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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113416, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980485

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae) is a common medicinal plant described in many traditional medicine as well as in Ayurveda used against snakebites. Besides, the plant has also been reported traditionally against fever, rheumatic arthritis, madness, liver ailments, dyspepsia, oedema, leishmaniasis, leprosy, dysmenorrhoea, sexual diseases etc. The plant is known to contain its major bioactive constituent aristolochic acid (AA) known for its anti-snake venom, abortifacient, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This present work describes a validated, fast and reproducible high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method to estimate AA from the roots of 20 chemotypes of A. indica procured from 20 diverse geographical locations from the state of West Bengal, India. Further, an evidence-based approach was adopted to investigate the reported anti-venom activity of the aqueous extracts of the A. indica roots by assessing its phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory properties since PLA2 is a major component of many snake-venoms. Finally, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the aqueous root extract of the Purulia (AI 1) chemotype were assessed at various concentrations using Allium cepa root meristematic cells. RESULTS: The highest amount of AA (7643.67 µg/g) was determined in the roots of A. indica chemotype collected from Purulia district followed by the chemotypes collected from Murshidabad, Jalpaiguri and Birbhum districts (7398.34, 7345.09 and 6809.97 µg/g respectively). This study not only determines AA in the plants to select pharmacologically elite chemotypes of A. indica, but it also identifies high AA producing A. indica for further domestication and propagation of the plants for pharmacological and industrial applications. The method was validated via analyzing inter-day and intra-day precision, repeatability, reproducibility, instrumental precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and specificity. Chemotypes with high AA content exhibited superior anti-PLA2 activity by selectively inhibiting human-group PLA2. Moreover, A. indica root extract significantly inhibited mitosis in Allium cepa root tips as a potent clastogen. CONCLUSIONS: The present quick, reproducible and validated HPTLC method provides an easy tool to determine AA in natural A. indica plant populations as well as in food and dietary supplements, a potential antivenin at one hand and a possible cause of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) at another. Besides, the cytotoxic and mitotoxic properties of the root extracts should be used with caution especially for oral administration.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Aristolochia/química , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antídotos/isolamento & purificação , Antídotos/toxicidade , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Meristema/citologia , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Cebolas/citologia , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1534: 123-129, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290400

RESUMO

Pulse chase analysis is often used in investigating dynamics of cellular substances. Fluorescently labeled lactosyl sphingosine molecule is useful in chasing its transformation, however the analysis of such metabolites in attomole level is of extreme difficult due to the presence of large amount of endogenous amphiphilic molecules such as glycosphingolipids, sphingomyerin, and glycerophospholipids. Nano LC suites for analyzing the attomole scale metabolites, therefore removal of endogenous substances prior to nano LC and finding appropriate nano LC conditions are necessary. Thus, we focused on the solubility of fluorescent BODIPY-labeled lactosylsphingosine (Lac-Sph-BODIPY) to identify suitable solvents to remove endogenous compounds. In this study, we evaluated solvents by using C18 thin layer chromatography (RP TLC). The mobility (Rf) of Lac-Sph-BODIPY against several solvent mixtures on RP TLC were plotted against polarity and hydrogen bonding capability followed by Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs). The optimum solvent mixture with Rf = 0.3 ±â€¯0.1 was chosen for elimination of endogenous phospholipids on a ZrO2-SiO2 cartridge column and subsequent separation by nano LC. Efficient removal of endogenous phospholipids was demonstrated, and good resolution in nano LC analysis of Lac-Sph-BODIPY extracted from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was achieved. It was also shown that the amount of exogenously added compound was important in the investigation of metabolites using cultured cells.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Esfingolipídeos/química , Animais , Compostos de Boro/química , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Nanotecnologia , Psicosina/análogos & derivados , Psicosina/análise , Psicosina/química , Psicosina/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Esfingolipídeos/análise , Esfingolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Zircônio/química
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 409(14): 3527-3539, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389917

RESUMO

There is a great interest in finding alternatives and green solvents in extraction processes to replace petroleum based solvents. In order to investigate these possibilities, computational methods, as Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) and conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS), were used in this work to predict the solvation power of a series of solvents in salmon fish lipids. Additionally, experimental studies were used to evaluate the performance in lipids extraction using 2-methyltetrahydrofurane, cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethyl carbonate, isopropanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, p-cymene and d-limonene compared with hexane. Lipid classes of extracts were obtained by using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), whereas gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) technique was employed to obtain fatty acid profiles. Some differences between theoretical and experimental results were observed, especially regarding the behavior of p-cymene and d-limonene, which separate from the predicted capability. Results obtained from HPTLC indicated that p-cymene and d-limonene extract triglycerides (TAGs) and diglycerides (DAGs) at levels of 73 and 19%, respectively, whereas the other studied extracts contain between 75 and 76% of TAGs and between 16 and 17% of DAGs. Fatty acid profiles, obtained by using GC-FID, indicated that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) between 19.5 and 19.9% of extracted oil, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the range between 43.5 and 44.9%, and PUFAs between 31.2 and 34.6% were extracted. p-Cymene and limonene extracts contained lower percentages than the other studied solvents of some PUFAs due probably to the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are more susceptible to oxidative degradation than MUFAs. Ethyl acetate has been found to be the best alternative solvent to hexane for the extraction of salmon oil lipids. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Destilação/métodos , Química Verde/métodos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hexanos/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Salmão/metabolismo , Solubilidade
4.
Biotechnol Prog ; 28(6): 1457-65, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22961753

RESUMO

Realizing the importance of xylitol as a high-valued compound that serves as a sugar substitute, a new, one step thin layer chromatographic procedure for quick, reliable, and efficient determination of xylose and xylitol from their mixture was developed. Two hundred and twenty microorganisms from the laboratory stock cultures were screened for their ability to produce xylitol from D-xylose. Amongst these, an indigenous yeast isolate no.139 (SM-139) was selected and identified as Debaryomyces hansenii on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics and (26S) D1/D2 r DNA region sequencing. Debaryomyces hansenii produced 9.33 gL(-1) of xylitol in presence of 50.0 gL(-1) of xylose in 84 h at pH 5.5, 30°C, 200 rpm. In order to utilize even higher concentrations of xylose for maximum xylitol production, a xylose enrichment technique was developed. The strain of Debaryomyces hansenii was obtained through xylose enrichment technique in a statistically optimized medium containing 0.3% yeast extract, 0.2% peptone, 0.03% MgSO(4) .7H(2) O along with 1% methanol. The culture was inoculated with 6% inoculum and incubated at 30°C and 250 rpm. A yield of 0.6 gg(-1) was obtained with a xylitol volumetric productivity of 0.65 g/L h(-1) in the presence of 200 gL(-1) of xylose although up to 300 gL(-1) of xylose could be tolerated through batch fermentation. Through this technique, even higher concentrations of xylose as substrate could be potentially utilized for maximum xylitol production.


Assuntos
Debaryomyces/metabolismo , Xilitol/biossíntese , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Filogenia , Xilose/metabolismo
5.
J Org Chem ; 73(24): 9732-43, 2008 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18989931

RESUMO

Lipomannan (LM) is one of the domains of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) glycolipids, the latter being one of several cell surface organic molecules that fortify mycobacterial species against external attack. Some members of mycobacterial families are pathogenic, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, while others are nonpathogenic, and used in the clinic, such as Mycobacterium smegmatis. Additional biological significance arises from the fact that LM has been implicated in several health disorders outside of those associated with mycobacterial pathogens, notably for treatment of bladder cancer. LM is comprised of a heavily lipidated phosphoinositide dimannoside headgroup, from which a mannan array, of varied complexity, extends. The latter consists of a 1,6-alpha-linked backbone flanked at position O2, not necessarily regularly, with alpha-linked mannosides. This paper gives an example of lipomannan synthesis in which all of the sugar components, whether functioning as donors or acceptors, are obtained from n-pentenyl orthoesters, themselves in turn prepared in three easy steps from D-mannose. Assembly of the mannan array is facilitated by the exquisite regioselectivity occasioned by the use of ytterbium triflate/N-iodosuccinimide as the trigger for reaction of n-pentenyl orthoesters.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/síntese química , Mycobacterium/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Catálise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Ésteres , Indicadores e Reagentes , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manose/química , Mesilatos/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/química
6.
FEBS Lett ; 581(18): 3345-50, 2007 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17601578

RESUMO

Glycolipids of Mycobacterium leprae obtained from armadillo tissue nodules infected with the bacteria were analyzed. Mass spectrometric analysis of the glycolipids indicated the presence of trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) together with trehalose 6-monomycolate (TMM) and phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I). The analysis showed that M. leprae-derived TDM and TMM possessed both alpha- and keto-mycolates centering at C78 in the former and at C81 or 83 in the latter subclasses, respectively. For the first time, MALDI-TOF mass analyses showed the presence of TDM in M. leprae.


Assuntos
Fatores Corda/química , Fatores Corda/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium leprae/química , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Fatores Corda/metabolismo , Ésteres/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Metilação , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
7.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 88(3): 137-45, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17504443

RESUMO

Murine leprosy is a natural disease of the mouse, the most popular model animal used in biomedical research; the disease is caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), a successful parasite of macrophages. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that MLM survives within macrophages because it highly resists the toxic effects of the reactive oxygen intermediaries produced by these cells in response to infection by the microorganism. MLM cells were incubated in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-H(2)O(2)-halide for several periods of time. The peroxidative effect of this system was investigated by assessing the changes occurred in (a) lipid composition; (b) viability; and (c) infectivity of the microorganism. Changes in the lipid composition of peroxidated- vs. intact-MLM were analysed by thin layer chromatography. The effect of the peroxidative system on the viability and infectivity of MLM was measured by the alamar blue reduction assay and by its ability to produce an infection in the mouse, respectively. Peroxidation of MLM produced drastic changes in the lipid envelope of the microorganism, killed the bacteria and abolished their ability to produce an in vivo infection in the mouse. In vitro, MLM is highly susceptible to the noxious effects of the HRPO-H(2)O(2)-halide system. Although the lipid envelope of MLM might protect the microorganism from the peroxidative substances produced at 'physiological' concentrations in vivo, the success of MLM as a parasite of macrophages might rather obey for other reasons. The ability of MLM to enter macrophages without triggering these cells' oxidative response and the lack of granular MPO in mature macrophages might better explain its success as an intracellular parasite of these cells.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/farmacologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 86(3-4): 324-9, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16632407

RESUMO

'Mycobacterium habana' was proposed as a distinct species within the genus Mycobacterium; however, it is actually a synonym of Mycobacterium simiae and included in the serotype I of this species. The potential use of 'M. habana' as a vaccine in both leprosy and tuberculosis has led to the analysis of its lipid composition in an attempt to define distinctive markers that could be used in the quality control of true strains of this bacterium. Lipids of taxonomic value (fatty and mycolic acids) are similar in 'M. habana' and M. simiae; nevertheless, they clearly differ on the basis of glycopeptidolipid (GPL) composition. Thus, contrary to M. simiae, most strains of 'M. habana' can be defined by the presence of three polar compounds, designated GPL-I, GPL-II and GPL-III, easily determined by thin-layer chromatography, and characterized, respectively, by the content of l-fucose, 2,4-di-O-Me-d-glucuronic acid, and 4-O-Me-d-glucuronic acid, as epitopes.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/química , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glicolipídeos/análise , Humanos , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Ácidos Micólicos/análise , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/classificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/química
9.
Extremophiles ; 9(1): 7-16, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15338455

RESUMO

The comparative analysis of growth, intracellular content of Na+ and K+, and the production of trehalose in the halophilic Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined under saline stress. The yeast species were studied based on their ability to grow in the absence or presence of 0.6 or 1.0 M NaCl and KCl. D. hansenii strains grew better and accumulated more Na+ than S. cerevisiae under saline stress (0.6 and 1.0 M of NaCl), compared to S. cerevisiae strains under similar conditions. By two methods, we found that D. hansenii showed a higher production of trehalose, compared to S. cerevisiae; S. cerevisiae active dry yeast contained more trehalose than a regular commercial strain (S. cerevisiae La Azteca) under all conditions, except when the cells were grown in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl. In our experiments, it was found that D. hansenii accumulates more glycerol than trehalose under saline stress (2.0 and 3.0 M salts). However, under moderate NaCl stress, the cells accumulated more trehalose than glycerol. We suggest that the elevated production of trehalose in D. hansenii plays a role as reserve carbohydrate, as reported for other microorganisms.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sais/farmacologia , Trealose/biossíntese , Trealose/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Glicerol/química , Glicerol/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Potássio/química , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Sódio/química , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Biol Chem ; 279(41): 42574-83, 2004 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15292272

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the two main mycobacterial pathogens in humans, produce highly specific long chain beta-diols, the dimycocerosates of phthiocerol, and structurally related phenolic glycolipid (PGL) antigens, which are important virulence factors. In addition, M. tuberculosis also secretes glycosylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl esters (p-HBAD) that contain the same carbohydrate moiety as the species-specific PGL of M. tuberculosis (PGL-tb). The genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds in M. tuberculosis are grouped on a 70-kilobase chromosomal fragment containing three genes encoding putative glycosyltransferases: Rv2957, Rv2958c, and Rv2962c. To determine the functions of these genes, three recombinant M. tuberculosis strains, in which these genes were individually inactivated, were constructed and biochemically characterized. Our results demonstrated that (i) the biosynthesis of PGL-tb and p-HBAD involves common enzymatic steps, (ii) the Rv2957, Rv2958c, and Rv2962c genes are involved in the formation of the glycosyl moiety of the two classes of molecules, and (iii) the product of Rv2962c catalyzes the transfer of a rhamnosyl residue onto p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester or phenolphthiocerol dimycocerosates, whereas the products of Rv2958c and Rv2957 add a second rhamnosyl unit and a fucosyl residue to form the species-specific triglycosyl appendage of PGL-tb and p-HBAD. The recombinant strains produced provide the tools to study the role of the carbohydrate domain of PGL-tb and p-HBAD in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicosiltransferases/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/química , Fenol/química , Antígenos/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Catálise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Teste de Complementação Genética , Glicosilação , Lasers , Lipídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Parabenos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Ramnose/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Toxicon ; 40(8): 1121-127, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12165314

RESUMO

A benthic toxic dinoflagellate identified as Prorocentrum lima (Syn. Exuviaella lima), and designated as strain PRL-1, was isolated from the coast of El Pardito (Coyote) Island in Baja California Sur, Mexico, after a fisherman poisoning incident involving consumption of liver from Lutjanus colorado, and Mycteroperca prionura fish. Purification and culturing was done in ES-Si medium, under 12:12 light/dark cycle (4 x 20 W cool-white fluorescent lamps), at 22 degrees C and constant stirring during 28 days. Whole cells were toxic to Artemia franciscana and its methanolic extract to mouse and to the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and HPLC-MS) of such extract indicated an unusual proportion (1:2) okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1). Estimated total toxin content by mouse bioassay (based on OA toxicity) was 19 pg/cell, a value significantly higher than that found by HPLC-MS (about 5.2 pg/cell, taking into account OA and DTX-1 only), suggesting that additional toxic components of unidentified nature are detected with the bioassay. This is the first report of a successful isolation and culturing of a toxic dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California, Mexico.


Assuntos
Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Dinoflagelados/química , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , México , Camundongos , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Piranos/análise , Medição de Risco
12.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 3(12): 1106-12, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10599015

RESUMO

SETTING: Differential diagnosis of leprosy and tuberculosis in regions where both illnesses are endemic is a prerequisite for proper identification and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recognition of phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) of Mycobacterium leprae and sulfolipid-I (SL-I) of M. tuberculosis by serum from patients with leprosy (LL) or pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). DESIGN: Purified PGL-I and SL-I were used as antigens in an ELISA test set up to assess recognition of these lipids by serum from 43 LL patients, 44 PTB patients and 38 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Leprosy patients gave higher IgM than IgG responses to PGL-I and had comparable IgM and IgG responses to SL-I. A similar situation was observed with PTB serum. Some healthy individuals were found to contain significant levels of antibodies to both lipids. CONCLUSION: There is no specific recognition of either of the two lipid antigens tested by serum from both leprosy and tuberculosis patients; this rules out the possibility of using PGL-I and SL-I as tools for the differential diagnosis of these two mycobacterial diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Glicolipídeos/análise , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10545827

RESUMO

In an attempt to elucidate the effects of oral thalidomide on liver phospholipid composition, doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg/day of thalidomide were orally administered to two groups of female Wistar rats (7 animals each), respectively, over a period of 60 days. Control animals (n = 7) received corresponding quantities of the vehicle alone. Chromatographic analysis and quantitative determination of the isolated phospholipid classes revealed statistically significant alterations of phospholipid fractions in the liver of the animals treated with the higher thalidomide dose (3 mg/kg/day). These alterations may be associated with changes in the metabolic activity, ionic transport and cell-cell interactions of the hepatic cellular components.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Talidomida/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Talidomida/administração & dosagem
14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 51(2)mayo-ago. 1999. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-34317

RESUMO

Se analizan comparativamente las fracciones de ácidos grasos micobacterianos de cepas pertenecientes a las especies Mycobacterium habana y Mycobacterium simiae.En este estudio se emplea la técnica de cromatografía gas-líquido acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se exponen y comparan los perfiles cromatográficos obtenidos por esta técnica, se demuestra su valor como elemento alternativo en la caracterización micobacteriana, con ella se analizan las posibles diferencias que puedan existir entre especies micobacterianas y llegar a identificar las fracciones de ácidos grasos presentes. Los resultados demuestran que las cepas en estudio presentan cantidades cuantificables de ácidos grasos con cadenas de más de 20 átomos de carbono. Entre las cepas existen pequeñas diferencias con respecto a estos componentes orgánicos, queda demostrado que cada una describe un patrón cromatográfico característico, aunque la composición de los ácidos grasos presentes es muy parecida en las 2 especies en estudio(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 65(2): 145-51, 1999 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10078598

RESUMO

Sixteen Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) strains isolated from bovine tissues and one standard reference strain of M. bovis AN5 alongwith other species of mycobacteria for comparison were investigated for the presence of phenolic glycolipid (PGL) and phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM) for rapid identification of M. bovis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The study indicated presence of PGL with an Rf value of 0.75 in chloroform-methanol solvent in all 17 M. bovis strains. The dimycocerostate A corresponding to spot A was the major constituent among all the three spots in M. bovis strains. TLC appeared to be a promising alternative to conventional biochemical methods for identification of M. bovis taking into consideration both PGL and PDIM lipids.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Bovinos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/veterinária , Glicolipídeos/análise , Mycobacterium bovis/química
16.
Science ; 283(5403): 854-7, 1999 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9933171

RESUMO

Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a severe human skin disease that occurs primarily in Africa and Australia. Infection with M. ulcerans results in persistent severe necrosis without an acute inflammatory response. The presence of histopathological changes distant from the site of infection suggested that pathogenesis might be toxin mediated. A polyketide-derived macrolide designated mycolactone was isolated that causes cytopathicity and cell cycle arrest in cultured L929 murine fibroblasts. Intradermal inoculation of purified toxin into guinea pigs produced a lesion similar to that of Buruli ulcer in humans. This toxin may represent one of a family of virulence factors associated with pathology in mycobacterial diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/isolamento & purificação , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Mycobacterium ulcerans/patogenicidade , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Feminino , Cobaias , Células L , Macrolídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia , Mycobacterium ulcerans/química , Necrose , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/patologia , Virulência
18.
J Biol Chem ; 272(27): 16741-5, 1997 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9201977

RESUMO

Surface-exposed unusual lipids containing phthiocerol and phenolphthiocerol are found only in the cell wall of slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria and are thought to play important roles in host-pathogen interaction. The enzymology and molecular genetics of biosynthesis of phthiocerol and phenolphthiocerol are unknown. We postulate the domain organization of a set of multifunctional enzymes and a cluster of genes (pps) that would encode these enzymes for the biosynthesis of phthiocerol and phenolphthiocerol. A cosmid containing the postulated pps gene cluster was identified by screening a genomic library of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the postulated homologous domains from mycocerosic acid synthase and fatty acid synthase genes as probes. Homologous cosmids were also identified in the genomic libraries of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. bovis BCG was transformed with a pps disruption construct, made from the BCG cosmid by introducing the hygromycin resistance gene as the positive-selectable marker and the sacB gene as the counter-selectable marker. Gene disruption by homologous recombination with double crossover was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. Chromatographic analysis showed that the phenolphthiocerol derivative, mycoside B, and phthiocerol dimycocerosates were not produced by the gene knockout mutants. This result confirms the identity of the pps genes. With the identification of the pps gene clusters in both M. tuberculosis and M. leprae, it should be possible to test the postulated roles of these unique lipids in tuberculosis and leprosy.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/genética , Mycobacterium/genética , Ceras/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Alelos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Cosmídeos/genética , Cosmídeos/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Álcoois Graxos/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/biossíntese , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Mutagênese Insercional , Mycobacterium/enzimologia , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium bovis/enzimologia , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium leprae/enzimologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
19.
Indian J Lepr ; 69(2): 179-81, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9290970

RESUMO

While extracting the M. leprae from the nasal flushings of leprosy patients it was found that these organisms were trapped in the waxy layer, between the aqueous and the chloroform layers. Thin layer chromotography (TLC) analysis of this layer, using chloroform-methanol-water system, revealed different spots when sprayed with acid alcohol and heated at 160 degrees C. The TLC profile of lipids of lepromatous and borderline (MB according to the WHO terminology) leprosy patients was distinctly different from that of tuberculoid leprosy patients and normal human volunteers. A simple, economical and fast procedure to characterize patients belonging to different spectra has been developed.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hanseníase/classificação , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo
20.
Arzneimittelforschung ; 47(3): 303-6, 1997 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9105550

RESUMO

Clofazimine (CAS 2030-63-9) is an important drug used in the treatment of leprosy. Its important metabolites are investigated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC (diode array) and HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry. The resulting analytical data, extraction, isolation and characterization methods are presented. Their applicability is described for human urine analysis.


Assuntos
Clofazimina/farmacocinética , Hansenostáticos/farmacocinética , Adulto , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Clofazimina/urina , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/urina , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas
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