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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 31-36, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232909

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. China was once one of the countries with severe leprosy epidemics, but its incidence has remained low in recent years. Despite this, there has been no decrease in its incidence more recently, and it is still a public health problem which needs to be controlled. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and trends in the detection rate of new cases of leprosy in China between 2004 and 2016. There were 4,519 cases of leprosy in 28 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions between 2004 and 2016, and the total incidence was 0.02815 (per 100,000 individuals) and 21 deaths. The overall incidence of leprosy showed an inverted "V" distribution (i.e., an increase followed by a decrease). Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Guangxi were the top five regions with the highest incidence rates, and they accounted for 68.7% of the total cases. There were more male patients than female patients, and peasants accounted for 71.7% of the leprosy cases. The patients with leprosy in China were mainly concentrated in the age-group 15-44 years, as this group accounted for 57.2% of the total cases. The purpose of this study is to explore the epidemiology of leprosy in China. This analysis will be useful for future monitoring of leprosy and establishment of public health measures in China, in keeping with the "Programme for the Elimination of Leprosy in China 2011-2020."


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136455

RESUMO

Leprosy remains endemic in some regions and is a global health concern. However, the possible causes and risk factors of the disease remain unclear. Data in Wenshan, China were collected from the Wenshan Institute of Dermatology (1986-2015); data in Nepal were obtained from the Leprosy Control Division, Department of Health Services, Nepal (2011 to 2015); and data from Indonesia, India, and Brazil were collected from WHO records. We assessed the epidemiological trends of leprosy in Wenshan and compared the features of possible causes and risk factors with those of other countries. We then performed a descriptive and statistical analysis to make our study more purposeful and definitive. A total of 3,376 cases were detected in Wenshan from 1986 to 2015. The overall prevalence rate (PR) of leprosy presented a decreasing trend with a peak (4.9/10,000 population) in 1986. The detection of new leprosy cases was higher in males than in females. Visible deformity increased every year since 2005 with a disability of 34.8% in 2015 among new cases. In Nepal, 2,461 leprosy patients received multi-drug therapy (MDT) in 2015 which corresponded to the PR of 0.89/10,000 population. Geographic latitude and socio-economic situations appeared to be the main causes of leprosy, and the healthcare condition was an important factor associated with leprosy incidence. The introduction of MDT effectively reduced leprosy prevalence worldwide. Wenshan (China), Nepal, and other countries share similarities in various aspects with respect to socio-cultural features, geographical distribution, environmental factors, and economic situation, which may contribute to leprosy being endemic in these areas.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Hanseníase , Brasil , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia
3.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(5): adv00459, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954796

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Massive internal migration from rural to urban areas poses new challenges for leprosy control in Shanghai, China. This retrospective epidemiological study examined new cases of leprosy diagnosed in Shanghai from 2000 to 2019, with emphasis on internal migration cases. There were 145 cases of leprosy in the study period; the majority of cases (89.0%) were internal migrants. Migrant cases had a mean of 25.4 months lag time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, which was significantly longer than that of resident cases (mean 10.8 months, p < 0.001). Greater lag time from the first visit to diagnosis was observed in migrant cases (mean 23.2 months) compared with resident cases (mean 9.4 months, p < 0.001). A large majority of cases (91.0%) had been misdiagnosed. Internal migrant cases were responsible for most incidences of leprosy in Shanghai. They often did not receive timely diagnosis and treatment, which may have an adverse impact on the prevention of epidemic leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Migrantes , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009201, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008956, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the elimination of leprosy in 1995, there were 10-30 newly detected leprosy cases every year in Zhejiang Province, and the epidemiological characteristics of the newly detected leprosy cases have changed. While most of the newly detected cases came from other provinces in China, not Zhejiang, it brought a new challenge for leprosy prevention and control in post- elimination era in Zhejiang, China. This study was aimed to understand the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of newly detected leprosy cases, and provide the scientific rationales for the development of leprosy control strategy. METHODS: Data on the demographic of Zhejiang Province from 2011 to 2019 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, and the epidemiological data on leprosy cases newly detected in Zhejiang Province from 2011 to 2019 were obtained from the LEPROSY MANAGEMANT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN CHINA (LEPMIS), and temporal-spatial distributions were described. The geographic information system software-ArcGIS 10.4 was used to draw the statistical maps, and Geoda 1.14.0 was used for local spatial autocorrelation analysis (local Getis coefficient method). Ridley-Jopling classification was used to classify the clinical types into I, TT, BT, BB, BL or LL. Two-group classification system developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used and cases were classified into multibacillary (MB) type or paucibacillary (PB) type. RESULTS: A total of 167 leprosy cases were reported in Zhejiang Province during 2011-2019, including 107 cases in males and 60 in females. The mean age at diagnosis was 37.99±14.81 years, and 94.01% of the cases were detected through the examination at skin-clinics. The number of workers, MB cases, G2D cases were 81 (48.50%), 159 (94.01%), 24 (14.37%) respectively, and the rate of early detection increased from 45.16% in 2011 to 90.91% in 2019. Leprosy cases were reported in all the prefectures of Zhejiang except Zhoushan City. The cases in local population accounted for 23.35% (39 cases), and the cases in floating population (especially coming from high epidemic provinces in China) accounted for 76.65% (128 cases). The annual number of newly detected cases showed a decreasing trend, from 31 cases in 2011 to 11 in 2019. Time of the floating population living in Zhejiang Province ranged from several months to more than 10 years. The annual proportion of new cases with G2D declined from 22.58% in 2011 to 9.09% in 2019. The results of local indicators of autocorrelation (LISA) analysis showed that the high-high areas were mainly concentrated in the middle and northeast of Zhejiang Province, while the low-low areas were in the east and southwest. CONCLUSION: A few scattered cases still can be seen in post-elimination era, and there was a spatial clustering of the newly detected leprosy cases in Zhejiang Province. Most of the cases in Zhejiang Province were from other high epidemic provinces in China, which brought a new challenge for leprosy control and prevention in post- elimination era in Zhejiang, and it is also necessary to strengthen the early detection and standard management of the leprosy cases in floating population in Zhejiang.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Diagnóstico Precoce , Epidemias , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008883, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362202

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), with about 210,000 new cases per year worldwide. Although numerous risk loci have been uncovered by genome-wide association studies, the effects of common genetic variants are relatively modest. To identify possible new genetic locus involved in susceptibility to leprosy, whole exome sequencing was performed for 28 subjects including 14 patients and 12 unaffected members from 8 leprosy-affected families as well as another case and an unrelated control, and then the follow-up SNP genotyping of the candidate variants was studied in case-control sample sets. A rare missense variant in mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5 (MRPS5), rs200730619 (c. 95108402T>C [p. Tyr137Cys]) was identified and validated in 369 cases and 270 controls of Chinese descent (Padjusted = 0.006, odds ratio [OR] = 2.74) as a contributing factor to leprosy risk. Moreover, the mRNA level of MRPS5 was downregulated in M. leprae sonicate-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results indicated that MRPS5 may be involved in leprosy pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to determine if defective MRPS5 could lead to impairment of energy metabolism of host immune cells, which could further cause defect in clearing M. leprae and increase susceptibility to infection.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hanseníase/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1790, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This epidemiological study aimed to analyse both the distribution and characteristics of leprosy in an endemic province in Northwest China. METHODS: The medical records of leprosy patients in the province of Shaanxi, China, from 1998 to 2018 were collected from the Chinese Leprosy Management Information System (LEPMIS). Epidemiological variables were analysed in this study. RESULTS: A total of 477 new cases were diagnosed between 1998 and 2018 in this region. The average annual detection rate was 0.070/100,000 population, and the average annual prevalence was 0.305/100,000 population. The mean age of the newly diagnosed patients was 46.7 years, and the ratio of males to females was 2.5:1. There were 399 cases (83.6%) of multibacillary (MB) leprosy. One hundred forty-eight patients (31.0%) had grade 2 disability. The mean diagnosis time for new cases was 62.0 months. CONCLUSION: This epidemiological study showed that the characteristics of newly diagnosed leprosy cases in our province were a long time to diagnosis and a high rate of deformity, indicating the need for actions focusing on early diagnosis and treatment and strengthening the detection of leprosy in low-prevalence areas.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008563, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis remains the primary goal for leprosy management programs. This study aims to determine whether active surveillance of patients with leprosy and their contact individuals increased identification of latent leprosy cases in the low-endemic areas. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out between October 2014 and August 2016 in 21 counties throughout Shandong Province. The survey was conducted among patients with leprosy released from treatment (RFT) and their contacts from both household and neighbors. RESULTS: A total of 2,210 RFT patients and 9,742 contacts comprising 7877 household contacts (HHCs), including 5,844 genetic related family members (GRFMs) and 2033 non-genetic related family members and 1,865 contacts living in neighboring houses (neighbor contacts, NCs), were recruited. Among identified individuals, one relapsed and 13 were newly diagnosed, giving a detection rate of 0.12%, corresponding to 120 times the passive case detection rate. Detection rates were similar for HHCs and NCs (0.114% vs. 0.214%, P = 0.287). Analysis of the family history of leprosy patients revealed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously-diagnosed multibacillary leprosy cases. CONCLUSION: Active case-finding programs are feasible and contributes to early case detection by tracking HHCs and NCs in low-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Características de Residência , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 6-13, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nature of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is vital to implement better control strategies for leprosy elimination. The present study expands the knowledge of county-level strain diversity, distribution, and transmission patterns of leprosy in endemic provinces of China. METHODS: We genetically characterized 290 clinical isolates of M. leprae from four endemic provinces using variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Attained genetic profiles and cluster consequences were contrasted with geographical and migration features of leprosy at county levels. RESULTS: Considering the allelic variability of 17 VNTR loci by the discriminatory index, (GTA)9, (AT)17, (AT)15, (TA)18, (TTC)21, and (TA)10 are reported to be more highly polymorphic than other loci. The VNTR profile generated the low-density clustering pattern in the counties of Sichuan and Yunnan, whereas clusters have been observed from the isolates from Huayuan (N = 6), Yongding (N = 3), Zixing (N = 3), Chenxi (N = 2) and Zhongfang (N = 2) counties of Hunan, and Zhijin (N = 3), Anlong (N = 2), Zhenning (N = 2), and Xixiu (N = 2) counties of Guizhou. In some clusters, people's social relations have been observed between villages. From the 290 clinical isolates, the most predominantly reported SNP was 3K (278, 95.8%), followed by SNP 1D (10, 3.4%), which are typically observed to be predominant in China. We also detected the novel SNP 3J (2, 0.8%), which has not yet been reported in China. CONCLUSION: The clustering pattern of M. leprae indicates the transmission of leprosy still persists at county levels, suggesting that there is a need to implement better approaches for tracing the close contacts of leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Alelos , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium leprae/classificação , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007891, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few new leprosy cases still can be seen in Shandong province after elimination. In post-elimination era, government commitments dwindled and active case-finding activities were seldom done. Most of the cases were detected by passive modes and advanced cases with longer delay and visible disability were common. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comprehensive measures including health promotion, personnel training, reward-offering, symptom surveillance and a powerful referral center were implemented in the past decade. The diagnosis of leprosy was mainly based on three cardinal clinical signs. Two-group classification system developed by the WHO was used and cases were classified into multibacillary (MB) type or paucibacillary (PB) type. Cases detected during period 2007-2017 were analyzed and associated factors of grade 2 disability (G2D) were explored. RESULTS: 231 new leprosy cases detected during 2007-2017 were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis is 51.7±16.0 years and the number of males, peasants, illiterates, MB cases, G2D cases and immigrants were 130(56.3%), 221(95.7%), 73(31.6%), 184(79.7%), 92(39.8%) and 40(17.3%) respectively. 181(78.4%) cases were reported by skin clinics and 152 (65.8%) cases came from formerly high endemic counties/districts. The annual number of new cases showed a decreasing trend, from 42 cases in 2008 to 13 cases in 2017. 92 (39.8%) cases presented with G2D at diagnosis. The annual proportion of new cases with G2D declined from 50% in 2008 to 23% in 2017. PB type (OR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.43-5.32), >12 months of patient delay (OR = 2.40, 95% CI, 1.38-4.19), >24 months of total delay (OR = 4.35, 95% CI, 2.33-8.11), detected by non skin-clinic (OR = 3.21, 95% CI, 1.68-6.14), known infectious source (OR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.01-3.12) were associated with G2D. CONCLUSION: A few scattered cases still can be seen in post-elimination era and some kind of leprosy control program is still necessary. Government commitments including adequate financial security and strong policy support are vital. Comprehensive case-finding measures including health promotion, personnel training, reward-offering, with an emphasis on former high or middle endemic areas, are necessary to improve early presentation of suspected cases and to increase suspicion and encourage participation of all relevant medical staff. Symptom surveillance based on a powerful transfer center may play an important role in the early detection of new cases in post-elimination era.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(2): 134-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650976

RESUMO

Background: Penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease is a rare, slow-growing neoplasm with high frequency of local recurrence. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in clinicopathological characteristics between first-time and recurrent penoscrotal Paget's disease, and to discover the potential risk factors of recurrence. Methods: Between January 2007 and February 2014, a total of 164 Chinese patients with biopsy-proven tramammary Paget's diseaseex in penis and scrotum underwent wide local resection in our institution. Among them, 142 patients with first-time disease and other 22 patients with recurrent disease were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Results: The median duration of symptoms was much shorter in recurrent disease than in first-timers (3 vs. 24 months, P < 0.001). Patients with recurrent disease tended to have lower lesion exudation rates (27.3% vs. 51.8%, P= 0.032). In addition, patients with distant stage were more likely to obtain recurrent disease compared with first-time disease (P = 0.005). Through immunohistochemical detection of extramammary Paget's specimen, we found that HER2/neu protein expression in the recurrent group was significantly higher than first-timers (P = 0.036). Limitations: In this study, the information on familial history of most patients was insufficient. Moreover, due to the lack of follow-up data of our included cases, we were unable to evaluate the prognosis after diagnosis of extramammary Paget's disease. Conclusion: Patients with penoscrotal Paget's disease, especially those with shorter duration of symptoms, exudation of lesions, distant-stage, Paget cells infiltrating into adnexa, and HER2/neu expression, should be followed up more carefully after surgery, as they were more likely to suffer recurrence.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Doença de Paget Extramamária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Penianas/diagnóstico , Escroto/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/sangue , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Doença de Paget Extramamária/sangue , Doença de Paget Extramamária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Penianas/sangue , Neoplasias Penianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(3): 193-199, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667502

RESUMO

Although multidrug therapy (MDT) has been widely used for the treatment of leprosy for nearly 40 y, the disease remains a public health concern in some areas. The early detection of leprosy cases is vital to interrupt Mycobacterium leprae transmission, but currently diagnosis is typically achieved during the recognition of clinical symptoms by professional staff performing physical examinations in conjunction with microbiological assessment of slit skin smears (SSSs) and histopathology. In the last 10 y, serum antibody detection tests have emerged to aid leprosy diagnosis. Here we evaluated the ability of antigens NDO-BSA and LID-1 (ML0405 and ML2331) and the conjugate of these, NDO-LID, to detect antibodies in the sera of 113 leprosy patients and 166 control individuals in Yunnan province in southwest China. We found that each antigen was readily detected by sera from multibacillary (MB) patients, with sensitivities of 97.3%, 97.3% and 98.6% for NDO-BSA, LID-1 and NDO-LID, respectively. Even among paucibacillary (PB) patients the antigens detected antibodies in 74.4%, 56.4% and 69.2% of serum samples, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis indicated that, irrespective of the leprosy case classification as MB or PB, the detection efficiency obtained with NDO-LID was better than that obtained with the other two antigens (with LID-1 being a slightly better than NDO-BSA). Our results indicate the utility of NDO-LID in assisting in the diagnosis of PB and MB leprosy patients and that these antibody detection assays represent powerful diagnostic tools. We suggest that could be implemented into the procedures of local health centres in leprosy-endemic regions to assist in earlier diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Hanseníase , China/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1479-1489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621517

RESUMO

Reports on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Mycobacterium leprae, relationship with bacteriological index (BI), and transmission in China are limited. We investigated the emergence of AMR mutations, the relationship between BI and AMR in complete, moderate and lack of BI decline cases, and molecular epidemiological features of AMR cases by enrolling 290 leprosy cases from four endemic provinces. Seven (2.41%), one (0.34%), five (1.72%), one (0.34%), and one (0.34%) strains had single mutations in folP1, rpoC, gyrA, gyrB, and 23S rRNA, respectively. Double mutations in folP1 and gyrA, rpoB and gyrA, and gyrA and 23S rRNA were observed in one (0.34%) strain each. Mutated strains occurred in three out of 81 (95% CI-0.005-0.079, p = 0.083) cases with complete BI decline, in seven out of 103 (95% CI 0.018-0.117, p = 0.008) cases with moderate BI decline, and in four out of 34 (95% CI 0.003-0.231, p = 0.044) cases with lack of BI decline. Most of these mutated strains were geographically separated and diverged genotypically. AMR mutations may not be the main cause of the lack of BI decline. The low transmission of AMR strains at the county level indicates an ongoing transmission at close contact levels.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium leprae/classificação , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(8): 1604-1607, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310204

RESUMO

Whether Mycobacterium leprae transmits from placenta to fetus remains unknown. We describe the case of a pregnant woman with untreated histoid leproma. Although her newborn was healthy, laboratory examination revealed intact M. leprae present in the placenta, suggesting that the placental barrier might prevent vertical dissemination of M. leprae.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Placenta/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
17.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(2): 83-88, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137156

RESUMO

There are many infectious diseases in Guizhou Province during the Republican period, including cholera, smallpox, typhoid, typhus, dysentery, scarlet fever, diphtheria, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, recurrent fever, malaria, trachoma, acute conjunctivitis, skin diseases, venereal diseases, leprosy and so on. Natural and social factors together led to the prevalence of infectious diseases during that period. For example, natural factors mainly include Guizhou province's special geographical condition and its frequent flood disasters, and social factors such as the unhealthy lifestyle and low medical level have also caused bad effects. In general, infectious diseases during the Republican period have resulted in a large number of mortalities and great financial losses, hindering the development of Guizhou economic society at that time.


Assuntos
Cólera , Doenças Transmissíveis , Difteria , Varíola , China/epidemiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Difteria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Varíola/epidemiologia , Taiwan
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11407, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061618

RESUMO

More than 100 counties, mainly in southwest China, report incidence rates of leprosy >1/100,000. The current study analysed the epidemiology of leprosy in southwest China to improve our understanding of the transmission pattern and improve control programs. 207 counties were selected in southwest China. Leprosy patients and their household contacts were recruited. The data from the medical interview and the serological antileprosy antibody of the leprosy patients were analysed. A total of 2,353 new cases of leprosy were interviewed. The distribution of leprosy patients was partly associated with local natural and economic conditions, especially several pocket areas. A total of 53 from 6643 household contacts developed leprosy, and the incidence rate of leprosy in the household contacts was 364/100,000 person-years. We found that NDO-BSA attained higher positive rates than MMP-II and LID-1 regardless of clinical types, disability and infection time in leprosy patients. By means of combination of antigens, 88.4% patients of multibacillary leprosy were detected, in contrast to 59.9% in paucibacillary leprosy. Household contacts should be given close attention for the early diagnosis, disruption of disease transmission and precise control. Applications of serology for multi-antigens were recommended for effective coverage and monitoring in leprosy control.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/economia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Dermatol ; 57(12): 1492-1499, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many researches on gender differences in leprosy found that female patients were detected with the disease later and had more serious disabilities than male patients. We analyzed the gender differences related to epidemiological characteristics of new leprosy cases detected from 2000 to 2015 in Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken to analyze the gender differences with respect to age, delay in disease detection, the main modes of detection, and disability grade. The chi-squared test and t test were applied for the comparison using Epi Info 7.2 with a significance level of a = 0.05. The data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China. RESULTS: A total of 2900 new leprosy cases were detected from 2000 to 2015, of whom 2075 (71.6%) were male and 825 (28.4%) were female with a gender ratio of 2.5. The gender ratio of patients aged 15-30 was significantly lower than that of patients aged 31-45 and 46-60. Male cases were older than female cases when they were detected. The proportion of Grade 2 Disability (G2D) among men (20.6%) was significantly higher than that among women (17.3%). The average period of delay in detection among male cases was similar with that among females cases. CONCLUSIONS: Gender-related differences existed among the leprosy cases detected from 2000 to 2015. Female patients were younger than male patients. The detection of leprosy in women was not later than in the case of men. The disability situation in men was more serious than in women.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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