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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(3): e0006214, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. In 2016, more than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world, representing the most frequent cause of infectious irreversible deformities and disabilities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, we demonstrate a consistent procoagulant profile on 40 reactional and non-reactional multibacillary leprosy patients. A retrospective analysis in search of signs of coagulation abnormalities among 638 leprosy patients identified 35 leprosy patients (5.48%) which displayed a characteristic lipid-like clot formed between blood clot and serum during serum harvesting, herein named 'leprosum clot'. Most of these patients (n = 16, 45.7%) belonged to the lepromatous leprosy pole of the disease. In addition, formation of the leprosum clot was directly correlated with increased plasma levels of soluble tissue factor and von Willebrand factor. High performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated a high content of neutral lipids in the leprosum clot, and proteomic analysis demonstrated that the leprosum clot presented in these patients is highly enriched in fibrin. Remarkably, differential 2D-proteomics analysis between leprosum clots and control clots identified two proteins present only in leprosy patients clots: complement component 3 and 4 and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family heavy chain-related protein (IHRP). In agreement with those observations we demonstrated that M. leprae induces hepatocytes release of IHRP in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that leprosy MB patients develop a procoagulant status due to high levels of plasmatic fibrinogen, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, von Willebrand factor and soluble tissue factor. We propose that some of these components, fibrinogen for example, presents potential as predictive biomarkers of leprosy reactions, generating tools for earlier diagnosis and treatment of these events.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/microbiologia , Eritema Nodoso/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Pele/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Criança , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Eritema Nodoso/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192302, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs as dermal consequence of previous Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) infection and serves as an important reservoir for transmission of VL. Diagnosis of PKDL is often challenging for its symptomatic resemblance to other co-endemic diseases like Leprosy or Vitiligo. Parasitological examination by slit-skin smear and culture are the standard methods but lack high sensitivity. Thus, for efficient control of VL, reliable diagnostic and prognostic assay of PKDL are required. OBJECTIVE: Previously, glycoproteins (9-OAcSA) have been reported as promising biomarkers of Indian VL patients. However, till date, the status of glycans in Indian PKDL patients remains unexplored. Accordingly, in this study, the glyco-profile of PKDL Circulating Immune Complexes (CICs) as compared to other cross diseases like Vitiligo and Leprosyhas been investigated. Further, a novel Glyco CIC assay has been developed for efficient Indian PKDL patient diagnosis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, 90 PKDL patients were enrolled from 3 VL endemic districts of West Bengal during 2015-16. Glycosylation profile of isolated CICs from sera of PKDL patients were initially analyzed through gradient SDS gel electrophoresis followed by PAS silver double staining, which revealed the presence of several glycan rich PKDL specific proteins of varying molecular weights. To further characterize the glyco-profile of acid dissociated affinity purified immuno-reactive antigens present in the CICs, glycosylation was demonstrated in these purified CIC antigens by DIG glycan differentiation kit with or without glycosidase as well as neuraminidase treatment. Diagnostic evaluation of the newly developed colorimetric Glyco CIC assay through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed excellent (0.99) AUC value as compared to other conventional serodiagnostic assays like PEG CIC, Parasite ELISA (IgG and IgM). Additionally, longitudinal monitoring of 18 PKDL patients further revealed its good prognostic utility. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the glycosylation status of CICs among Indian PKDL patients present in all the studied endemic districts of West Bengal. These PKDL biomarkers were completely absent in cross diseases like Vitiligo and Leprosy. Further, the newly developed Glyco CIC assay had an improved sensitivity of 95.6%, specificity of 99.3%, NPV of 97.1% and PPV of 98.9%.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmania donovani/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
s.l; s.n; 2018. 20 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, SES-SP, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1023805

RESUMO

Hemostatic illnesses are frequently associated with acute and chronic infections. In the present work we demonstrated that leprosy patients developed hemostatic abnormalities, like the formation of an atypical lipid clot mass during sera harvesting, a phenomenon previously observed and never unraveled. We characterize the nature of the "leprosum clot", formed during a protrombotic state developed by some patients. During the proteomic analysis of the leprosum clot we discovered a set of potential serum biomarkers to leprosy reactional episodes diagnosis, which at this moment is based only in clinical features. Taking together, our data suggest that leprosy patients are suffering from a procoagulant status, being beneficiated by the introduction of routine coagulation tests during their treatment, which will aloud physicians to prevent some of the acute clinical symptoms related with superficial vein thrombosis such as cyanosis and tissue necrosis observed during severe cases of leprosy reactional episodes. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Pele/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Proteômica/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Eritema Nodoso/complicações , Eritema Nodoso/sangue , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0170202, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107498

RESUMO

Short-chain dehydrogenase reductases (SDRs) have been utilized for catalyzing the reduction of many aromatic/aliphatic prochiral ketones to their respective alcohols. However, there is a paucity of data that elucidates their innate biological role and diverse substrate space. In this study, we executed an in-depth biochemical characterization and substrate space mapping (with 278 prochiral ketones) of an unannotated SDR (DHK) from Debaryomyces hansenii and compared it with structurally and functionally characterized SDR Synechococcus elongatus. PCC 7942 FabG to delineate its industrial significance. It was observed that DHK was significantly more efficient than FabG, reducing a diverse set of ketones albeit at higher conversion rates. Comparison of the FabG structure with a homology model of DHK and a docking of substrate to both structures revealed the presence of additional flexible loops near the substrate binding site of DHK. The comparative elasticity of the cofactor and substrate binding site of FabG and DHK was experimentally substantiated using differential scanning fluorimetry. It is postulated that the loop flexibility may account for the superior catalytic efficiency of DHK although the positioning of the catalytic triad is conserved.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredutases/química , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
5.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 99(1): 108-12, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25138758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the role of topically applied serum therapy with preservative-free artificial tear (AT) drops in patients with moderate to severe dry eye in Hansen's disease along with change in tear protein profile. METHODS: 144 consecutive patients were randomly divided into three groups. After a baseline examination of clinical parameters, each of the patients received designated modality of topical therapy six times a day for 6 weeks. Post-treatment documentation of clinical parameters was done at 6 weeks, and then at 12 weeks after discontinuation of topical therapy. Analysis of three tear proteins using gel electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was done at baseline, at the first and second post-treatment visits. RESULTS: In the cord blood serum (CBS) group, except for McMonnies score and staining score, all other clinical parameters showed continued improvement in the first and second post-treatment analyses. In the autologous serum (ALS) group, all the clinical parameters except Schirmer's I showed significant improvement in the first post-treatment analysis .This was sustained at a significant level in the second analysis except for tear film break-up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology grading. In the AT group, all the parameters improved at a non-significant level except for TBUT in the first analysis. In the next analysis, apart from McMonnies score and TBUT, other clinical parameters did not improve. In the ALS and CBS groups, tear lysozyme, lactoferrin levels improved in both post-treatment measurements (statistically insignificant).Total tear protein continued to increase at statistically significant levels in the first and second post-treatment analyses in the CBS group and at a statistically insignificant level in the ALS group. In the AT group, the three tear proteins continued to decrease in both the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In moderate to severe dry eye in Hansen's disease, serum therapy in comparison with AT drops, improves clinical parameters and causes betterment in tear protein profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2013/07/003802.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/terapia , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal , Hanseníase/terapia , Soro , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Muramidase/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica , Lágrimas/química
6.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78(4): 411-7, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24485589

RESUMO

This study evaluated the reactivity of membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis for the diagnosis of ACL by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis were grown in medium 199 and lysed in a sonicator. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting showed that specific proteins of L. (V.) braziliensis (apparent molecular weights 36 kDa and 48-56 kDa) were recognized by sera from ACL patients. These proteins were eluted from the SDS-PAGE and tested in EIA-IgG with sera from ACL patients, healthy individuals, patients with toxoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, and Chagas disease. The EIA-IgG with membrane antigens allowed us to distinguish patients with ACL from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases (P < 0.0001), and showed a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 90.8%, not including Chagas disease patients. 2D-SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting was performed to improve the characterization of the antigens, and showed a component with isoelectric points near the acid pH side and apparent molecular weights of 48-56 kDa. The results showed good sensitivity and specificity of EIA-IgG with membrane antigens, indicating their potential use for diagnosis of ACL, as well as seroepidemiological surveys and follow-up of clinically cured patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Peso Molecular , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
J Food Prot ; 74(5): 826-9, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21549056

RESUMO

During the processing of dry-cured meat products, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins undergo proteolysis, which has a marked effect on product flavor. Microbial proteolytic activity is due to the action of mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to a lesser extent micrococci. The proteolytic capacity of molds in various meat products is of interest to meat processors in the Mediterranean area. Eleven LAB and mold strains from different commercial origins were tested for proteolytic activity against pork myosin, with a view to possible use of these strains as starter cultures for Iberian dry-cured ham. Proteolytic activity was tested by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The LAB strains with the highest proteolytic activity were Lactobacillus plantarum (L115), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Saga P TM), and Lactobacillus acidophilus (FARGO 606 TM). The best fungal candidate was Penicillium nalgiovense LEM 50I followed by Penicillium digitatum, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium chrysogenum.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Penicillium/metabolismo , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Pediococcus/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Suínos
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 90(4): 586-92, 2010 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20355085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the quality of processed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) products and control the accumulation of hazardous substances therein, minced grass carp slices were salted for 6 h at room temperature and then inoculated with mixed starter cultures of Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen and Monascus anka and fermented for 12 h at 30 degrees C. The changes in some characteristics and biogenic amine contents of the fermented muscles were investigated. RESULTS: During the 12 h fermentation at 30 degrees C, muscles inoculated with mixed starter cultures showed a rapid decrease in pH from 6.0 to 5.1 and suppression of the growth of enterobacteria and pseudomonads. The fermented muscles exhibited better colour, appearance, flavour and overall acceptability than the control (P < 0.05). The changes in non-protein nitrogen and free amino acid contents of the fermented muscles and in their sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that severe hydrolysis of muscle proteins occurred during fermentation. The accumulation of biogenic amines in the muscles was efficiently reduced by fermentation with mixed starter cultures. CONCLUSION: Fermentation with mixed starter cultures of L. casei, S. lactis, S. cerevisiae Hansen and M. anka significantly improved the characteristics of grass carp muscles and controlled the accumulation of biogenic amines.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Produtos Pesqueiros , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carpas/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cor , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fermentação , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Músculo Esquelético/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Paladar
9.
FEBS Lett ; 584(4): 669-74, 2010 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20085764

RESUMO

In prokaryotes, operon encoded proteins often form protein-protein complexes. Here, we show that the native structure of operons can be used to efficiently overexpress protein complexes. This study focuses on operons from mycobacteria and the use of Mycobacterium smegmatis as an expression host. We demonstrate robust and correct stoichiometric expression of dimers to higher oligomers. The expression efficacy was found to be largely independent of the intergenic distances. The strategy was successfully extended to express mycobacterial protein complexes in Escherichia coli, showing that the operon structure of gram-positive bacteria is also functional in gram-negative bacteria. The presented strategy could become a general tool for the expression of large quantities of pure prokaryotic protein complexes for biochemical and structural studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Mycobacterium/genética , Óperon/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Mycobacterium smegmatis/genética , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 86(3): 965-72, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20039034

RESUMO

The nature of the toxic compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 that induce the early death of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii during mixed fermentations, as well as their ability to inhibit the growth of other non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains, was investigated. The killing effect of mixed supernatants towards H. guilliermondii was inactivated by protease treatments, thus revealing the proteinaceous nature of the toxic compounds. Analysis of the protein pattern of mixed supernatants on Tricine SDS-PAGE showed that this S. cerevisiae strain secretes peptides (<10 kDa), which were detected only when death of H. guilliermondii was already established. Death-inducing supernatants were ultrafiltrated by 10 and 2 kDa membranes, respectively, and the inhibitory effect of those permeates were tested in H. guilliermondii cultures. Results indicated that the (2-10) kDa protein fraction of those supernatants seemed to contain antimicrobial peptides active against H. guilliermondii. Thus, the (2-10) kDa protein fraction was concentrated and its inhibitory effect tested against strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii and H. guilliermondii. Under the growth conditions used for these tests, the (2-10) kDa protein fraction of S. cerevisiae CCMI 885 supernatants exhibited a fungistatic effect against all the strains and a fungicidal effect against K. marxianus.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Hanseniaspora/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Kluyveromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Torulaspora/efeitos dos fármacos , Vinho/microbiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 75(7): 872-7, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19230952

RESUMO

Calcium cyanamide (CaCN(2)) has been one of the potential candidates as soil disinfectant since the restriction of methyl bromide in soil fumigation due to its ecological risk. However, little information is available on effects of CaCN(2) on soil microbial community. In this study, the soil microbial communities and the fate of pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend, Fr) f. sp. cucumberinum (Owen) Snyder and Hansen (F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum) in response to CaCN(2) treatment was evaluated. F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population in soil treated with CaCN(2) at rates of 80 and 200 gm(-2) was suppressed by 88.7 and 92.2% after 15 d of CaCN(2) application. Bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations were also greatly decreased after 3 d of CaCN(2) application, but they recovered to the control level by 15 d. The variation in functional diversity of soil microbes characterized by principal component analysis, diversity and evenness indices based on Biolog data followed a similar trend. Meanwhile, the band number from the DGGE of soil 16S rDNA fragments increased from 9 for the non-CaCN(2)-treated soil to 10 or 12 after different rates of CaCN(2) application at 15 d, indicating the increase of abundant rDNA types in the community. The results suggest that CaCN(2) application had only a short-term and transitory impact on the indigenous soil microbial community in contrast to the long-term suppression of the F.O. f. sp. cucumberinum population. It is feasible to reduce Fusarium wilt without significant impact on microbial community by application of CaCN(2) at reasonable doses.


Assuntos
Cianamida/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinomycetales/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibiose , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Food Microbiol ; 25(7): 849-56, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18721672

RESUMO

Sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) addition and yeast inoculation are well-established practices in winemaking for restricting the growth of indigenous yeasts and bacterial populations. The effect of these oenological practices on wine microbial populations has been evaluated using culture-independent methods. These are quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the enumeration of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and PCR-DGGE to determine the yeast and bacteria species diversity. The PCR-DGGE method detected a low yeast and bacteria species diversity. On the contrary, the specificity of the primers designed for the qPCR allowed that minor microbial groups such as Hanseniaspora were accurately quantified regardless of a large presence of other microbial groups such as Saccharomyces. From an oenological point of view, inoculation increased the proportion of Saccharomyces vs. non-Saccharomyces in a shorter time. Hanseniaspora increased during the first phase and decreased during the latter phases of the process, especially in the sulphited fermentations. Both yeast inoculation and SO(2) kept the LAB populations at very low level, while the AAB populations were hardly affected by these two practices.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia Industrial , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Fermentação , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 120(1-2): 136-45, 2007 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17628130

RESUMO

We have investigated the bacteria and yeast ecology of the typical Italian Ciauscolo salami that is produced in Central Italy using a polyphasic approach based on culture-dependent and -independent methods. The physico-chemical analyses showed a progressive drop in pH and water activity (aw) during ripening. The viable counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over coagulase negative cocci (CNC) and yeasts. From the molecular identification of the isolates, the prevalence of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lb. plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus was shown among the bacteria, while Debaryomyces hansenii was the prevalent species among the yeasts, and it was isolated throughout the whole ripening process. Minority species, namely Rhodotorula mucillaginosa and Trichosporon brassicae, were also recovered from the meat batter. The total microbial community was profiled without cultivation by analyzing the DNA that was directly extracted from the salami samples. Moreover, the cultivable community was profiled by analyzing the DNA recovered from bulk cells that were obtained by harvesting the colonies from serial-dilution agar plates. The 16S rRNA gene V1 and V3 regions were used as targets in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of the LAB and CNC communities, respectively, while the diversity and dynamics of the yeast population were assessed by analyzing a portion of the 28S rRNA gene. Our findings suggest that the microbial diversity of fermented meat products can be successfully investigated by this polyphasic approach that is based on the assessment of both the total and the cultivable community diversity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Fúngico/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Lactobacillus/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Staphylococcus/genética , Água/metabolismo , Leveduras/genética
14.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 6(3): 268-74, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17373188

RESUMO

Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by an acid-fast bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). The bacilli proliferate in macrophages infiltrating the skin and gain entry to the dermal nerves via the laminar surface of Schwann cells where they replicate. After entry, the Schwann cells proliferate and then die. Conclusive identification of M. leprae DNA in a sample can be obtained by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the heat shock 65 gene (hsp65). Molecular epidemiology will make it possible to study the global distributions of M. leprae, explore the relationship between genotypes-incidence rates, mode of transmission, and the type of disease (tuberculoid vs. lepromatous). We amplified DNA using PCR for the hsp65 gene from 24 skin lesions from patients diagnosed with various types of leprosy. Fifteen out of 24 were positive for the hsp65 gene. Digestion with HaeIII-PAGE for the RFLP confirmation of the presence of M. leprae DNA showed the typical pattern in 5 out of 24 and 2 novel patterns in 10 out of 24 patients. We confirmed the presence of M. leprae DNA by sequencing the genes for gyraseA or B and folP, which contained only M. leprae specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, we describe novel hsp65 RFLPs for M. leprae found in a high frequency making them ideal for future epidemiology and transmission studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Chaperoninas/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Chaperonina 60 , DNA Girase/genética , Primers do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Inclusão em Parafina , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
15.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 9(3): 343-51, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17345116

RESUMO

The extracellular alkaline protease in the supernatant of cell culture of the marine yeast Aureobasidium pullulans 10 was purified to homogeneity with a 2.1-fold increase in specific protease activity as compared to that in the supernatant by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-75), and anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow). According to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis data, the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 32.0 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 9.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was activated by Cu(2+) (at a concentration of 1.0 mM) and Mn(2+) and inhibited by Hg(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+). The enzyme was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but weakly inhibited by EDTA, 1-10-phenanthroline, and iodoacetic acid. The K(m) and V(max) values of the purified enzyme for casein were 0.25 mg/ml and 0.0286 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. After digestion of shrimp protein, spirulina (Arthospira platensis) protein, proteins of marine yeast strains N3C (Yarrowia lipolytica) and YA03a (Hanseniaspora uvarum), milk protein, and casein with the purified alkaline protease, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the resulting peptides reached 85.3%, 12.1%, 29.8%, 22.8%, 14.1%, and 15.5%, respectively, while the antioxidant activities of these were 52.1%. 54.6%, 25.1%, 35%, 12.5%, and 24.2%, respectively, indicating that ACE inhibitory activity of the resulting peptides from the shrimp protein and antioxidant activity of those produced from the spirulina protein were the highest, respectively. These results suggest that the bioactive peptides produced by digestion of the shrimp protein with the purified alkaline protease have potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/isolamento & purificação , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Leveduras/enzimologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Cátions/farmacologia , Clonagem Molecular , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Estabilidade Enzimática , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metais/farmacologia , Peptídeos/genética , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Leveduras/genética
16.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 13(8): 913-22, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16893992

RESUMO

Mycoplasma genitalium causes nonchlamydial nongonococcal urethritis. M. genitalium was detected by PCR in 17 urethral swabs obtained from 99 men with and without urethritis (J. S. Jensen, R. Orsum, B. Dohn, S. Uldum, A. M. Worm, and K. Lind, Genitourin. Med. 69:265-269, 1993), and later, four M. genitalium strains were isolated (J. S. Jensen, H. T. Hansen, and K. Lind, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:286-291, 1996). The objective of this study was to characterize immunogenic proteins of M. genitalium by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting by using a hyperimmune rabbit serum against M. genitalium G37, determine their identity by mass spectrometry, and develop an M. genitalium-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) free from cross-reactivity with M. pneumoniae antibodies. Using recombinant fragments of the C-terminal part of MgPa (rMgPa), we developed a specific ELISA for detection of M. genitalium antibodies. This antigen did not bind M. pneumoniae antibodies. Using serum samples from the 99 men with and without urethritis, we found that 26 had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to M. genitalium. There was a strong statistically significant correlation between PCR and IgG antibodies to M. genitalium (odds ratio [OR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 21.5; P = 0.002). Furthermore, men with recurrent urethritis were more likely to have antibodies to M. genitalium than were those without recurrent urethritis (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.5; P = 0.0383) and they had significantly higher antibody titers. By use of the rMgPa ELISA, this study further substantiates the importance of M. genitalium as a cause of male urethritis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/imunologia , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Detergentes/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma genitalium/química , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/química , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Octoxinol , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Uretrite/imunologia , Uretrite/microbiologia
17.
Muscle Nerve ; 33(3): 409-14, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16315323

RESUMO

Pure neural leprosy (PNL) is often difficult to diagnose when acid-fast bacilli (AFB) cannot be detected. We undertook the present study to evaluate use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosing PNL. Fifty-eight patients (41 men and 17 women) suspected of pure neural leprosy (PNL) were examined. Patients were classified as borderline tuberculoid (BT, 40 cases) and polar tuberculoid (TT, 18 cases) types. Nerve biopsy was performed and was positive for AFB in 20 patients (all BT patients), i.e., 34.5% of total cases. DNA was extracted from the nerve biopsy samples and amplified using PCR for a specific repeated sequence of DNA from Mycobacterium leprae. PCR analysis was positive in the nerve samples from 29 patients (50%), 27 of the BT type, and 2 of the TT type patients. Further, PCR analysis was positive in 14 of 38 cases that were negative for AFB by nerve biopsy, of which 12 were of the BT type and 2 the TT type. PCR analysis proved to be a useful method to investigate pure neural leprosy, enabling confirmation of the diagnosis in more than a third of the cases that were negative for AFB by nerve biopsy.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/genética , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia
19.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 5(3): 253-61, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15556087

RESUMO

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fungos/fisiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Portugal , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Rios
20.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol ; 30(6): 635-50, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15541004

RESUMO

Using a specific antibody (SMI 31), the state of phosphorylation of high and medium molecular weight neurofilaments (NF-H and NF-M) was studied in 22 leprous and four nonleprous human peripheral nerves by means of immunohistochemistry, sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western immunoblot (WB). The results thus obtained were compared with morphological changes in the respective nerves studied through light and electron microscopy. Many of the leprous nerves showing minimal pathology revealed lack of or weak staining with SMI 31, denoting dephosphorylation. Remyelinated fibres stained intensely with SMI 31 antibody. The WB analysis of Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeletal preparation showed absence of regular SMI 31 reactive bands corresponding to 200 and 150 kDa molecular weight (NF-H and NF-M, respectively) in 10 nerves. Three of the 10 nerves revealed presence of NF protein bands in SDS-PAGE but not in WB. Presence of additional protein band (following NF-M) was seen in four nerves. Two nerves revealed NF-H band but not NF-M band and one nerve showed trace positivity. In the remaining five nerves presence of all the three NF bands was seen. Thus, 77.3% (17/22) of human leprous nerves studied showed abnormal phosphorylation of NF protein(s). The ultrastructural study showed abnormal compaction and arraying of NF at the periphery of the axons in the fibres with altered axon to myelin thickness ratio (atrophied fibres) as well as at the Schmidt-Lantermann (S-L) cleft region. Such NF changes were more pronounced in the severely atrophied axons suggesting a direct correlation. The observed well-spaced NF in the remyelinated fibres under ultrastructural study was in keeping with both intense SMI 31 staining and presence of NF triplet bands seen in WBs in four of leprous nerves that showed a large number of regenerating fibres suggesting reversal of changes with regeneration. Findings in the present study suggest that atrophy, that is, the reduction in axonal calibre and paranodal demyelination, seen in leprous nerves may result from dephosphorylation of NF-H and NF-M proteins.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Atrofia , Axônios/patologia , Western Blotting , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/patologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Inclusão em Parafina , Fosforilação
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