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1.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 53(3): 257-265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454152

RESUMO

Many industries generate a considerable amount of wastewater containing toxic and recalcitrant dyes. The main objective of this research was to examine the biosorption capacity of Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Red 141 by the Antarctic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii F39A biomass. Some variables, including pH, dye concentration, amount of adsorbent and contact time, were studied. The equilibrium sorption capacity of the biomass increased with increasing initial dye concentration up to 350mg/l. Experimental isotherms fit the Langmuir model and the maximum uptake capacity (qmax) for the selected dyes was in the range of 0.0676-0.169mmol/g biomass. At an initial dye concentration of 100mg/l, 2g/l biomass loading and 20±1°C, D. hansenii F39A adsorbed around 90% of Reactive Red 141 and 50% of Reactive Blue 19 at pH 6.0. When biomass loading was increased (6g/l), the uptake reached up to 90% for Reactive Blue 19. The dye uptake process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics for each dye system. As seen throughout this research study, D. hansenii has the potential to efficiently and effectively remove dyes in a biosorption process and may be an alternative to other costly materials.


Assuntos
Debaryomyces , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Biomassa , Corantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Têxteis , Termodinâmica
2.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(6): 622-629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037162

RESUMO

Humans have been anointing their skin with natural colorants since antiquity. Before the advent of modern cosmetics, tattoos and hair dyes, the spectacular colors in plants served as a palette for humanity's fascination with color. Skin, hair, nails, teeth and clothing have been altered with botanical colorants for centuries. Understanding the relevance of botanical colorants is an important part of cultural competency. Substitution or adulteration of plant colorants with synthetic colorants has played a role in varied dermatoses (eg. black henna, kumkum, and Holi dermatoses). Safety concerns over synthetic colorants have led to a resurgence of natural colorants. However, some plant colorants have produced adverse reactions. Plant colorants have also played an integral role in medicine. Ingested plant colorants are an indispensable part of our diet, playing crucial roles in the maintenance of health and prevention of disease. Excessive intake of some pigments can alter skin color (carotenoderma, lycopenemia, and the golden tan of canthaxanthin). We have relied on the colors of hematoxylin and alizarin red, derived from the logwood tree and madder roots, respectively, to study and diagnose disease in pathology. We briefly review the uses, cultural relevance, and adverse effects of the common botanical colorants on the skin, hair, and mucosa. We also describe their relevance in our diet, and in the diagnosis and description of dermatological diseases.


Assuntos
Corantes/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Plantas , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006706, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leprosy mainly relies on clinical examination due to the inconsistent sensitivity and poor reproducibility of the current laboratory tests. Utilisation of alternative methods to the standard Ziehl Neelsen (ZN), Fite-Faraco (FF) and Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining procedures may eventually improve leprosy diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this comparative study, the performance of the fluorescent Auramine O (AO) staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was assessed with different skin samples using a combination of ZN, FF and H&E staining as the gold standard. AO, ZN, FF, H&E and PCR tests were performed on slit skin smears (SSS) and/or punch biopsies collected from 141 clinically confirmed leprosy cases and 28 non-leprosy skin samples. DNA was extracted from punch biopsies using two different methods with or without mechanical lysis. Sensitivities were 87.6%, 59.3% and 77% for H&E, ZN and FF, respectively, whereas it reached 65.5% and 77.9% for AO in SSS and tissue sections and 91.1% for PCR in tissue samples. Morover, samples with low bacillary index, sensitivity of AO staining (61.8%) was similar to FF (60%, p>0.05) and lower than PCR (86.6%, p<0.05). Sensitivity of PCR also increased (96.8%, p<0.05) when mechanical lysis was used during DNA extraction compared to enzymatic treatment alone (84.6%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that for diagnostic purposes, analysis of skin section is more sensitive than SSS, especially for samples with low bacillary load. AO staining on SSS and tissue sections was not significantly better than other routine diagnostic tests but considerably more user friendly. The sensitivity of PCR was higher than current standard methods and increased when combined with more efficient DNA extraction using mechanical and chemical lysis. Therefore, we recommend AO staining for the diagnosis of leprosy in lower health facilities such as health centres and district hospitals and PCR diagnosis at referral level and research centres.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Benzofenoneídio/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 84(2): 153-156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393081

RESUMO

Background: Kumkum, made with turmeric and slaked lime along with colour enhancing dyes is known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. The possible contact allergens in kumkum include turmeric, Sudan-1, 4-aminoazobenzene, brilliant lake red R and cananga oil. We report patch test results among patients with suspected contact hypersensitivity to kumkum. Objective: To identify the allergen causing kumkum induced allergic contact dermatitis by patch testing and to advise patients about organic kumkum which doesnot contain colour enhancing dyes. Methods: Eighteen patients with suspected contact hypersensitivity to kumkum were patch tested with undiluted kumkum, undiluted turmeric, Sudan-1 (95%), 4-aminoazobenzene and allergens of the Indian Standard Series. Results: Of the 18 patients, 14 patients had patch test positivity to kumkum and 4 had a negative reaction to kumkum. Patch test with other suspected contact allergens showed positive reaction to turmeric in 4 patients, Sudan-1 in 3 patients and 4-aminoazobenzene in 2 patients. Among the allergens of the Indian Standard Series, positivity to nickel and fragrance mix was seen in 5 and 2 patients respectively. Positive reaction to PPD, chlorocresol and parthenium was seen in 1 patient each. Limitation: Small sample size. Conclusion: Allergic contact dermatitis to kumkum occurs both due to the dyes (added for enhancing the colour) and turmeric. All patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis should be patch tested with kumkum, turmeric and dyes, based on which alternative non-allergic material could be advised. Kumkum dermatitis can also occur due to various other allergens, for which too patch testing should be done.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Curcuma/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 82(6): 645-650, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27451929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hair dye is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The main allergen has been identified as para-phenylenediamine. To prevent the recurrence of contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, patients should discontinue the use of para-phenylenediamine-containing hair dye products. However, many patients are unable to discontinue their use for cosmetic or social reasons. Sometimes, they continue to have symptoms even after switching to so-called "less allergenic" hair dyes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of 15 commercially available hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine. METHODS: We performed patch tests using 15 hair dyes that were advertised as "hypoallergenic," "no para-phenylenediamine" and "non-allergenic" products in the market. RESULTS: Twenty three patients completed the study and 20 (87.0%) patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one product. While four (26.7%) hair dye products contained para-phenylenediamine, 10 (66.7%) out of 15 contained m- aminophenol and 7 (46.7%) contained toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate. Only one product did not elicit a positive reaction in any patient. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size and possibility of false-positive reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatologists should educate patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine about the importance of performing sensitivity testing prior to the actual use of any hair dye product, irrespective of how it is advertised or labelled.


Assuntos
Corantes/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Tinturas para Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Fenilenodiaminas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
7.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; 25(18): 2053-65, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25325322

RESUMO

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an interesting biopolymer produced by bacteria having superior properties. BC produced by Gluconoacetobacter hansenii (strain NCIM 2529) under shaking condition and explored for its applications in dye removal and bioadsorption of protein and heavy metals. Purity of BC was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. BC removed azo dye and Aniline blue (400 mg/L) with 80% efficiency within 60 min. The adsorption and elution of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and heavy metals like lead, cadmium and nickel (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+)) was achieved with BC which confirms the exclusion ability with reusability. The BSA adsorption quantity was increased with increase in protein concentration with more than 90% adsorption and elution ratio. The effect of pH and temperature on BSA adsorption has been investigated. Bioadsorption (82%) and elution ratio (92%) of BC for Pb(2+) was more when compared with Cd(2+) (41 and 67%) and Ni(2+) (33 and 85%), respectively. BC was also explored as soil conditioner to increase the water-holding capacity and porosity of soil. The results elucidated the significance of BC as renewable effective ecofriendly bioadsorption agent.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Meio Ambiente , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Gluconobacter/química , Química Verde , Adsorção , Animais , Bovinos , Corantes/química , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/química , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Solo/química
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 155(1): 80-103, 2014 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24886774

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) for medicinal and cosmetic purposes is inextricably linked to ancient and modern cultures of North Africa and Asia. Literature and artwork indicates that Lawsonia inermis played an important holistic role in the daily lives of some ancient cultures, providing psychological and medicinal benefits, as well as being used for personal adornment. Although henna was historically applied to the hands and feet to protect against fungal pathogens and to hair to combat lice and dandruff, other traditional uses include the treatment of liver and digestive disorders, reduction of tissue loss in leprosy, diabetic foot disorders and ulcers. PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Almost 70 phenolic compounds have been isolated from various parts of the plant. Naphthaquinones, which include the dyeing principle lawsone, have been linked to many of the pharmacological activities. The terpene, ß-ionone is largely responsible for the pungent odour of the essential oil isolated from the flowers. In addition to other volatile terpenes, some non-volatile terpenoids, a single sterol, two alkaloids and two dioxin derivatives have also been isolated from the plant. BIOACTIVITY: Henna is a pharmacologically important plant with significant in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although a myriad of pharmacological activities have been documented, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities are the most thoroughly investigated. Some incidents of adverse reactions following application to the skin have been reported, but these are mainly confined to cases involving individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and reactions to adulterants added to henna products. CONCLUSIONS: Adulteration of henna is very common and may have resulted in unwarranted scientific findings. Phytochemical profiling studies of the plant, which are crucial for the establishment of proper quality control protocols, are lacking and hamper the development of medicinal products. Although many in vitro studies have been conducted to evaluate the pharmacological activities and many in vivo studies have focussed on the toxicity of extracts, more in vivo studies to validate pharmacological activities are needed. The roles of specific compounds and their synergies have not been comprehensively investigated.


Assuntos
Lawsonia (Planta)/química , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Naftoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Naftoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Norisoprenoides/isolamento & purificação , Norisoprenoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 131: 455-60, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24840486

RESUMO

We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0→S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration.


Assuntos
Bixaceae/química , Carotenoides/química , Corantes/química , Refratometria , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
10.
Lab Chip ; 14(11): 1850-7, 2014 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24756475

RESUMO

Persistence of bacteria during antibiotic therapy is a widespread phenomenon, of particular importance in refractory mycobacterial infections such as leprosy and tuberculosis. Persistence is characterized by the phenotypic tolerance of a subpopulation of bacterial cells to antibiotics. Characterization of these "persister" cells is often difficult due to the transient, non-heritable nature of the phenotype and due to the presence of contaminating material from non-persisting cells, which usually comprise the larger fraction. In this study, we use 3D carbon-electrode arrays for dielectrophoresis-based separation of intact cells from damaged cells, revealed by differential staining with propidium iodide, and we use this procedure to purify intact cells from cultures of Mycobacterium smegmatis treated with isoniazid, a frontline anti-tuberculosis drug. The method presented in this study could be used for rapid label-free enrichment of intact persister cells from antibiotic-treated cultures while preserving the metastable persister phenotype. This approach would facilitate the downstream analysis of low-frequency subpopulations of cells using conventional omics techniques, such as transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Mycobacterium smegmatis/citologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Eletroforese/métodos , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Propídio/farmacologia
11.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 171(8): 2285-94, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24068477

RESUMO

In this work, bacterial cellulose nanofibers were produced by using the Gluconacetobacter hansenii HE1 strain. These nanofibers were derivatized with dye affinity ligand Reactive Green 5, and these newly synthesized dye-attached nanofibers were used for affinity adsorption of urease. Reactive Green 5-attached nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, SEM, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis. Some adsorption conditions which significantly affect the adsorption efficiency were investigated. The maximum urease adsorption capacity was found to be 240 mg/g nanofiber in pH 6.0 and at room temperature. Dye-free plain nanofibers also used for studying nonspecific urease adsorption onto plain nanofibers and nonspecific adsorption were found to be negligible (3.5 mg/g nanofiber). Prepared dye-attached nanofibers can be used in five successive adsorption/desorption steps without any decrease in their urease adsorption capacity. The desorption rate of the adsorbed urease was found to be 98.9 %. The activity of the urease was also investigated, and it was found that free and desorbed urease from the dye-attached nanofibers showed similar specific activity.


Assuntos
Adsorção , Gluconacetobacter/química , Nanofibras/química , Urease/química , Celulose/química , Corantes/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20228546

RESUMO

Hair coloring with henna has been popular in Turkey for years. In recent years since the tattoos are applied by the street vendors in most of the beach places in Turkey, skin coloring with henna has also increased. Henna can be used alone or in combination with other coloring agents. Henna alone can be safe but due to additives such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), p-toluenediamine and various essential oils, allergic contact reactions may occur. We report a 22-year-old man who developed severe inflammatory and keloidal, moderately bullous allergic reaction after henna paint-on tattoo. We did a patch test separately with these painting products (henna powder, PPD) and with the European standard series. PPD was strongly positive (+++) on day 2 and remained positive for following days. After treating with topical clobetasol-17 butyrate, resolution was obtained in two weeks. But some keloidal reaction remained.


Assuntos
Corantes/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/patologia , Queloide/induzido quimicamente , Queloide/patologia , Fenilenodiaminas/efeitos adversos , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/patologia , Queloide/diagnóstico , Masculino , Óleos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 61(3): 441-50, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19700014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous dermatitis is a distinctive histopathologic cutaneous reaction pattern against various infectious and noninfectious agents. Cytologically, granulomatous dermatitis shows granulomas and multinucleated giant cells. Various etiologic agents of granulomatous diseases can also be identified. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings in granulomatous skin diseases. METHODS: Patients who had granulomas and/or multinucleated giant cells of Langhans, foreign body- and/or Touton type in Tzanck smear tests were included in the study. In these patients, Tzanck preparations were then further evaluated for additional cytologic findings. Samples stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain were evaluated by the same dermatologist throughout the study. In some patients, methylene blue, Gram and/or Erlich-Ziehl-Nielsen stains were also performed. In all of the study cases, the final diagnosis was established after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; bacterial, leishmanial, and fungal cultures; histopathology; tuberculosis and leishmania polymerase chain reaction). We also calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the Leishman-Donovan body for cutaneous leishmaniasis. RESULTS: Over a 2-year period, 94 of 950 patients (9.9%) in whom Tzanck smear tests were performed had cytologic findings consistent with a granulomatous reaction. In 74 (78.7%) and 20 (21.3%) patients, the granulomatous reaction was due to infectious and noninfectious causes, respectively. Infectious causes included cutaneous leishmaniasis in 65 patients (87.8%), candidal granuloma in two patients, botyromycosis in two patients, and aspergillosis, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, leprosy, and cutaneous tuberculosis in one patient each. In 58 of 74 patients (78.4%) with infectious granulomatous dermatitis, the causes of the granulomas were identified. Noninfectious granulomatous reactions were due to granuloma annulare in 7 patients, sarcoidosis in 5 patients, a foreign body in 4 patients, necrobiosis lipoidica in 2 patients, and juvenile xanthogranuloma in 2 patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%) with noninfectious granulomatous reactions, the cytologic findings were characteristic of the final diagnoses. The sensitivity and specificity of Leishman-Donovan bodies for cutaneous leishmaniasis were 76.9% and 100%, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All of the samples were evaluated by the same dermatologist throughout the study; therefore no comment could be made regarding the reliability of the Tzanck smear test. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for diseases other than cutaneous leishmaniasis could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. CONCLUSION: The Tzanck smear test may be a useful diagnostic tool for certain granulomatous skin diseases.


Assuntos
Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Dermatite/patologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corantes , Citodiagnóstico/normas , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Células Gigantes de Langhans/patologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Lúpus Vulgar/patologia , Masculino , Azul de Metileno , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brain Res ; 1186: 124-8, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17996220

RESUMO

In spite of the numerous reports on the optic fiber distribution in the optic nerve and tract of vertebrates, there have been few studies of the visual pathway in reptiles. The arrangement of fibers in the optic nerve and tract of the turtle Mauremys leprosa was studied by placing a small granule of carbocyanine dye (DiI or DiA) in one of the four quadrants of the retina. The labeled fibers were traced through transverse sections of the retinofugal pathway with confocal microscopy. Retinal axons displayed a quadrant-specific order along the optic nerve. However, retinal ganglion cell axons were re-organized as they passed through the chiasmatic region of the optic pathway. In the optic tract, the nasal and temporal fibers remained intermingled, but there was segregation of dorsal from ventral fibers. This re-ordering is similar to that described in other vertebrates, suggesting the existence of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Nervo Óptico/anatomia & histologia , Retina/citologia , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Carbocianinas/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Nervo Óptico/citologia , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Vias Visuais/citologia , Vias Visuais/metabolismo
16.
Rev Hist Pharm (Paris) ; 53(347): 371-84, 2005.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16358460

RESUMO

Synthetic dyes were first discovered at the end of the XVIIIth century (picric acid by Woulfe in 1771) and during the first part of the XIXth century: rosolic acid (Runge, 1834), mauvein (Perkin, 1856), but their development was major at the end of the XIXth century. Their therapeutic use was really starting at the beginning of the XXth century, mainly by local and oral route. It is only in the 1930's that parenteral route of administration was actually developed: methylene blue, methyl violet are some examples that were used for leprosy and filariasis, respectively. After the 2nd world war, one can observe a rapid decrease of the therapeutic use of dyes by intravenous route. Only a few dyes are still used today, such as patent blue V or fluorescein, as drugs for diagnostic use.


Assuntos
Corantes/história , Corantes/uso terapêutico , França , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Injeções/história
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 102(26): 9188-93, 2005 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15967991

RESUMO

Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2, which plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes, including cell proliferation, is known to be mediated by the canonical Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) kinase cascade. Alternative MEK-independent signaling pathways for Erk1/2 activation in mammalian cells are not known. During our studies of human primary Schwann cell response to long-term infection of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative organism of leprosy, we identified that intracellular M. leprae activated Erk1/2 directly by lymphoid cell kinase (p56Lck), a Src family member, by means of a PKCepsilon-dependent and MEK-independent signaling pathway. Activation of this signaling induced nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, G1/S-phase progression, and continuous proliferation, but without transformation. Thus, our data reveal a previously unknown signaling mechanism of glial cell proliferation, which might play a role in dedifferentiation as well as nerve regeneration and degeneration. Our findings may also provide a potential mechanism by which an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen like M. leprae subverts nervous system signaling to propagate its cellular niche for colonization and long-term bacterial survival.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/enzimologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Bromodesoxiuridina/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Separação Celular , Corantes/farmacologia , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Fase G1 , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fosforilação , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fase S , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16394457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyeing is an age-old process and forms an integral part of textile industries. Tying is a process by which a particular part of cloth is prevented from the process of dyeing. The skin diseases in workers engaged in the 'tie and dye' industry have not been extensively studied. AIMS: To study the prevalence of contact dermatitis among workers engaged in the 'tie and dye' industries in and around Jodhpur (Western Rajasthan). METHODS: One thousand three hundred workers engaged in 'tie and dye' work were evaluated for occupation-related dermatitis. Those with skin lesions were subjected to patch tests using 2% aqueous solution of the dyes and chemicals commonly used by them. These included direct dyes, VAT dyes, sulfur dyes and azo dyes. Fifty workers without skin lesions served as controls. RESULTS: One hundred patients (7.69%) had dermatitis involving the exposed sites, mainly the hands and forearms. Eighty-one patients showed positive reactions to one or more dyes, most commonly Red RC base (azo dye), followed by naphthol. CONCLUSION: Red RC base and naphthol were the commonest allergens in the 'tie and dye' industry.


Assuntos
Corantes/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Naftóis/efeitos adversos , Indústria Têxtil , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes do Emplastro , Prevalência
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