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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361751

RESUMO

Species of Mycobacteriaceae cause disease in animals and humans, including tuberculosis and leprosy. Individuals infected with organisms in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present identical symptoms, however the treatment for each can be different. Although the NTM infection is considered less vital due to the chronicity of the disease and the infrequency of occurrence in healthy populations, diagnosis and differentiation among Mycobacterium species currently require culture isolation, which can take several weeks. The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for species identification and in recent years has shown promise for use in the rapid analysis of both in vitro cultures as well as ex vivo diagnosis using breath or sputum. The aim of this contribution is to analyze VOCs in the culture headspace of seven different species of mycobacteria and to define the volatilome profiles that are discriminant for each species. For the pre-concentration of VOCs, solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) was employed and samples were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). A machine learning approach was applied for the selection of the 13 discriminatory features, which might represent clinically translatable bacterial biomarkers.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Mycobacterium abscessus/química , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/química , Mycobacterium avium/química , Mycobacterium bovis/química , Mycobacterium/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium abscessus/metabolismo , Mycobacterium avium/metabolismo , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/classificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 657449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456901

RESUMO

The respiratory tract is considered the main port of entry of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. However, the great majority of individuals exposed to the leprosy bacillus will never manifest the disease due to their capacity to develop protective immunity. Besides acting as a physical barrier, airway epithelium cells are recognized as key players by initiating a local innate immune response that orchestrates subsequent adaptive immunity to control airborne infections. However, to date, studies exploring the interaction of M. leprae with the respiratory epithelium have been scarce. In this work, the capacity of M. leprae to immune activate human alveolar epithelial cells was investigated, demonstrating that M. leprae-infected A549 cells secrete significantly increased IL-8 that is dependent on NF-κB activation. M. leprae was also able to induce IL-8 production in human primary nasal epithelial cells. M. leprae-treated A549 cells also showed higher expression levels of human ß-defensin-2 (hßD-2), MCP-1, MHC-II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80. Furthermore, the TLR-9 antagonist inhibited both the secretion of IL-8 and NF-κB activation in response to M. leprae, indicating that bacterial DNA sensing by this Toll-like receptor constitutes an important innate immune pathway activated by the pathogen. Finally, evidence is presented suggesting that extracellular DNA molecules anchored to Hlp, a histone-like protein present on the M. leprae surface, constitute major TLR-9 ligands triggering this pathway. The ability of M. leprae to immune activate respiratory epithelial cells herein demonstrated may represent a very early event during infection that could possibly be essential to the generation of a protective response.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Células A549 , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Histonas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Hanseníase/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 632482, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276644

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that inflammation was participated in the pathogenesis of PD, thus, to understand the potential mechanism of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from PD patient and controls. Using a two-stage metagenome-wide association strategy, fecal DNA samples from 69 PD patients and 244 controls in three groups (comprising 66 spouses, 97 age-matched, and 81 normal samples, respectively) were analyzed, and differences between candidate gut microbiota and microbiota-associated epitopes (MEs) were compared. In the study, 27 candidate bacterial biomarkers and twenty-eight candidate epitope peptides were significantly different between the PD patients and control groups. Further, enriched 4 and 13 MEs in PD were positively associated with abnormal inflammatory indicators [neutrophil percentage (NEUT.1), monocyte count/percentage (MONO/MONO.1), white blood cell count (WBC)] and five candidate bacterial biomarkers (c_Actinobacteria, f_Bifidobacteriaceae, g_Bifidobacterium, o_Bifidobacteriales, p_Actinobacteria) from Actinobacteria phylum, and they were also positively associated with histidine degradation and proline biosynthesis pathways, respectively. Additionally, enriched 2 MEs and 1 ME in PD were positively associated with above inflammatory indicators and two bacteria (f_Lactobacillaceae, g_Lactobacillus) from Firmicutes phylum, and they were also positively associated with pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I and negatively associated with isopropanol biosynthesis, respectively. Of these MEs, two MEs from GROEL2, RPSC were derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, triggered the T cell immune response, as previously reported. Additionally, other candidate epitope peptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae may also have potential immune effects in PD. In all, the altered MEs in PD may relate to abnormalities in immunity and glutamate and propionate metabolism, which furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of PD.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Firmicutes/imunologia , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Vias Biossintéticas , Citocinas/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/imunologia
5.
Immunol Rev ; 301(1): 175-192, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709405

RESUMO

Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is still actively transmitted in endemic areas reflected by the fairly stable number of new cases detected each year. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of leprosy is challenging, especially at an early stage. Improved diagnostic tools, based on sensitive and specific biomarkers, that facilitate diagnosis of leprosy are therefore urgently needed. In this review, we address the challenges that leprosy biomarker research is facing by reviewing cell types reported to be involved in host immunity to M leprae. These cell types can be associated with different possible fates of M leprae infection being either protective immunity, or pathogenic immune responses inducing nerve damage. Unraveling these responses will facilitate the search for biomarkers. Implications for further studies to disentangle the complex interplay between host responses that lead to leprosy disease are discussed, providing leads for the identification of new biomarkers to improve leprosy diagnostics.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Imunidade , Hanseníase/diagnóstico
6.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(2): 190-198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a frequent complication of multibacillary leprosy that can result in significant morbidity, including peripheral nerve damage and physical disability. The identification of possible serum markers could be a valuable tool for the early detection of ENL. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate selected serum mediators involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses to identify possible immunomarkers for ENL. METHODS: The levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies were measured in the sera of leprosy patients with ENL [at the beginning of reaction (M0) and 1 month later (M1)], and then compared with the levels of the same markers in patients with untreated multibacillary leprosy without ENL (controls with leprosy: CTRL) and healthy individuals (healthy controls: CTRH). RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of serum interleukin-6 were observed in M0 than in CTRL. In addition, pairwise comparisons showed higher levels of interleukin-6 in M0 compared to M1. Levels of tumor necrosis factor were higher in M0 than in CTRL, with no significant difference between M0 and M1. There were no differences in the levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, interleukin-17 or interferon-γ between groups. The CTRL group had higher levels of nitric oxide compared to M0 and M1. High levels of anti-phenolic glycolipid-I were observed in M0, M1 and CTRL than in CTRH. LIMITATIONS: Three patients were not assessed at M1, decreasing the number of evaluated patients from 14 to 11. CONCLUSION: High-serum levels of interleukin-6 were observed during ENL, primarily in patients with more severe reactions; levels decreased after specific therapy, suggesting a role for this cytokine in pathogenesis and its utility as an ENL biomarker. Further studies should explore whether interleukin-6 could also be used as a predictive marker for ENL or as a specific target for its treatment.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Hanseníase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(4): 693-710, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404106

RESUMO

The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory Mϕs have been implicated in many diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and leprosy. Recent studies suggest targeting Mϕ function and activation may represent a potential target to treat these diseases. Herein, we investigated the effect of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetics (SMs), the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) proteins, on the killing of human pro- and anti-inflammatory Mϕ subsets. We have shown previously that human monocytes are highly susceptible whereas differentiated Mϕs (M0) are highly resistant to the cytocidal abilities of SMs. To determine whether human Mϕ subsets are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of SMs, we show that M1 Mϕs are highly susceptible to SM-induced cell death whereas M2a, M2b, and M2c differentiated subsets are resistant, with M2c being the most resistant. SM-induced cell death in M1 Mϕs was mediated by apoptosis as well as necroptosis, activated both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, and was attributed to the IFN-γ-mediated differentiation. In contrast, M2c and M0 Mϕs experienced cell death through necroptosis following simultaneous blockage of the IAPs and the caspase pathways. Overall, the results suggest that survival of human Mϕs is critically linked to the activation of the IAPs pathways. Moreover, agents blocking the cellular IAP1/2 and/or caspases can be exploited therapeutically to address inflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Inibidores de Caspase/farmacologia , Polaridade Celular , Macrófagos/citologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Cinética , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104725, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400985

RESUMO

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, and actually still persists as a serious public health problem. The clinical parameters are used for diagnosis, however, some studies have indicated the selection of a set of biomarkers of subclinical infection, both serological and cellular, that allow the early diagnosis. Some cytokines and chemokines have been differentially expressed in index cases (paucibacillary and multibacillary patients) and household contacts (HHC), and may present a potential biomarker of M. leprae subclinical infection. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the variations in the profile of cytokines and chemokines, longitudinally, between index cases and their household contacts with a view to identifying possible biomarkers with differential expression, which may guide the early subclinical infection in household contacts. A longitudinal study was carried out between 2014 and 2015. The serum levels of the cytokines and chemokines were measured in all patient samples by CBA (Cytometric Bead Array). We observed a reduction of IL-4 and IL-17 expression of HHC group in the second evaluation (T1), as also a reduction of IL-17 in MB. We observed increased expression of IL-2 in PB patients as well. HHC, PB and MB showed a similar reduction profile of the chemokines CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 from T0 to T1. Interestingly, only serological levels of CCL2 are increased after a follow-up of HHC group, and this group, but not PB and MB patients, showed a significant association and a negative correlation between CCL2 and IFN-γ. The present study showed for the first time a similarity in the immunological scenario between HHC, PB and MB patients. In addition, this work highlights CCL2 chemokine in association with IFN-γ as possible biomarkers of subclinical infection of HHC, as also a parameter of early infection monitoring.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Interferon gama , Hanseníase , Antígenos de Bactérias , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2 , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Mycobacterium leprae
10.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 167-176, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040382

RESUMO

The enzyme IDO-1 is involved in the first stage of tryptophan catabolism and has been described in both microbicidal and tolerogenic microenvironments. Previous data from our group have shown that IDO-1 is differentially regulated in the distinctive clinical forms of leprosy. The present study aims to investigate the mechanisms associated with IDO-1 expression and activity in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDCs) after stimulation with irradiated Mycobacterium leprae and its fractions. M. leprae and its fractions induced the expression and activity of IDO-1 in human mDCs. Among the stimuli studied, irradiated M. leprae and its membrane fraction (MLMA) induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 whereas irradiated M. leprae and its cytosol fraction (MLSA) induced an increase in IL-10. We investigated if TLR2 activation was necessary for IDO-1 induction in mDCs. We observed that in cultures treated with a neutralizing anti-TLR2 antibody, there was a decrease in IDO-1 activity and expression induced by M. leprae and MLMA. The same effect was observed when we used a MyD88 inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that coculture of mDCs with autologous lymphocytes induced an increase in regulatory T (Treg) cell frequency in MLSA-stimulated cultures, showing that M. leprae constituents may play opposite roles that may possibly be related to the dubious effect of IDO-1 in the different clinical forms of disease. Our data show that M. leprae and its fractions are able to differentially modulate the activity and functionality of IDO-1 in mDCs by a pathway that involves TLR2, suggesting that this enzyme may play an important role in leprosy immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/etiologia , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(2): 115232, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130505

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and nerves. The nerve damage in leprosy may be related to alterations in transcriptional factors, such as Krox-20, Oct-6, Sox-10. Thirty skin biopsies in leprosy patients and 15 non-leprosy skin biopsies were evaluated using RT-qPCR to assess Krox-20, Oct-6, and Sox-10 and these data was related with S-100 immunohistochemistry. Changes in gene expression were observed in the skin and dermal nerves of leprosy patients in Oct-6 and Sox-10. When comparing Oct-6 with S-100 IHC as diagnostic tests for leprosy, Oct-6 showed a sensitivity of 73.3%, and specificity of 100%, while S-100 IHC showed a sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 100%. Our data suggest Oct-6 could be an auxiliary biomarker specific to detecting changes in dermal nerves in leprosy and thus useful to health workers and pathologists with no expertise to observe nerve injuries in leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Fator 6 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Proteína 2 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/inervação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Transcrição Genética
12.
s.l; s.n; 2021. 9 p. tab, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1284536

RESUMO

Background: Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a frequent complication of multibacillary leprosy that can result in significant morbidity, including peripheral nerve damage and physical disability. The identification of possible serum markers could be a valuable tool for the early detection of ENL. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate selected serum mediators involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses to identify possible immunomarkers for ENL.Methods: The levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies were measured in the sera of leprosy patients with ENL [at the beginning of reaction (M0) and 1 month later (M1)], and then compared with the levels of the same markers in patients with untreated multibacillary leprosy without ENL (controls with leprosy: CTRL) and healthy individuals (healthy controls: CTRH).Results: Significantly higher levels of serum interleukin­6 were observed in M0 than in CTRL. In addition, pairwise comparisons showed higher levels of interleukin-6 in M0 compared to M1. Levels of tumor necrosis factor were higher in M0 than in CTRL, with no significant difference between M0 and M1. There were no differences in the levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, interleukin-17 or interferon-γ between groups. The CTRL group had higher levels of nitric oxide compared to M0 and M1. High levels of anti-phenolic glycolipid-I were observed in M0, M1 and CTRL than in CTRH.Limitations: Three patients were not assessed at M1, decreasing the number of evaluated patients from 14 to 11. Conclusion: High-serum levels of interleukin-6 were observed during ENL, primarily in patients with more severe reactions; levels decreased after specific therapy, suggesting a role for this cytokine in pathogenesis and its utility as an ENL biomarker. Further studies should explore whether interleukin-6 could also be used as a predictive marker for ENL or as a specific target for its treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores , Interleucina-6/sangue , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 167, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease classified into two subgroups for therapeutic purposes: paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB), closely related to the host immune responses. In this context it is noteworthy looking for immunological biomarkers applicable as complementary diagnostic tools as well as a laboratorial strategy to follow-up leprosy household contacts. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 49 participants, including 19 patients and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and incubated in the presence of Mycobacterium leprae bacilli. The cells were prepared for surface (CD4+ and CD8+) and intracytoplasmic cytokine staining (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10). Multiple comparisons amongst groups were carried out by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Student T or Mann-Whitney test. Comparative analysis of categorical variables was performed by Chi-square. Functional biomarker signature analysis was conducted using the global median values for each biomarker index as the cut-off edge to identify the proportion of subjects with high biomarker levels. RESULTS: The cytokine signature analysis demonstrated that leprosy patients presented a polyfunctional profile of T-cells subsets, with increased frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cell subsets along with IL-10+ and IL-4+ from CD4+ T-cells, as compared to health Controls (Venn diagram report). Moreover, statistical analysis was carried out using parametric or non-parametric variance analysis followed by pairwise multiple comparisons, according to the data normality distribution. L(PB) displayed a polyfunctional profile characterized by enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ produced by most T-cell subsets, as compared to L(MB) that presented a more restricted cytokine functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells with minor contribution of IFN-γ produced by CD4+ T-cells. Noteworthy was that HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB) that presented a cytokine profile limited to IL-10 and IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that L(PB) displayed enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ as compared to L(MB) that presented functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells and HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB). Together, our findings provide additional immunological features associated with leprosy and household contacts. These data provide evidence that biomarkers of immune response can be useful complementary diagnostic/prognostic tools as well as insights that household contacts should be monitored to access putative subclinical infection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Hanseníase/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/imunologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/classificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008746, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064728

RESUMO

Leprosy is a stigmatizing, chronic infection which degenerates the nervous system and often leads to incapacitation. Multi-drug therapy which consists of dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine has been effective to combat this disease. In Indonesia, especially in Papua Island, leprosy is still a problem. Furthermore, there had been higher reports of Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome (DHS) which also challenges leprosy elimination in certain aspects. Globally, DHS has a prevalence rate of 1.4% and a fatality rate up to 13%. The aim of this study is to validate HLA-B*13:01, a previously discovered biomarker for DHS in the Chinese population, as a biomarker for DHS in the Papua population.This is a case-control study of 34 leprosy patients who presented themselves with DHS (case subjects) and 52 leprosy patients without DHS (control subjects). Patients were recruited from 2 provinces: Papua and West Papua. DNA was extracted from 3 ml blood specimens. HLA-B alleles were typed using the gold-standard sequence based typing method. Results were then analysed using logistic regression and risk assessment was carried out. The results of HLA-typing showed that HLA-B*13:01 was the most significant allele associated with DHS, with odds ratio = 233.64 and P-value = 7.11×10-9, confirming the strong association of HLA-B*13:01 to DHS in the Papua population. The sensitivity of this biomarker is 91.2% and specificity is 96.2%, with an area under the curve of 0.95. HLA-B*13:01 is validated as a biomarker for DHS in leprosy patients in Papua, Indonesia, and can potentially be a good predictor of DHS to help prevent this condition in the future.


Assuntos
Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Antígeno HLA-B13/genética , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clofazimina/administração & dosagem , Dapsona/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008749, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044965

RESUMO

Leprosy reduces quality of life of affected persons. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of leprosy. This study evaluated anthropometric indices, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma peroxide (TPP), oxidative stress index (OSI), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdg) in leprosy patients. Sixty test participants of both genders, aged 18-65years and diagnosed of multibacillary leprosy and 30 apparently healthy controls were consecutively recruited for this study. The test participants comprised of 30 patients on multidrug therapy (MDT) and 30 patients relieved from therapy (RFT). Body mass index (BMI), Waist-hip ratio (WHR), FPG, lipid profile, TAC, TPP, OSI, MDA, GSH and 8-OHdg were determined using appropriate methods. Data were analyzed using Analysis of variance; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The MDT group had significantly lower BMI (p = 0.0001), Total cholesterol (p = 0.001), HDL-C (p = 0.019), LDL-C (p = 0.005), TAC (p = 0.0001) and higher TPP (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.0001), OSI (p = 0.005) and 8-OHdg (p = 0.035) compared to the controls. The RFT group had significantly lower BMI (p = 0.001) Total cholesterol (0.0001), HDL-C (p = 0.006) LDL-C (p = 0.0001), TAC (p = 0.001) and higher WHR (p = 0.010), VLDL-C (p = 0.035), TG (p = 0.023) Atherogenic index of plasma (p = 0.0001) and TPP (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.0001) compared to the control group. GSH levels correlated negatively with duration of treatment (r = -0.401, p = 0.028). This study has shown that there is oxidative stress in multibacillary leprosy patients irrespective of drug treatment status. This study also shows that leprosy patients relieved from treatment may be susceptible to cardiovascular events. Antioxidants supplementation may be beneficial in the treatment of leprosy and clinical follow up on patients relieved from treatment may also be necessary to monitor health status and prevent development of cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Dano ao DNA , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Hanseníase/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1811, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849645

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, that can lead to severe life-long disabilities. The transmission of M. leprae is continuously ongoing as witnessed by the stable new case detection rate. The majority of exposed individuals does, however, not develop leprosy and is protected from infection by innate immune mechanisms. In this study the relation between innate immune markers and M. leprae infection as well as the occurrence of leprosy was studied in household contacts (HCs) of leprosy patients with high bacillary loads. Serum proteins associated with innate immunity (ApoA1, CCL4, CRP, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IP-10, and S100A12) were determined by lateral flow assays (LFAs) in conjunction with the presence of M. leprae DNA in nasal swabs (NS) and/or slit-skin smears (SSS). The HCs displayed ApoA1 and S100A12 levels similar to paucibacillary patients and could be differentiated from endemic controls based on the levels of these markers. In the 31 households included the number (percentage) of HCs that were concomitantly diagnosed with leprosy, or tested positive for M. leprae DNA in NS and SSS, was not equally divided. Specifically, households where M. leprae infection and leprosy disease was not observed amongst members of the household were characterized by higher S100A12 and lower CCL4 levels in whole blood assays of HCs in response to M. leprae. Lateral flow assays provide a convenient diagnostic tool to quantitatively measure markers of the innate immune response and thereby detect individuals which are likely infected with M. leprae and at risk of developing disease or transmitting bacteria. Low complexity diagnostic tests measuring innate immunity markers can therefore be applied to help identify who should be targeted for prophylactic treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1355-1368, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661593

RESUMO

Due to multiple hypothesis testing with often limited sample size, microarrays and other-omics technologies can sometimes produce irreproducible findings. Complementary to better experimental design, reanalysis and integration of gene expression datasets may help overcome reproducibility issues by identifying consistent differentially expressed genes from independent studies. In this work, after a systematic search, nine microarray datasets evaluating host gene expression in leprosy were reanalyzed and the information was integrated to strengthen evidence of differential expression for several genes. Our results are relevant in prioritizing genes and pathways for further investigation, whether in functional studies or in biomarker discovery. Reanalysis of individual datasets revealed several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in accordance with original reports. Then, five integration methods (P value and effect size based) were tested. In the end, random-effects model and ratio association were selected as the main methods to pinpoint DEGs. Overall, classic pathways were found corroborating previous findings and validating this approach. Also, we identified some novel DEG involved especially with skin development processes (AQP3, AKR1C3, CYP27B1, LTB, VDR) and keratinocyte biology (CSTA, DSG1, KRT14, KRT5, PKP1, IVL), both still poorly understood in leprosy context. In addition, here we provide aggregated evidence towards some gene candidates that should be prioritized in further leprosy research, as they are likely important in immunopathogenesis. Altogether, these data are useful in better understanding host responses to the disease and, at the same time, provide a list of potential host biomarkers that could be useful in complementing leprosy diagnosis based on transcriptional levels.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Humano , Hanseníase/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(6): 302-308, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726193

RESUMO

Neglected tropical diseases affect over 1 billion people, and cause 170,000 deaths each year. They result in disability, stigma and disfigurement, and also push families into poverty. Tropical infections can involve the kidney, presenting as a wide variety of ways, varying from transient urinary abnormalities to severe acute kidney injury (AKI). It is important to assess renal function in patients with tropical infections for earlier detection of AKI, appropriate treatment and prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) outcome in some of them. There was an exponential increase in research on new kidney biomarkers that were earlier and specific for renal damage but few in the scope of tropical infections. In this review, we focus on kidney biomarkers that are being studied in some of the most prevalent tropical infections such as visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis, malaria, schistosomiasis and leprosy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of renal biomarkers in the early diagnosis of renal diseases associated with tropical infections.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/microbiologia , Nefropatias/parasitologia , Rim/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico
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