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 100% were observed for rLiHyQ with these samples, whereas the Se, Sp, PPV and NPV values with L. infantum Soluble Leishmania Antigen (SLA) preparation were 60.0%, 99.0%, 96.0% and 86.0%, respectively. A collection of human sera (n=305) were tested and contained samples from TL (n=50) and VL (n=40) patients, from VL/HIV co-infected patients (n=35), from patients infected with HIV alone (n=30), Chagas Disease (n=30), malaria (n=10), tuberculosis (n=10), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=15), leprosy (n=30) or aspergillosis (n=15); and from healthy subjects (n=40). Se, Sp, PPV and NPV values of 100% were observed for rLiHyQ with these samples, whereas the Se, Sp, PPV and NPV values with SLA were 58.0%, 76.0%, 50.0% and 82.0%, respectively. The antibody reactivity against the protein was compared with commercial kits, and the kappa index varied from 0.95 to 1.00 for rLiHyQ, and of 0.55 to 0.82 for the kits. In addition, the serological follow-up of treated patients showed a significant reduction in rLiHyQ-specific IgG antibody levels. All canine and human samples were tested at the same time using the same reagents, in order to reduce experimental variation and interference in data interpretation. In conclusion, our preliminary data suggest a diagnostic and prognostic role for rLiHyQ against leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por HIV , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , HIV , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
4.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3782-3790, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410465

RESUMO

The bacterial strain 42Xb2 T was isolated from a female adult krill Nyctiphanes simplex infected with the apostome parasitoid ciliate Pseudocollinia brintoni in January 2007 in the Gulf of California. The strain has the morphological, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of the bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has a similarity of 97.7% with Enterovibrio pacificus SW014 T and 96.1% similarity with Enterovibrio norvegicus LMG 19839 T. A phylogenomic and a multilocus sequence analyses placed this strain close to the genera Enterovibrio, Grimontia, and Salinivibrio, but clearly forming a separate branch from these bacterial genera. Genomic analyses presented further support this result. A novel genus Veronia gen. nov. and a species Veronia nyctiphanis sp. nov. is here described with CAIM 600 T (= DSM 24592 T = CECT 7578 T) as the type strain. Morphological, physiological, and genetic evidence presented here support the unification of Enterovibrio pacificus and Veronia nyctiphanis in the new genus Veronia. Enterovibrio pacificus is reclassified as Veronia pacifica. V. pacifica is assigned as the type species of the new genus Veronia.Genome Sequencing Data The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the genome sequence of Veronia nyctiphanis CAIM 600 T is PEIB01 and of Enterovibrio pacificus CAIM 1920 T is LYBM01. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of V. nyctiphanis CAIM 600 T is JX129353.


Assuntos
Euphausiacea , Vibrionaceae , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estômago , Vibrionaceae/genética
5.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 192: 114727, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390739

RESUMO

Thalidomide is an antiinflammatory, antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory agent which has been used for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum and multiple myeloma. It has also been employed in treating complex regional pain syndromes. The current study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide-induced pain antihypersensitive effects in neuropathic pain. Thalidomide gavage, but not its more potent analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide, inhibited mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain rats induced by tight ligation of spinal nerves, with ED50 values of 44.9 and 23.5 mg/kg, and Emax values of 74% and 84% MPE respectively. Intrathecal injection of thalidomide also inhibited mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain. Treatment with thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide reduced peripheral nerve injury-induced proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1ß and IL-6) in the ipsilateral spinal cords of neuropathic rats and LPS-treated primary microglial cells. In contrast, treatment with thalidomide, but not lenalidomide or pomalidomide, stimulated spinal expressions of IL-10 and ß-endorphin in neuropathic rats. Particularly, thalidomide specifically stimulated IL-10 and ß-endorphin expressions in microglia but not astrocytes or neurons. Furthermore, pretreatment with the IL-10 antibody blocked upregulation of ß-endorphin in neuropathic rats and cultured microglial cells, whereas it did not restore thalidomide-induced downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. Importantly, pretreatment with intrathecal injection of the microglial metabolic inhibitor minocycline, IL-10 antibody, ß-endorphin antiserum, and preferred or selective µ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or CTAP entirely blocked thalidomide gavage-induced mechanical antiallodynia. Our results demonstrate that thalidomide, but not lenalidomide or pomalidomide, alleviates neuropathic pain, which is mediated by upregulation of spinal microglial IL-10/ß-endorphin expression, rather than downregulation of TNFα expression.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , beta-Endorfina/biossíntese , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-10/agonistas , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Talidomida/farmacologia , beta-Endorfina/agonistas
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299217

RESUMO

The mycobacterial cell wall is composed of large amounts of lipids with varying moieties. Some mycobacteria species hijack host cells and promote lipid droplet accumulation to build the cellular environment essential for their intracellular survival. Thus, lipids are thought to be important for mycobacteria survival as well as for the invasion, parasitization, and proliferation within host cells. However, their physiological roles have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have revealed that mycobacteria modulate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling and utilize host-derived triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol as both nutrient sources and evasion from the host immune system. In this review, we discuss recent findings that describe the activation of PPARs by mycobacterial infections and their role in determining the fate of bacilli by inducing lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory function, and autophagy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2314: 1-58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235647

RESUMO

Building upon the foundational research of Robert Koch, who demonstrated the ability to grow Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the first time in 1882 using media made of coagulated bovine serum, microbiologists have continued to develop new and more efficient ways to grow mycobacteria. Presently, all known mycobacterial species can be grown in the laboratory using either axenic culture techniques or in vivo passage in laboratory animals. This chapter provides conventional protocols to grow mycobacteria for diagnostic purposes directly from clinical specimens, as well as in research laboratories for scientific purposes. Detailed protocols used for production of M. tuberculosis in large scale (under normoxic and hypoxic conditions) in bioreactors and for production of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae and "Mycobacterium lepromatosis" using athymic nude mice and armadillos are provided.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tatus , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/instrumentação , Reatores Biológicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium leprae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009453, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314436

RESUMO

We describe an unusual case of type 2 leprosy reaction (T2R) with septic shock-like features induced by helminth infection in a 31-year-old Moluccan male patient with a history of completed treatment of WHO multidrug therapy (MDT)-multibacillary (MB) regimen 2 years before admission. During the course of illness, the patient had numerous complications, including septic shock, anemia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Nevertheless, antibiotic therapies failed to give significant results, and the source of infection could not be identified. Helminth infection was subsequently revealed by endoscopic examination followed by parasitological culture. Resolution of symptoms and normal level of organ function-specific markers were resolved within 3 days following anthelmintic treatment. This report demonstrated the challenge in the diagnosis and treatment of severe T2R. Given that helminth infections may trigger severe T2R that mimics septic shock, health professionals need to be aware of this clinical presentation, especially in endemic regions of both diseases.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/parasitologia , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Helmintíase/etiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/parasitologia , Sepse/etiologia
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248935

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis induces a pronounced Th1 inflammatory response characterized by IFN-γ production. Even in the absence of parasites, lesions result from a severe inflammatory response in which inflammatory cytokines play an important role. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of orally administrated heat shock proteins (Hsp). These proteins are evolutionarily preserved from bacteria to humans, highly expressed under inflammatory conditions and described as immunodominant antigens. Tolerance induced by the oral administration of Hsp65 is capable of suppressing inflammation and inducing differentiation in regulatory cells, and has been successfully demonstrated in several experimental models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We initially administered recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) prior to infection as a proof of concept, in order to verify its immunomodulatory potential in the inflammatory response arising from L. braziliensis. Using this experimental approach, we demonstrated that the oral administration of a recombinant L. lactis strain, which produces and secretes Hsp65 from Mycobacterium leprae directly into the gut, mitigated the effects of inflammation caused by L. braziliensis infection in association or not with PAM 3CSK4 (N-α-Palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-L-cysteine, a TLR2 agonist). This was evidenced by the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the expansion of regulatory T cells in the draining lymph nodes of BALB/c mice. Our in vitro experimental results suggest that IL-10, TLR-2 and LAP are important immunomodulators in L. braziliensis infection. In addition, recombinant L. lactis administered 4 weeks after infection was observed to decrease lesion size, as well as the number of parasites, and produced a higher IL-10 production and decrease IFN-γ secretion. Together, these results indicate that Hsp65-producing L. lactis can be considered as an alternative candidate for treatment in both autoimmune diseases, as well as in chronic infections that cause inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Chaperonina 60/administração & dosagem , Chaperonina 60/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium leprae/enzimologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Chaperonina 60/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 9570-9582, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127268

RESUMO

Yeast spoilage of fermented dairy products causes challenges for the dairy industry, including economic losses due to wasted product. Food cultures with bioprotective effects are becoming more widely used to help ensure product quality throughout product shelf life. To assist the dairy industry when evaluating product quality throughout shelf life and the effect of bioprotective cultures, we aimed to build stochastic models that provide reliable predictions of yeast spoilage in yogurt with and without bioprotective culture. Growth characterizations of Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces marxianus at storage temperatures of 7, 12, and 16°C during a 30-d storage period were conducted in yogurt with and without a bioprotective culture containing Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus strains. The kinetic growth parameters were calculated using the Buchanan growth model, and these parameters were used as baseline values in Monte Carlo models to translate the yeast growth into spoilage levels. The models were developed using 100,000 simulations and they predicted yeast spoilage levels in yogurt by the 4 yeast types. Each modeled yogurt batch was set to be contaminated with yeast at a concentration drawn from a normal distribution with a mean of 1 log10 cfu/mL and standard deviation of 1 log10 cfu/mL and stored for 30 d at a temperature drawn from a normal distribution with a mean of 6.1°C and a standard deviation of 2.8°C. Considering a spoilage level of 5 log10 cfu/mL, the predicted number of spoiled samples was reduced 3-fold during the first 10 d and by 2-fold at the end of shelf life when a bioprotective culture was added to the yogurt. The models were evaluated by sensitivity analyses, where the main effect factors were maximum yeast population, storage temperature, and yeast strain. The models were validated by comparing the model output to actual observed spoilage data from a European dairy using the bioprotective culture. When the model prediction, based on a mixture of the 4 specific yeast strains, was compared with spoilage data from the European dairy, the observed effect of bioprotective cultures was considerably higher than predicted, potentially influenced by the presence of contaminating strains more sensitive to a bioprotective culture than those characterized here. The developed Monte Carlo models can predict yeast spoilage levels in yogurt at specific production settings and how this may be affected by various parameters and addition of bioprotective cultures.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Iogurte , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Kluyveromyces , Filogenia
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109537, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062171

RESUMO

The Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter that is expressed in the apical membrane of cells from relevant tissues involved in drug pharmacokinetics such as liver, intestine, kidney, testis, brain and mammary gland, among others. Tolfenamic acid is an anti-inflammatory drug used as an analgesic and antipyretic in humans and animals. Recently, tolfenamic acid has been repurposed as an antitumoral drug and for use in chronic human diseases such as Alzheimer. The aim of this work was to study whether tolfenamic acid is an in vitro Abcg2 substrate, and to investigate the potential role of Abcg2 in plasma exposure, secretion into milk and tissue accumulation of this drug. Using in vitro transepithelial assays with cells transduced with Abcg2, we showed that tolfenamic acid is an in vitro substrate of Abcg2. The in vivo effect of this transporter was tested using wild-type and Abcg2-/- mice, showing that after oral and intravenous administration of tolfenamic acid, its area under the plasma concentration-time curve in Abcg2-/- mice was between 1.7 and 1.8-fold higher compared to wild-type mice. Abcg2-/- mice also showed higher liver and testis accumulation of tolfenamic acid after intravenous administration. In this study, we demonstrate that tolfenamic acid is transported in vitro by Abcg2 and that its plasma levels as well as its tissue distribution are affected by Abcg2, with potential pharmacological and toxicological consequences.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas/farmacocinética , ortoaminobenzoatos/sangue , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacocinética , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Transporte Biológico , Camundongos , Distribuição Tecidual , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(2): 365-388, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061290

RESUMO

Citrus leprosis is a viral disease vectored by the mites Brevipalpus californicus and Brevipalpus yothersi. This work aimed to determine the potential areas for establishment of both mites and viruses in Mexico, based on the geographical distribution of the hosts and the climatic suitability for the vectors. Life tables of both mites were constructed to determine their thermal requirements-base temperature and degree-days required to complete life cycle-and population growth parameters-net reproduction rate, generation time, and intrinsic growth rate. For this, the mites were confined in Citrus aurantium fruits at 20, 22.5, 25 or 30 °C, 60 ± 5% RH and L14:D10 h photoperiod. Maps were generated where the climatic suitability for establishment of the mites and the citrus leprosis viruses was estimated in citrus-producing municipalities. The climatic suitability was determined through historical temperature records to calculate the potential number of generations per year, and ecological niche modeling based on collecting localities and bioclimatic variables using the algorithm Maxent. The base temperature was 9.5 °C for B. californicus and 10.2 °C for B. yothersi; degree-days required to reach adulthood were 372.1 and 331.7 °C, respectively. Potential sites for establishment of B. yothersi are mostly lowlands, whereas for B. californicus they are both lowlands and highlands. Temperature data indicate that B. californicus has fewer sites where it can develop > 16 generations per year than B. yothersi. According to our results, the sites where citrus leprosis is most likely to present high incidence are the sweet orange cultivars bordering the Gulf of Mexico.


Assuntos
Citrus , Ácaros , Rhabdoviridae , Animais , México , Doenças das Plantas
14.
Zootaxa ; 4966(4): 401427, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186606

RESUMO

New taxonomic, diagnostic, and faunistic data for twelve species of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of the Iberian Peninsula and adjacent territories are provided. Six species are (re-) described and illustrated: L. (s.str.) aterrima Lohse, 1967, L. (s.str.) balearica Lohse, 1967, L. (s.str.) lusitana Lohse, 1955, L. (s.str.) mariei Jarrige, 1963, L. (s.str.) mateui Jarrige, 1954, and L. (s.str.) osellai Zanetti Shavrin, sp.n. (Portugal, Spain). The following new synonymies are established: L. (s.str.) fontinalis Kiesenwetter, 1850 = L. (s.str.) fontinalis gustavi Herman, 2001 syn.n., L. (s.str.) mateui = L. cazorlana Lohse, 1987 syn.n., L. (s.str.) pubescens Mannerheim, 1830 = L. fageli Lohse, 1960 syn.n. A lectotype is designated for L. (s.str.) fontinalis. Images of habitus and aedeagi of L. (s.str.) aterrima, L. (s.str.) balearica, L. (s.str.) cazorlana, L. (s.str.) fontinalis, L. (s.str.) hanseni Lohse, 1953, L. (s.str.) mariei Jarrige, 1963, and L. (s.str.) pubescens are provided. A key to the species of Portugal and Spain, and a distributional map for some species are provided. New records are reported for L. (Lestevina) sicula heeri Fauvel, 1871 from Morocco, L. (s.str.) hanseni Lohse, 1953 and L. (s.str.) pubescens from Portugal, and L. (s.str.) mariei from Spain.


Assuntos
Besouros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Marrocos , Portugal , Espanha
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 648-659, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130408

RESUMO

The presence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis and Mycobacterium leprae in Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, ERS) carcasses throughout the British Isles, and leprosy as a disease, have recently been reported using histological and molecular diagnostic methods. In 2016, the first longitudinal study of ERS affected by leprosy was initiated. One of the main challenges was the reliable diagnosis of leprosy in live ERS, which is important for (a) welfare and case management and (b) surveillance or pretranslocation screening efforts. We explored diagnostic methods ranging from detailed clinical assessment and informative categorization of observed lesions, thermal imaging, serology (antiphenolic glycolipid-I antibody [αPGL-I] detection) to molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). For PCR the ear was established as the optimal sampling site. Based on the experiences from this 2-yr study we propose an objective categorization system for clinical lesions and a diagnostic framework for the combination of the diagnostic tools we found to be effective in live ERS: clinical assessment, αPGL-I serology, and PCR. Thermal imaging did not offer additional information for leprosy diagnostics in ERS. We propose an amended definition of leprosy lesions in ERS as "skin areas of local hair loss, in which a firm-rubbery, glossy swelling develops, that may ulcerate" and standardized terminology for describing ERS leprosy status. The information presented forms the basis of a consistent, reliable diagnostic and reporting system for leprosy cases in ERS.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Animais , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103829, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119114

RESUMO

The endogenous microflora of mussels, filter feeders, can include pathogens with resulting food safety concerns. The aim was to develop a cook-then-ferment technology to extend shelf life and safety of a ready-to-eat mussels. Only after cooking to destroy the mussel's endogenous microflora could an edible product be made as determined by pH decline after fermentation and the fate of common pathogens. Perna canaliculus was bought live at retail on many dates. Fermentation was with commercial lactic cultures incubated under vacuum at 30 °C for four days. Using one culture containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus as a model, pH typically declined to 4.5 to 4.7, and common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were absent or reduced to acceptable levels. The fate of Listeria monocytogenes was studied with five cultures. These were variably effective at inhibition with one clear success, Chr Hansen's T-SC-150 containing a specific strain of Lactobacillus sakei, and flavour-generating Staphylococcus carnosus. This culture's efficacy was confirmed with sterile extracts of LAB challenging L. monocytogenes in vitro. This culture was also the most rapid fermenter by pH fall. Cook-then-ferment technology may be applied to other novel foods to minimise a disruptive endogenous microflora.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Perna (Organismo)/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Culinária , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Fermentação , Lactobacillus sakei/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Organismo)/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103764, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119122

RESUMO

This study investigated the fungal community succession and volatile compound dynamics of Harbin dry sausage during a twelve-day fermentation using high-throughput internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing and headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aspergillus pseudoglaucus was found to be the primary species in the sausages during fermentation, whereas Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus caesiellus, and Trichosporon asahii were also prevalent. Additionally, a total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the dry sausages, of which 24 key compounds (odor activity value > 1) dominated flavor development, including 3 aldehydes, 1 ketone, 4 alcohols, 9 esters, 4 alkenes, and 3 other compounds. Furthermore, correlation analysis suggested that most of the core fungi were positively correlated with the key volatile compounds, particularly A. pseudoglaucus, Aspergillus gracilis, Trichosporon caseorum, Debaryomyces hansenii, and T. asahii. Our findings provide novel insights into the fungal ecology and flavor development of Harbin dry sausages.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micobioma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Suínos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
J Insect Sci ; 21(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974082

RESUMO

Fatty acids are important compounds for insects, but the requirements for essential fatty acids may differ between insect species. Most of the fatty acids are acquired through the insect's diet; therefore, supplementing the diet with baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen), which produces unsaturated fatty acids, was predicted to affect the fatty acid composition of the insect. The tested insect was the black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens L.), that is used as a source of protein and fat in feed. Therefore, there is importance for BSF larvae (BSFL) nutritional composition, especially the unsaturated fatty acids content, which is one of the nutritional limitations for mammalian diets. The dominant fatty acids of the tested BSFL were the saturated fatty acids: lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids, as found in other BSF studies. Oleic acid (c18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the abundant unsaturated fatty acids in the BSFL. The proportion of linoleic acid was higher in the substrate with the supplemental yeast; however, this did not affect its proportion in the larvae. The higher proportion of linoleic acid may have been exploited as a source for production of saturated lauric acid. Therefore, providing unsaturated fatty acids to the substrate through supplemental baker's yeast is not the most efficient way to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the larvae.


Assuntos
Dípteros/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Ácidos Graxos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dípteros/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Larva/química , Larva/metabolismo
19.
Immunity ; 54(5): 856-858, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979584

RESUMO

Intestinal microbiome perturbation characterizes Crohn's disease (CD), though specific contributors to pathophysiology remain elusive. In a recent issue of Science, Jain et al. show that Debaryomyces hansenii impairs intestinal healing in mice via effects on type I interferon signaling and chemokine CCL5 expression in macrophages and that it is also prevalent in the inflamed mucosa of CD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Micoses/imunologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009436, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. As incidence begins to decline, the characteristics of new cases shifts away from those observed in highly endemic areas, revealing potentially important insights into possible ongoing sources of transmission. We aimed to investigate whether transmission is driven mainly by undiagnosed and untreated new leprosy cases in the community, or by incompletely treated or relapsing cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature search of major electronic databases was conducted in January, 2020 with 134 articles retained out of a total 4318 records identified (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020178923). We presented quantitative data from leprosy case records with supporting evidence describing the decline in incidence across several contexts. BCG vaccination, active case finding, adherence to multidrug therapy and continued surveillance following treatment were the main strategies shared by countries who achieved a substantial reduction in incidence. From 3950 leprosy case records collected across 22 low endemic countries, 48.3% were suspected to be imported, originating from transmission outside of the country. Most cases were multibacillary (64.4%) and regularly confirmed through skin biopsy, with 122 cases of suspected relapse from previous leprosy treatment. Family history was reported in 18.7% of cases, while other suspected sources included travel to high endemic areas and direct contact with armadillos. None of the countries included in the analysis reported a distinct increase in leprosy incidence in recent years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with socioeconomic improvement over time, several successful leprosy control programmes have been implemented in recent decades that led to a substantial decline in incidence. Most cases described in these contexts were multibacillary and numerous cases of suspected relapse were reported. Despite these observations, there was no indication that these cases led to a rise in new secondary cases, suggesting that they do not represent a large ongoing source of human-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Viagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA