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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of leprosy cases using as parameters the number of diagnosed cases, age group, sex, clinical form of the disease, degree of physical disability, affected nerves, and therapeutic methods. METHODS: This was a descriptive study. Data were collected in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação) from 2014 to 2017 in the state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. RESULTS: In the studied period, 11,388 cases were notified in the state, with a higher prevalence in the year 2017. Most cases were diagnosed in individuals older than 15 years with a slight predominance of men. During diagnosis, there was prevalence of zero degree of physical disability and among individuals with affected nerves, mostly had less than five nerves affected. CONCLUSION: Analyzing the prevalence and epidemiological profile of leprosy cases in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) turns to be essential for coping with the disease, as it helps in its management and treatment, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary approach for the recovery of existing cases and prevention of new cases, especially at hyperendemic states.


Assuntos
Surdez , Hanseníase , Adaptação Psicológica , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life and associated factors in patients with leprosy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 63 people diagnosed as leprosy, seen at a reference service for the disease in the southeastern region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The questionnaire World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref was used to evaluate quality of life. Simple and multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between sociodemographic variables and quality of life domains. RESULTS: The highest mean of quality of life was observed in the psychological domain (16.28±2.30), and the lowest in the environmental domain (13.86±2.21). Females, individuals with no partners, and people who owned their own house had the lowest quality of life means within the psychological domain. People who did not receive visits by Community Health Workers had the lowest means in quality of life within the environmental domain. Multivariate analysis revealed that the best quality of life was associated to self-reported white skin color within the environmental domain, and the worst quality of life was associated to less schooling within the physical domain. CONCLUSION: This study showed the influence of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life of patients with leprosy, and indicated the need for comprehensive health care, considering the social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(7): e00130020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346981

RESUMO

Our study aims to describe trends in new case detection rate (NCDR) of leprosy in Brazil from 2006 to 2017 overall and in subgroups, and to analyze the evolution of clinical and treatment characteristics of patients, with emphasis on cases diagnosed with grade 2 physical disabilities. We conducted a descriptive study to analyze new cases of leprosy registered in the Brazilian Information System for Notificable Diseases (SINAN), from 2006-2017. We calculated the leprosy NCDR per 100,000 inhabitants (overall and for individuals aged < 15 and ≥ 15 years) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, urban/rural areas, and Brazilian regions, and estimated the trends using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. We analyzed the distributions of cases according to relevant clinical characteristics over time. In Brazil, there was a sharp decrease in the overall NCDR from 23.4/100,000 in 2006 to 10.3/100,000 in 2017; among children < 15 years, from 6.94 to 3.20/100,000. The decline was consistent in all Brazilian regions and race/ethnicity categories. By 2017, 70.2% of the cases were multibacillary, 30.5% had grade 1 (G1D) or 2 (G2D) physical disabilities at diagnosis and 42.8% were not evaluated at treatment completion/discharge; cases with G2D at diagnosis were mostly detected in urban areas (80%) and 5% of cases died during the treatment (leprosy or other causes). Although the frequency of leprosy NCDR decreased in Brazil from 2006 to 2017 across all evaluated population groups, the large number of cases with multibacillary leprosy, physical disabilities or without adequate evaluation, and among children suggest the need to reinforce timely diagnosis and treatment to control leprosy in Brazil.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais
4.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 30(3): e2020585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of new leprosy cases as determinants in the performance of the evaluation of their contacts. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, with a temporal approach to the evaluation indicator of 100% of contacts examined of each new case (NC) registered in the state of Ceará, Brazil, on the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), in 2008-2019. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The temporal trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression. RESULTS: 23,675 NCs, 65.4% with contacts examined were analyzed. It was less likely to evaluate 100% of the registered contacts when the new cases were multibacillary (OR=1.19 - 95%CI 1.11;1.28) and with examination of contacts as an entry mode (OR=1.71 - 95%CI 1.35;2.18). There was an increasing temporal trend of the indicator (Annual Percentage Change: 2.1 - 95%CI 1.2;3.0). CONCLUSION: Distinct dimensions of individual and social vulnerability among new leprosy cases influenced the persistent unsatisfactory performance of the evaluation of contacts.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Hanseníase/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009716, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regarding the leprosy transmission through the upper airways, overcrowded locations such as prisons can become a risk to get sick. Like the leprosy hidden endemic demonstrated in male prison population, being interesting to assess the leprosy scene also among confined women. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study conducted at Female Penitentiary, Brazil. Leprosy Suspicion Questionnaire (LSQ) were applied to the participants, and submitted to specialized dermatoneurological exam, peripheral nerve ultrasonography, and anti-PGL-I serology. FINDINGS: 404 female inmates were evaluated, 14 new cases were diagnosed (LG-leprosy group), a new case detection rate (NCDR) of 3.4%, 13 multibacillary, while another 390 constituted the Non-Leprosy group (NLG). Leprosy cases were followed up during multidrug therapy with clinical improvement. The confinement time median was 31 months in LG, similar to NLG, less than the time of leprosy incubation. Regarding LSQ, the neurological symptoms reached the highest x2 values as Q1-numbness (5.6), Q3-anesthetizes areas in the skin (7.5), Q5-Stinging sensation (5.8), and Q7-pain in the nerves (34.7), while Q4-spots on the skin was 4.94. When more than one question were marked in the LSQ means a 12.8-fold higher to have the disease than a subject who marked only one or none. The high 34% rate of anti-PGL-I seropositivity in the penitentiary, higher levels in LG than NLG. Three additional leprosy cases each were diagnosed on the second (n = 66) and third (n = 14) reevaluations 18 and 36 months after the initial one. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments demonstrated lower limbs (32.2%) more affected than the upper limbs (25%) with improvement during the follow-up. INTERPRETATION: The NCDR in this population showed an hidden endemic of leprosy as well as the efficacy of a search action on the part of a specialized team with the aid of the LSQ and anti-PGL-I serology as an auxiliary tracking tools.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009700, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy remains concentrated among the poorest communities in low-and middle-income countries and it is one of the primary infectious causes of disability. Although there have been increasing advances in leprosy surveillance worldwide, leprosy underreporting is still common and can hinder decision-making regarding the distribution of financial and health resources and thereby limit the effectiveness of interventions. In this study, we estimated the proportion of unreported cases of leprosy in Brazilian microregions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data collected between 2007 to 2015 from each of the 557 Brazilian microregions, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical model that used the presence of grade 2 leprosy-related physical disabilities as a direct indicator of delayed diagnosis and a proxy for the effectiveness of local leprosy surveillance program. We also analyzed some relevant factors that influence spatial variability in the observed mean incidence rate in the Brazilian microregions, highlighting the importance of socioeconomic factors and how they affect the levels of underreporting. We corrected leprosy incidence rates for each Brazilian microregion and estimated that, on average, 33,252 (9.6%) new leprosy cases went unreported in the country between 2007 to 2015, with this proportion varying from 8.4% to 14.1% across the Brazilian States. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The magnitude and distribution of leprosy underreporting were adequately explained by a model using Grade 2 disability as a marker for the ability of the system to detect new missing cases. The percentage of missed cases was significant, and efforts are warranted to improve leprosy case detection. Our estimates in Brazilian microregions can be used to guide effective interventions, efficient resource allocation, and target actions to mitigate transmission.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e02512021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has limited the access of patients with Hansen's disease (HD) to care due to changes in routine health services. METHODS: To ascertain this, we compared the number of HD cases diagnosed before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The decrease in HD cases in Brazil reached 18,223 (-48.4%), corresponding to an average reduction of 1,518 cases per month during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Therefore, effective measures should be implemented to minimize the damage and the consequent negative health impact of COVID-19 on the care of HD patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009635, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protective effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and clofazimine and dapsone treatment against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. Patients at risk for leprosy represent an interesting model for assessing the effects of these therapies on the occurrence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed the influence of leprosy-related variables in the occurrence and severity of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a 14-month prospective real-world cohort study in which the main risk factor was 2 previous vaccinations with BCG and the main outcome was COVID-19 detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A Cox proportional hazards model was used. Among the 406 included patients, 113 were diagnosed with leprosy. During follow-up, 69 (16.99%) patients contracted COVID-19. Survival analysis showed that leprosy was associated with COVID-19 (p<0.001), but multivariate analysis showed that only COVID-19-positive household contacts (hazard ratio (HR) = 8.04; 95% CI = 4.93-13.11) and diabetes mellitus (HR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.04-4.06) were significant risk factors for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leprosy patients are vulnerable to COVID-19 because they have more frequent contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, possibly due to social and economic limitations. Our model showed that the use of corticosteroids, thalidomide, pentoxifylline, clofazimine, or dapsone or BCG vaccination did not affect the occurrence or severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Teste para COVID-19 , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sobrevida , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
9.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(9): 1086-1087, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302735

RESUMO

Brazil has been at the forefront in replacing the stigmatising term 'leprosy' with the non-pejorative alternative 'Hansen's disease' ('hanseníase'), with use of the former word prohibited by law since 1995. This change followed decades of advocacy, including by civil society organisations representing people affected by the disease. A survey of people affected by Hansen's disease in Brazil found that 111/112 respondents preferred the alternative term, supporting the view that consideration of non-stigmatising terminology that respects the wishes of people affected by the disease should be part of the WHO Global Leprosy (Hansen's disease) Strategy to achieve 'zero stigma' by 2030.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Consenso , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210039, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors associated with leprosy in contacts of patients. METHOD: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching the databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science until September 2019. Four reviewers carried out the selection, analysis, and evaluation of quality of studies. The random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) when heterogeneity was greater than 50%. RESULTS: The search resulted in 2,148 references and included 24 reports. Most of the studies had been conducted in Brazil and India, had a cohort design and included household, neighbors, and social contacts. The risk factors associated with illness due to leprosy in contacts were: illiteracy (RR = 1,48; 95%CI 1,22 - 1,79), living in the same house (RR = 2,41; 95%CI 1,87 - 3,10) of a case of leprosy with high bacillary load (RR = 2.40; 95%CI 1.69 - 3.41), seropositivity to the Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 (phenolic glycolipid-1) antigen (RR = 3.54; 95%CI 2.21 - 5.67), presence of the bacillus in the bloodstream (RR = 10.61; 95%CI 4.74 - 23.77) and negative Mitsuda reaction (RR = 2,68; 95%CI 1,76 - 4,07). Immunization with BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine had a protective effect against leprosy. CONCLUSION: Leprosy in contacts of patients involves social determination, individual susceptibility, and difficulties in access to disease control actions, but modifiable risk factors are the main determinants of illness in this population.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Glicolipídeos , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1805-1816, 2021 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076121

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the prevalence of leprosy and verify the factors associated with multibacillary clinical types in a Family Health Strategy priority setting to control and monitor the disease in northeastern Brazil. This cross-sectional study used data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System related to leprosy cases notified in Imperatriz, Maranhão, between 2008 and 2017. The prevalence was determined yearly and for the period. Poisson regression models with a significance level of 5% were employed to associate the variables and the multibacillary clinical types. Most of the 2,476 leprosy cases analyzed referred to multibacillary clinical types. The prevalence ranged from 7.8 and 15.6/10,000 inhabitants, with high and very high endemicity levels. The variables male, age groups between 30 and 59 years and ≥60 years, schooling <8 years, level 2 physical disability, types 1 and 2 reactive episodes, and urban residence area showed significant associations (p≤0.05) with multibacillary clinical types. Such findings can serve as a basis for elaborating and implementing leprosy control and surveillance measures, gearing actions to the most vulnerable groups, and becoming more effective.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Hanseníase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009495, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates implementation strategies for leprosy diagnosis based on responses to a Leprosy Suspicion Questionnaire (LSQ), and analyzes immunoepidemiological aspects and follow-up of individuals living in a presumptively nonendemic area in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quasi-experimental study based on LSQ throughout Jardinópolis town by community health agents, theoretical-practical trainings for primary care teams, dermatoneurological examination, anti-PGL-I serology, RLEP-PCR, and spatial epidemiology. A Leprosy Group (LG, n = 64) and Non-Leprosy Group (NLG, n = 415) were established. Overall, 3,241 LSQs were distributed; 1,054 (32.5%) LSQ were positive for signs/symptoms (LSQ+). Among LSQ+ respondents, Q2-Tingling (pricking)? (11.8%); Q4-Spots on the skin? (11.7%); Q7-Pain in the nerves? (11.6%); Q1-Numbness in your hands and/or feet? (10.7%) and Q8-Swelling of hands and feet? (8.5%) were most frequently reported symptoms. We evaluated 479 (14.8%) individuals and diagnosed 64 new cases, a general new case detection rate (NCDR) of 13.4%; 60 were among 300 LSQ+ (NCDR-20%), while 4 were among 179 LSQ negative (NCDR-2.23%). In LG, Q7(65%), Q2(60%), Q1(45%), Q4(40%) and Q8(25%) were most frequent. All 2x2 crossings of these 5 questions showed a relative risk for leprosy ranging from 3 to 5.8 compared with NLG. All patients were multibacillary and presented hypochromatic macules with loss of sensation. LG anti-PGL-I titers were higher than NLG, while 8.9% were positive for RLEP-PCR. The leprosy cases and anti-PGL-I spatial mappings demonstrated the disease spread across the town. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Implementation actions, primarily LSQ administration focused on neurological symptoms, indicate hidden endemic leprosy in a nonendemic Brazilian state.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(8): 1003-1006, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157149

RESUMO

This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the detection of new cases of leprosy in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The periods January-September 2019 and January-September 2020 were compared. There was a 44.40% reduction in the diagnosis of leprosy when comparing the two periods (1,705 in 2019 and 948 in 2020). There was a reduction in the number of municipalities with reported cases: 251 municipalities in 2019 and 202 in 2020, expressing a reduction of 24.25%. Considering only the months following the arrival of the virus (April-September), the reduction was 51.10%. An inverse correlation was observed between the number of new cases of leprosy and the cumulative number of cases of COVID-19 (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.840; P < 0.001) and the number of new monthly cases of COVID-19 (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.817; P < 0.001). A slight increase was also observed in the proportion of multibacillary cases in the state (70.38% in 2019 and 72.69% in 2020) as well as in the proportion of individuals with the degree of physical disability not assessed at diagnosis, whose proportion rose from 16.39% in 2019 to 22.53% in 2020. The negative impact of COVID-19 in tackling leprosy should be seen as a warning sign for health and political authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(1): 19-25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and neurofunctional profile, as well as the prevalence of factors associated with the occurrence of physical disabilities due to leprosy in a reference center in Northeast Brasil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 50 leprosy patients diagnosed in Juazeiro-Bahia. Variables analyzed: sex, age, history of leprosy in the family, time to diagnosis, clinical form, operational classification, degree of disability, eyes-hand-foot score, peripheral nerve function, muscle strength and sensitivity. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (χ² test or Fisher's exact, Poisson regression with robust estimation and prevalence reason were used. Significance of 5%). RESULTS: An equal distribution was found between men and women of economically active age and low education; multibacillary forms in men (64%) and paucibacillary forms in women (60%). 78% of individuals had some degree of disability and 64% had a compromised ulnar nerve. Plantar sensitivity was decreased in 66% of patients. The predictors of disability were: age ≥45 years (PR 1.44; p=0.005), no education (PR 1.21; p=0.013) and OMP score ≥6 (PR 1.29; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings show the importance of monitoring neural functions and developing measures that allow early diagnosis, the opportune method and the prevention of disabilities, especially in the male population.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(3): e20201101, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of leprosy in a priority municipality for leprosy control. METHODS: ecological study, conducted in a city in the Northeast of Brazil, whose analysis units were census sectors. The study used compulsory notification data for cases registered between 2008 and 2017. TerraView software and the Batch Geocode tool was used for geocoding. The detection of spatial-temporal agglomerations of high relative risks was done by scanning statistics. RESULTS: the spatial-temporal distribution of cases was heterogeneous, creating four agglomerations of high relative risks in the urban area of the municipality between the years 2008 and 2012; and annual prevalence rates classified from high to hyperendemic. CONCLUSIONS: areas of higher risk and concentration of the disease in space-time were linked to the characteristics of high population density and social vulnerability of these spaces, raising the prioritization of health professionals' actions, systems, and services for control, and monitoring the disease.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Censos , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Risco
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009382, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939710

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has raised concerns about the increasing number of Hansen disease (HD) relapses worldwide, especially in Brazil, India, and Indonesia that report the highest number of recurrent cases. Relapses are an indicator of MDT effectiveness and can reflect Mycobacterium leprae persistence or re-infection. Relapse is also a potential marker for the development or progression of disability. In this research, we studied a large cohort of persons affected by HD treated with full fixed-dose multibacillary (MB) multidrug therapy (MDT) followed for up to 20 years and observed that relapses are a rare event. We estimated the incidence density of relapse in a cohort of patients classified to receive MB regime (bacillary index (BI) > 0), diagnosed between September 1997 and June 2017, and treated with twelve-dose MB-MDT at a HD reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We obtained the data from the data management system of the clinic routine service. We linked the selected cases to the dataset of relapses of the national HD data to confirm possible relapse cases diagnosed elsewhere. We diagnosed ten cases of relapse in a cohort of 713 patients followed-up for a mean of 12.1 years. This resulted in an incidence rate of 1.16 relapse cases per 1000 person-year (95% CI = 0.5915-2.076). The accumulated risk was 0.025 in 20 years. The very low risk observed in this cohort of twelve-dose-treated MB patients reinforces the success of the current MDT scheme.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e23718, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, achieving targets for control of leprosy by 2030 will require disease elimination and interruption of transmission at the national or regional level. India and Brazil have reported the highest leprosy burden in the last few decades, revealing the need for strategies and tools to help health professionals correctly manage and control the disease. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to develop a cross-platform app for leprosy screening based on artificial intelligence (AI) with the goal of increasing accessibility of an accurate method of classifying leprosy treatment for health professionals, especially for communities further away from major diagnostic centers. Toward this end, we analyzed the quality of leprosy data in Brazil on the National Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). METHODS: Leprosy data were extracted from the SINAN database, carefully cleaned, and used to build AI decision models based on the random forest algorithm to predict operational classification in paucibacillary or multibacillary leprosy. We used Python programming language to extract and clean the data, and R programming language to train and test the AI model via cross-validation. To allow broad access, we deployed the final random forest classification model in a web app via shinyApp using data available from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System. RESULTS: We mapped the dispersion of leprosy incidence in Brazil from 2014 to 2018, and found a particularly high number of cases in central Brazil in 2014 that further increased in 2018 in the state of Mato Grosso. For some municipalities, up to 80% of cases showed some data discrepancy. Of a total of 21,047 discrepancies detected, the most common was "operational classification does not match the clinical form." After data processing, we identified a total of 77,628 cases with missing data. The sensitivity and specificity of the AI model applied for the operational classification of leprosy was 93.97% and 87.09%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed app was able to recognize patterns in leprosy cases registered in the SINAN database and to classify new patients with paucibacillary or multibacillary leprosy, thereby reducing the probability of incorrect assignment by health centers. The collection and notification of data on leprosy in Brazil seem to lack specific validation to increase the quality of the data for implementations via AI. The AI models implemented in this work had satisfactory accuracy across Brazilian states and could be a complementary diagnosis tool, especially in remote areas with few specialist physicians.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Aplicativos Móveis , Inteligência Artificial , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia
20.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(3): 301-308, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy still represents a negleted public health problem in Brazil. Early and adequate treatment of leprosy, carried out in a primary health network is essential to reduce morbidity and sequelae. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the therapeutic management of leprosy patients referred from primary healthy services to a specialized service. METHODS: An analytical retrospective study using medical records and the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Patients diagnosed with leprosy, referred to a specialized outpatient clinic, between 2016 and 2017, in Goiás state, were included. The treatment carried out in the primary health services was compared to the Ministry of Health guidelines. RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-five leprosy patients were included, of whom 33.3% were referred by leprosy reactions, 27.1% by sequelae, and 10.2% by suspected recurrence or reinfection. Reviewing the therapeutic management, 123 (54.7%) were considered inadequate, 92 (40.9%) adequate, and 10 (4.4%) inconclusive. Of the 200 multibacillary patients, 39.5% had adequate management. In contrast, 12 (85.1%) out of 14 paucibacillary patients had adequate management (χ2 = 11.43 and p < 0.001). Regarding the leprosy reactions and sequelae management, 56.9% and 19.5% were considered inadequate, respectively. There was no difference between the percentage of adequate or inadequate management when considering the Goiás health macroregions (χ2 = 7.23; 4 degrees of freedom; p = 0.12). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Use of recorded data, with incomplete medical records and lack of patient follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated the equivocal multibacillaryleprosy management conducted in healthy primary care, with an emphasis on leprosy reactions and sequelae. Training and monitoring the medical staff in the primary healthy services could reduce the morbidity and sequelae of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
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