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1.
Int J Pharm ; 627: 122253, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183916

RESUMO

Recently, increasing attention has been paid to liver-on-a-chip models for both pharmacokinetics and toxicity (ADMET) screenings. Although polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material for the fabrication of microfluidic devices, its extensive sorption of hydrophobic drugs limits its applications. Therefore, we investigated a chemically repellent material, perfluoropolyether (PFPE) elastomer, as an alternative to PDMS. Primary rat hepatocytes cultured in the PFPE microfluidic device were polygonal or cuboidal in shape and had one or two prominent nuclei, as when cultured in 96-well plates. When hepatocytes were cultured in the PFPE microfluidic device and exposed to dynamic flow, the production of albumin and urea increased 3.94- and 1.72-fold, respectively, compared with no dynamic flow. Exposure to dynamic flow did not result in obvious changes in the expression of cytochrome P450, but increased the metabolic activity of hepatocytes compared to under static conditions. PFPE devices did not absorb midazolam, which was extensively absorbed by PDMS devices. However, the sorption of bufuralol could not be avoided even with PFPE devices. Solvent swelling experiments highlighted much better chemical repellency with PFPE than with PDMS. Hansen solubility parameters and sphere radius were estimated from the solvent swelling experiments. The relative energy distance (RED) of bufuralol to PFPE was much smaller than that of other three drugs tested, reasonably explaining the high sorption of bufuralol to PFPE. Although sorption into PFPE cannot be completely avoided, PFPE microfluidic devices may provide a better performance in ADMET evaluation than PDMS.


Assuntos
Elastômeros , Microfluídica , Ratos , Animais , Elastômeros/química , Midazolam , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Solventes , Ureia , Albuminas
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(11): 345, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209340

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major zoonotic disease of public health importance worldwide. Its burden is more in developing countries due to inadequate surveillance, co-infection with HIV/AIDS and poor social amenities; hence consumption of unpasteurized milk, contaminated meat and inhalation of infected droplets from animals or patients with active TB are the major risk practices. A survey was conducted on TB prevalence from 2013 to 2014 while patients records from TB and Leprosy units of hospitals in the three Agricultural zones (Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar) of Cross River State, Nigeria were assessed from 2000 to 2010. Out of 1,170 sampled patients, 8 (0.7%) were positive, of which 6 and 2 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, respectively. Out of 52,558 studied patients files, 235 (0.4%) were positive with varied annual prevalence; the highest (1.0%) and lowest (0.2%) in 2009 and 2011, respectively. The prevalence was higher in dry (0.9% and 0.5%) than the rainy season (0.5% and 0.4%), in females (0.9% and 0.5%) than the males (0.4% and 0.4%) in the survey and retrospective studies, respectively. The age distribution of TB among the patients were; (0% and 0.3%), (0.4% and 0.4%), (0.7% and 0.4%) and (1.5% and 0.7%) for those (≤ 18), (19-40), (41-60) and (> 60) yrs old in the survey and retrospective study, respectively. TB is prevalent in human patients in Cross River State hence, the need for sustainable campaign, continuous surveillance and private/ public health partnership in accurate and early diagnosis, treatment and one health approach to its control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Saúde Única , Tuberculose , Animais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
3.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111735, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076465

RESUMO

Lentilactobacillus parabuchneri is the main bacteria responsible for the accumulation of histamine in cheese. The goal of this study was to assess the efficiency of potential histamine-degrading microbial strains or, alternatively, the action of the diamine oxidase (DAO) enzyme in the reduction of histamine accumulation along the ripening process in cheese. A total of 8 cheese variants of cow milk cheese were manufactured, all of them containing L. parabuchneri Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 5987 (except for the negative control cheese variant) along with histamine-degrading strains (Lacticaseibacillus casei 4a and 18b; Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp. bulgaricus Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (CECT) 4005 and Streptococcus salivariussubsp.thermophilus CECT 7207; two commercial yogurt starter cultures; or Debaryomyces hansenii), or DAO enzyme, tested in each cheese variant. Histamine was quantified along 100 days of cheese ripening. All the degrading measures tested significantly reduced the concentration of histamine. The highest degree of degradation was observed in the cheese variant containing D. hansenii, where the histamine content decreased up to 45.32 %. Cheese variants with L. casei, or L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains, also decreased in terms of histamine content by 43.05 % and 42.31 %, respectively. No significant physicochemical changes (weight, pH, water activity, color, or texture) were observed as a consequence of the addition of potential histamine-degrading adjunct cultures or DAO in cheeses. However, the addition of histamine-degrading microorganisms was associated with a particular, not unpleasant aroma. Altogether, these results suggest that the use of certain histamine-degrading microorganisms could be proposed as a suitable measure in order to decrease the amount of histamine accumulated in cheeses.


Assuntos
Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre) , Queijo , Lactobacillus casei , Animais , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Histamina , Streptococcus thermophilus
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271916, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867689

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peptides (B-cell epitopes) have broad applications in disease diagnosis and surveillance of pathogen exposure. In this framework, we present a pilot study to design and produce a peptide microarray for the integrated surveillance of neglected tropical diseases. The peptide microarray was evaluated against peptides derived from Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium leprae, Wuchereria bancrofti, Rabies lyssavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trypanosoma brucei. METHODS: S. haematobium was diagnosed using the urine filtration technique. S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides, N. americanus and T. trichiura were diagnosed using the Kato Katz and formal ether concentration techniques. Immunogenic peptides were retrieved from the Tackling Infection to Benefit Africa infectious diseases epitope microarray. Further peptides were predicted using ABCpred. IgG and IgM reactivity against the derived peptides were evaluated using peptide microarray multiplex immunoassays. Positive response was defined as fluorescence intensity ≥ 500 fluorescence units. Immunodominant peptides were identified using color-coded heat maps and bar graphs reflecting the obtained fluorescence signal intensities. Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis and Mann-Whitney-U test were performed to determine the diagnostic validity of the peptides. RESULTS: Species-specific responses with at least one peptide derived from each NTD pathogen were observed. The reactive peptides included; for S. haematobium, XP_035588858.1-206-220 and XP_035588858.1-206-220 immunodominant for IgG and IgM respectively, for S. mansoni, P20287.1-58-72 immunodominant for both antibodies and for T. trichiura, CDW52482.1-326-340 immunodominant for IgG and CDW57769.1-2017-2031 and CDW57769.1-1518-1532 immunodominant for IgM. According to ROC analysis most of the peptides selected were inaccurate; with AUC < 0.5. Some peptides had AUC values ranging from 0.5 to 0.5875 for both IgM and IgG suggesting no discrimination. CONCLUSION: Multiplex peptide microarrays are a valuable tool for integrated NTDs surveillance and for screening parasites exposure in endemic areas. Species sero-reactivity observed in the study maybe indicative of exposure to the different NTDs parasites. However, although peptides with the least cross reactivity were selected there is need to validate the sero-reactivity with recombinant antigens and immune-blotting techniques such as western blotting.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B , Schistosoma mansoni , Animais , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Peptídeos , Projetos Piloto , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111265, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761577

RESUMO

Brazilian artisanal cheeses date from the first Portuguese settlers and evolved via local factors, resulting in unique products that are now part of the patrimony and identity of different Brazilian regions. In this study, we combined several culture-independent approaches, including 16S/ITS metagenetics, assembly- and deep profiling-metagenomics to characterize the originality of the microbiota of five varieties of Brazilian artisanal cheeses from the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Their core microbiota contained mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), of which Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most frequent, followed by Streptococcus thermophilus in the South region. Moreover, several samples from the Southeast region contained, as dominant LAB, two other food Streptococci belonging to a new species of the salivarius group and S. infantarius. Rinds of samples from the Southeast region were dominated by the halotolerant bacterium Corynebacterium variabile, and the yeasts Diutina catenulata, followed by Debaryomyces hansenii and Kodamaea ohmeri. Rinds from the South region contained mainly LAB due to their short ripening time, and the predominant yeast was D. hansenii. Phylogenomic analysis based on L. lactis metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) showed that most Brazilian strains are closely related and form a different clade from those whose genomes are available at this time, indicating that they belong to a specific group. Lastly, functional analysis showed that S. infantarius acquired a âˆ¼ 26 kb DNA fragment from S. thermophilus starter strains that carry the LacSZ system, allowing fast lactose assimilation, an adaptation advantage for growth in milk. Finally, our study identified several areas of concern, such as the presence of somatic cell DNA and high levels of antibiotic resistance genes in several cheese microbiota, suggesting that milk from diseased animals may still be used occasionally. Overall, the data from this study highlight the potential value of the traditional and artisanal cheese production network in Brazil, and provide a metagenomic-based scheme to help manage this resource safely.


Assuntos
Queijo , Lactobacillales , Lactococcus lactis , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Metagenômica , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética , Leveduras
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10382, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725889

RESUMO

Fungal metabolic volatiles attract Drosophila suzukii which oviposits in ripening fruits, but there are few data describing the fungal microbiomes of commercial fruits susceptible to this insect pest. We tested the hypothesis that fruit type and ripening stage have a significant effect on fruit surface fungal communities using DNA metabarcoding approaches and found strong support for differences in all three fungal community biodiversity metrics analysed (numbers, types, and abundances of taxa). There was an average fivefold greater difference in fungal communities between sites with different fruit types (strawberry, cherry, raspberry, and blueberry) than across fruit developmental stages, demonstrating site and/or fruit type is the greater factor defining fungal community assemblage. The addition of a fungal internal standard (Plectosphaerella cucumerina) showed cherry had relatively static fungal populations across ripening. Raspberry had a greater prevalence of Saccharomycetales yeasts attractive to D. suzukii, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, which aligns with reports that raspberry is among the fruits with greatest susceptibility and attraction to D. suzukii. Greater knowledge of how yeast communities change during fruit maturation and between species or sites may be valuable for developing methods to manipulate fruit microbiomes for use in integrated pest management strategies to control D. suzukii.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Fragaria , Rubus , Animais , Drosophila/microbiologia , Frutas , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Leveduras
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 29(2): 220-223, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Mycobacteriosis are diseases caused by acid-fast mycobacteria other than M. leprae and tuberculous mycobacteria. Animal mycobacteriosis is often caused by M. avium ssp. hominissuis. Many species of animals are susceptible to infection with this bacterium, even those kept in Zoological Gardens. The aim of the study was to determine the species of bacterium responsible for causing the disease in the tested animals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissue samples of two male sitatunga antelopes (Tragelaphus spekii) were analyzed. Lymph node and lung samples were subjected to anatomical examination and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm or rule out tuberculosis mycobacteria infection. In order to isolate the bacterial strain, tissue samples were inoculated on both solid and liquid media. HainLifescience CM tests, mass spectrometry and New Generation Sequencing were used to determine the mycobacterial species. RESULTS: Results showed that atypical mycobacteria are responsible for the antelope disease. The results of the HainLifescience CM test and mass spectrometry indicated that the mycobacterium responsible for causing mycobacteriosis was M. avium. New Generation Sequencing helped to identified a subspecies that was M. avium ssp. hominissuis. CONCLUSIONS: The sitatunga antelope is an animal susceptible to infection by M. avium ssp. hominissuis. Considering the wide range of hosts and the easiness of interspecies transmission of the pathogen, as well as its zoonotic nature, the mycobacteriosis induced by this microorganism should not be underestimated.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Animais , Masculino , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia
9.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 83: 105408, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660067

RESUMO

Acute oral toxicity is primarily determined using animal testing, as stated in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 420, 423, and 425. Currently, regarding animal welfare, few alternatives to animal testing such as in vitro approaches have been evaluated. Therefore, in this preliminary study examining a new method to determine acute oral toxicity, we investigated whether UN Globally Harmonized System all categories can be predicted using the Hansen solubility parameter (HSP). In particular, Hansen spheres were produced based on oral toxicity information of the test substances and their HSP values, and the respective parameters were identified. A comparison of these potential parameters with the HSP value of each test substance showed an accuracy of 84.1% (53/63), 10.0% (3/30) false negatives, and 21.2% (7/33) false positives. By comparing the HSP of the resulting potential parameters with a test substance, it is possible to predict acute oral toxicity with high accuracy.


Assuntos
Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Animais , Solubilidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1866(9): 130183, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has been used as cell support in numerous tissue engineering studies. Its use can be explained based on the fact its structure allows the creation of a required microenvironment for an ideal material, which supports 3D cell culture. Its structure and interconnected pores lead to animal cells adhesion and proliferation, also allowing oxygen and nutrients transportation. METHODS: We developed a new methodology to produce spherical platforms synthesized by Komagataebacter hansenii (ATCC 23769) under dynamic culture conditions in minimal medium. The chemical composition and physical properties of the platforms were evaluated. Then, human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-28) were encapsulated into the platforms and evaluated by metabolic activity, morphology and their ability on adhering to the Hollow Translucid BNC Spheres (BNC-TS-H) and Compartmentalized Translucid BNC Spheres (BNC-TS-C) up to 3 days. RESULTS: BNC-TS-H and BNC-TS-C platforms were produced as translucid spheroid platforms with distinct microenvironment under dynamic fermentation. The chemical and physical characterizations confirmed the platforms composition as BNC. The produced internal microenvironments in spherical platforms are relevant to determine tumor cell fate. In the first 12 h of culture, cells could adhere to nanocellulose microfibers assuming their typical tumorous phenotype in 72 h of culture. CONCLUSION: The dynamic fermentation in minimal medium produced distinct microstructured platforms of BNC-TS-H and BNC-TS-C. The platforms microstructure resulted in microenvironments that enabled distinct cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. This behavior suggests several applications in tissue engineering. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The method produced translucid BNC sphere platforms with distinct microenvironments for 3D cell culture.


Assuntos
Celulose , Melanoma , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Celulose/química , Engenharia Tecidual , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 91, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innate immunity genes have been reported to affect susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and colitis in mice. Dectin-1, a receptor for fungal cell wall ß-glucans, has been clearly implicated in gut microbiota modulation and modification of the susceptibility to gut inflammation. Here, we explored the role of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 (another receptor for fungal cell wall molecules) deficiency in intestinal inflammation. DESIGN: Susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was assessed in wild-type, Dectin-1 knockout (KO), Dectin-2KO, and double Dectin-1KO and Dectin-2KO (D-1/2KO) mice. Inflammation severity, as well as bacterial and fungal microbiota compositions, was monitored. RESULTS: While deletion of Dectin-1 or Dectin-2 did not have a strong effect on DSS-induced colitis, double deletion of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 significantly protected the mice from colitis. The protection was largely mediated by the gut microbiota, as demonstrated by fecal transfer experiments. Treatment of D-1/2KO mice with opportunistic fungal pathogens or antifungal agents did not affect the protection against gut inflammation, suggesting that the fungal microbiota had no role in the protective phenotype. Amplicon-based microbiota analysis of the fecal bacterial and fungal microbiota of D-1/2KO mice confirmed the absence of changes in the mycobiota but strong modification of the bacterial microbiota. We showed that bacteria from the Lachnospiraceae family were at least partly involved in this protection and that treatment with Blautia hansenii was enough to recapitulate the protection. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of both the Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 receptors triggered a global shift in the microbial gut environment, affecting, surprisingly, mainly the bacterial population and driving protective effects in colitis. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family seem to play a central role in this protection. These findings provide new insights into the role of the Dectin receptors, which have been described to date as affecting only the fungal population, in intestinal physiopathology and in IBD. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Micobioma , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 30: 282-285, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Purulia is one of the high-endemic districts for leprosy in West Bengal (the eastern part of India). The annual new case detection rate (ANCDR) of leprosy in West Bengal is 6.04/100000 (DGHS 2019-20). Our earlier report provided evidence of secondary drug resistance in relapse cases of leprosy. The aim of the current study was to observe primary drug resistance patterns for dapsone, rifampicin, and ofloxacin amongst new leprosy patients from Purulia, West Bengal in order to better understand the emergence of primary resistance to these drugs. METHODS: In the present study, slit-skin smear samples were collected from 145 newly diagnosed leprosy cases from The Leprosy Mission (TLM) Purulia hospital between 2017 and 2018. DNA was extracted from these samples and the Mycobacterium leprae genome was analyzed for genes associated with drug resistance by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by Sanger sequencing. Wild-type strain (Thai-53) and mouse footpad-derived drug-resistant strain (Z-4) were used as reference strains. RESULTS: Of 145 cases, 25 cases showed mutations in genes associated with resistance to rifampicin, dapsone, and ofloxacin (as described by the World Health Organization, rpoB, folP, and gyrA, respectively) through Sanger sequencing. Of these 25 cases, 16 cases showed mutations in ofloxacin, two cases showed mutations in combinations of ofloxacin and rifampicin, four cases showed a mutation only in rifampicin, one case showed mutations in combinations of rifampicin and dapsone, and two cases showed mutations only in dapsone. CONCLUSION: Results from this study indicated the emergence of resistance to antileprosy drugs in new cases of leprosy. As ofloxacin is the alternate drug for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant cases, the emergence of new cases with resistance to ofloxacin indicates that ofloxacin-resistant M. leprae strains are actively circulating in this endemic region (i.e., Purulia, West Bengal), posing challenges for the effective treatment of rifampicin-resistant cases.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Rifampina , Animais , Dapsona/farmacologia , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Camundongos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Ofloxacino/farmacologia , Ofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
13.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 50: 100672, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644473

RESUMO

This report describes the clinical features and molecular diagnosis of a case of canine leproid granuloma (CLG) caused by mycobacterial strains of the Mycobacterium simiae complex in Brazil. A 12-year-old non-neutered male Labrador Retriever dog was presented with a 2-week history of progressive painless cutaneous lesions. Ulcerated nodules with hematic crusts were observed on the dorsal surface of the right and left pinna and on the metacarpal, metatarsal, and digits. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry, aspiration cytology of cutaneous lesions, biopsy for histopathological evaluation, culture for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify mycobacterial species were performed. According to the clinical and histopathological findings, a diagnosis of CLG was established. Despite the negative result of the bacterial culture, mycobacterial identification was made by sequencing the hsp65 gene. Our findings highlight that mycobacterial species closely related to members of the M simiae clade can be causative agents of CLG.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium , Animais , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Masculino , Mycobacterium/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária
14.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(18): 1501-1514, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638276

RESUMO

Caralluma edulis is a well-known species of the genus Caralluma from Apocynaceae, commonly known as chunga. Caralluma species are mostly succulent perennial herbs, several of which are edible species. The plant has an outstanding therapeutic background in the traditional system of treatment. It has been recommended for the treatment of a number medical disorders such as hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatism, gastric problems and leprosy. Traditionally the stem was boiled in water and this extract was then used to cure diabetes. The pharmacological effects of C. edulis have also been explored in various in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this regard, the extract of the plant exhibited strong antioxidant, and analgesic activity against inflammation as well as xylene-mediated ear edema as topical effects. The significant anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the plant extract is also reported. However, the extract was found insignificant in the reversal of alloxan-induced diabetes in the rabbit model at test doses. These pharmacological effects are strongly supported by the presence of different bioactive phytochemicals in the plant. These groups of compounds include sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and pregnane glycosides. C. edulis is a very potential member of the genus Caralluma with strong traditional history, phytochemistry and phytopharmacology, and needs further exploration for clinically used lead compounds. In this review, we have focused on combining different reported data on the traditional uses of the plant, its phytochemical profile and pharmacological effects in different experimental assay along with subsequent future prospects.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Animais , Antioxidantes , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Coelhos
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010379, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone formation and loss are the characteristic clinical manifestations of leprosy, but the mechanisms underlying the bone remodeling with Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Osteocytes may have a role through regulating the differentiation of osteogenic lineages. To investigate osteocyte-related mechanisms in leprosy, we treated osteocyte-like cell with N-glycosylated muramyl dipeptide (N.g MDP). RNA-seq analysis showed 724 differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 724 differentially expressed circular RNA (circRNAs). Of these, we filtered through eight osteogenic-related differentially expressed genes, according to the characteristic of competing endogenous RNA, PubMed databases, and bioinformatic analysis, including TargetScan, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Based on these results, we built a circRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA triple network. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blots analyses confirmed decreased Clock expression in osteocyte-like cell, while increased in bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), implicating a crucial factor in osteogenic differentiation. Immunohistochemistry showed obviously increased expression of CLOCK protein in BMSCs and osteoblasts in N.g MDP-treated mice, but decreased expression in osteocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This analytical method provided a basis for the relationship between N.g MDP and remodeling in osteocytes, and the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA triple network may offer a new target for leprosy therapeutics.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , MicroRNAs , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0115821, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579461

RESUMO

Mycobacterium shottsii is a dysgonic, nonpigmented mycobacterium originally isolated from diseased striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Genomic analysis reveals that M. shottsii is a Mycobacterium ulcerans/Mycobacterium marinum clade (MuMC) member, but unlike the superficially similar M. pseudoshottsii, also isolated from striped bass, it is not an M. ulcerans ecovar, instead belonging to a transitional group of strains basal to proposed "Aronson" and "M" lineages. Although phylogenetically distinct from the human pathogen M. ulcerans, the M. shottsii genome shows parallel but nonhomologous genomic degeneration, including massive accumulation of pseudogenes accompanied by proliferation of unique insertion sequences (ISMysh01, ISMysh03), large-scale deletions, and genomic reorganization relative to typical M. marinum strains. Coupled with its observed ecological characteristics and loss of chromogenicity, the genomic structure of M. shottsii is suggestive of evolution toward a state of obligate pathogenicity, as observed for other Mycobacterium spp., including M. ulcerans, M. tuberculosis, and M. leprae. IMPORTANCE Morone saxatilis (striped bass) is an ecologically and economically important finfish species on the United States east coast. Mycobacterium shottsii and Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii were originally described in the early 2000s as novel species from outbreaks of visceral and dermal mycobacteriosis in this species. Biochemical and genetic characterization place these species within the Mycobacterium ulcerans/M. marinum clade (MuMC), and M. pseudoshottsii has been proposed as an ecovar of M. ulcerans. Here, we describe the complete genome of M. shottsii, demonstrating that it is clearly not an M. ulcerans ecovar; however, it has undergone parallel genomic modification suggestive of a transition to obligate pathogenicity. As in M. ulcerans, the M. shottsii genome demonstrates widespread pseudogene formation driven by proliferation of insertion sequences, as well as genomic reorganization. This work clarifies the phylogenetic position of M. shottsii relative to other MuMC members and provides insight into processes shaping its genomic structure.


Assuntos
Bass , Infecções por Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Animais , Bass/microbiologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Genômica , Mycobacterium , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium marinum/genética , Filogenia
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(4): 999-1007, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385117

RESUMO

Since the early phase of the intercontinental dispersal of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), fermentation baits have been used for monitoring. Self-made lures and commercial products are often based on wine and vinegar. From an ecological perspective, the formulation of these baits is expected to target especially vinegar flies associated with overripe fruit, such as Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus) (Ascomycota: Saccharomyceta) is a yeast closely associated with D. suzukii and fruit, and furthermore attractive to the flies. Based on this relation, H. uvarum might represent a suitable substrate for the development of lures that are more specific than vinegar and wine. In the field, we therefore, compared H. uvarum to a commercial bait that was based on vinegar and wine with respect to the number of trapped D. suzukii relative to other drosophilids and arthropods. Trap captures were higher with the commercial bait but specificity for D. suzukii was greater with H. uvarum. Moreover, H. uvarum headspace extracts, as well as a synthetic blend of H. uvarum volatiles, were assayed for attraction of D suzukii in a wind tunnel and in the field. Headspace extracts and the synthetic blend induced strong upwind flight in the wind tunnel and confirmed attraction to H. uvarum volatiles. Furthermore, baited with H. uvarum headspace extract and a drowning solution of aqueous acetic acid and ethanol, 74% of field captured arthropods were D. suzukii. Our findings suggest that synthetic yeast headspace formulations might advance the development of more selective monitoring traps with reduced by-catch.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Hanseniaspora , Controle de Insetos , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Frutas , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Leveduras
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(3): 547-556, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404862

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of prevention and control measures for communicable diseases in border regions can be challenging and lead to inefficient attempts to control them. We describe evidences on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges regarding implementation of health interventions for control, prevention and treatment of selected neglected tropical diseases (NTD), a group of transmissible diseases typically prevalent in tropical countries and vulnerable populations, in the tri-border between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. METHODOLOGY: A systematic literature review of observational and experimental studies was conducted, using PubMed and Bireme databases. Eligibility criteria were location (tri-border area) and subject (health interventions). RESULTS: Of a total of 595 references identified, 34 studies were included (18 pertaining to leishmaniasis, 11 to dengue, 2 to leprosy, 2 to soil-transmitted helminthiases and 1 to Chagas' disease), with an inclusion rate of 6.4%. The main strengths were the similarity of health interventions between countries and easiness of mobility and communication flows. The main weaknesses were access to rural areas and discrepancies in the number of studies between countries. As for opportunities, we identified increased tourism, economic development and recent increasing research in this field. The main challenges were the absence of studies regarding other prevalent NTD in the region and movement of goods, animals and people across borders. CONCLUSIONS: Although epidemiological studies are still needed to better understand and assess the prevalence of NTD in the area, mainly in Paraguay, these findings can inform decision-makers and health managers to plan a common strategy to address NTD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Medicina Tropical , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Paraguai/epidemiologia
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 124: 192-200, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398528

RESUMO

Antibiotic usage to control infectious diseases in shrimp aquaculture has led to serious problems on antimicrobial resistance. An alternative to mitigate this issue is the use of probiotics, which can be easily administered by feed and water. This study examines immunomodulatory and protective effects of the marine yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii CBS8339 (Dh) and Yarrowia lipolytica Yl-N6 (Yl) -alone and mixed-in white shrimp Penaeus vannamei post-larvae. Administration routes (fed and water alone or in combination), supplementation frequency and time elapsed after the last dietary supplement were tested on growth and gene expression of penaeidin, lectin, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, as well as survival upon Vibrio parahaemolyticus IPNGS16 challenge. Penaeidin and lectin genes were upregulated in post-larvae fed orally with Yl or combined Dh + Yl. Higher growth and survival for yeast supplementation treatments were observed compared to the control group, mainly when yeasts (Dh + Yl) and administration routes (feed and water) were combined. In conclusion, mixed yeast and combined administration routes improved growth and immunity against V. parahaemolyticus.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas/farmacologia , Água
20.
Neurobiol Dis ; 169: 105724, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427743

RESUMO

Mutations in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are associated with familial and sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) but are also found in patients with immune- related disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and leprosy, linking LRRK2 to the immune system. Supporting this genetic evidence, in the last decade LRRK2 was robustly shown to modulate inflammatory responses at both systemic and central nervous system level. In this review, we recapitulate the role of LRRK2 in central and peripheral inflammation in PD and inflammatory disease models. Moreover, we discuss how LRRK2 inhibitors and anti- inflammatory drugs may be beneficial at reducing disease risk/progression in LRRK2-mutation carriers and manifesting PD patients, thus supporting LRRK2 as a promising disease-modifying PD strategy.


Assuntos
Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/imunologia , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/imunologia
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