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1.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(2): 169-177, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407334

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of this study is to observe the trend in treatment outcomes and identify determinants of treatment success among patients recruited into care through the DOTS strategy. Methodology: A retrospective record review of tuberculosis patients (2012-2016) was carried out at the Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Centre, Eku, Delta State, Nigeria. Results: Records of four hundred and twenty five (425) tuberculosis patients under DOTS were reviewed over five years. The highest number of cases under treatment, 102 (24.0%), was recorded in 2013. The mean age (SD) of patients was 37.3 (±16.5) years, majority of the patients were male (62.4%) and 18% had TB/HIV co-infection. Treatment outcomes of patients were cured (53.4%), completed (27.8%), died (6.8%), failed (2.4%), lost to follow up (4.9%), transferred out (1.2%) and not evaluated (3.5%). Over all, treatment success rate was 81.2% with a trend of 88.7% (2012), 87.3% (2013), 85.9% (2014), 65.0% (2015) and 65.8% (2016) respectively. Patient characteristics were not associated with treatment success. Conclusion: The treatment success rate was high and in line with the national recommendation of 80% and above. The trend showed a reduction in number of new cases enrolled into the DOTS programme, reduction in success rate with a concomitant increase in loss to follow up. There was no association between patient characteristics and TB treatment success. System strengthening on patient follow up, community health education and treatment adherence is recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta
2.
Dermatol Online J ; 28(3)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259803

RESUMO

Lucio phenomenon is a rare vasculopathy that can occur in patients with Hansen disease, particularly diffuse lepromatous leprosy. It is characterized by retiform purpura and necrotic ulcerations, most commonly affecting the extremities. Diagnosing Lucio phenomenon can be challenging, especially when secondary bacterial infections occur. We report a patient with Lucio phenomenon who presented with acute necrotizing fasciitis of his left upper extremity and a 10-year history of chronic ulcerations. Shortly following admission, he also developed acute kidney injury. The necrotizing fasciitis was treated with prompt surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics. Biopsy and PCR of a right upper extremity ulcer confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Multidrug therapy and prednisone were used to treat the Lucio phenomenon. After initiating treatment, no new lesions developed, kidney function improved, and the patient underwent successful skin graft of his left upper extremity. Although corticosteroid use is controversial, our patient's marked response to multidrug therapy with prednisone highlights the importance of this regimen in severe presentations of Lucio phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, only two other cases of Lucio phenomenon confirmed to be caused by M. lepromatosis have been reported in living patients (rather than retrospectively identified post-mortem), underscoring the importance of the presented clinical course and treatment regimen.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Fasciite Necrosante , Paniculite , Doenças Vasculares , Masculino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Fasciite Necrosante/complicações , Fasciite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Fasciite Necrosante/terapia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Paniculite/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides
3.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(11): 1321-1330, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) imposes substantial health care and economic burden on health care systems and patients. Previous studies failed to examine health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs among patients with incident AF and potential disparity with regard to geographic location. OBJECTIVES: To examine HCRU and costs among patients with incident AF compared with patients without AF and examine whether a geographic disparity exists. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. We selected patients with AF and patients without AF from IBM/Watson MarketScan Research Databases 2014-2019. HCRU and costs were collected 12 months following an AF index date. We used 2-part models with bootstrapping to obtain the marginal estimates and CIs. Rural status was identified based on Metropolitan Statistical Area. We adjusted for age, sex, plan type, US region, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Among 156,732 patients with AF and 3,398,490 patients without AF, patients with AF had 9.04 (95% CI = 8.96-9.12) more outpatient visits, 0.82 (95% CI = 0.81-0.83) more emergency department (ED) visits, 0.33 (95% CI = 0.33-0.34) more inpatient admission, and $15,095 (95% CI = 14,871-15,324) higher total costs, compared with patients without AF. Among patients with AF, rural patients had 1.99 fewer (95% CI = -2.26 to -1.71) outpatient visits and 0.05 (95% CI = 0.02-0.08) more ED visits than urban patients. Overall, rural patients with AF had decreased total costs compared with urban patients (mean = $751; 95% CI = -1,227 to -228). CONCLUSIONS: Incident AF was associated with substantial burden of health care resources and an economic burden, and the burden was not equally distributed across patients in urban vs rural settings. DISCLOSURES: Dr Hansen reports grants from the National Science Foundation during the conduct of the study.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde
4.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(11): 345, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209340

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major zoonotic disease of public health importance worldwide. Its burden is more in developing countries due to inadequate surveillance, co-infection with HIV/AIDS and poor social amenities; hence consumption of unpasteurized milk, contaminated meat and inhalation of infected droplets from animals or patients with active TB are the major risk practices. A survey was conducted on TB prevalence from 2013 to 2014 while patients records from TB and Leprosy units of hospitals in the three Agricultural zones (Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar) of Cross River State, Nigeria were assessed from 2000 to 2010. Out of 1,170 sampled patients, 8 (0.7%) were positive, of which 6 and 2 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, respectively. Out of 52,558 studied patients files, 235 (0.4%) were positive with varied annual prevalence; the highest (1.0%) and lowest (0.2%) in 2009 and 2011, respectively. The prevalence was higher in dry (0.9% and 0.5%) than the rainy season (0.5% and 0.4%), in females (0.9% and 0.5%) than the males (0.4% and 0.4%) in the survey and retrospective studies, respectively. The age distribution of TB among the patients were; (0% and 0.3%), (0.4% and 0.4%), (0.7% and 0.4%) and (1.5% and 0.7%) for those (≤ 18), (19-40), (41-60) and (> 60) yrs old in the survey and retrospective study, respectively. TB is prevalent in human patients in Cross River State hence, the need for sustainable campaign, continuous surveillance and private/ public health partnership in accurate and early diagnosis, treatment and one health approach to its control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Saúde Única , Tuberculose , Animais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 569-579, set-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399248

RESUMO

hanseníase no Brasil ainda apresenta como um problema de saúde pública. A posição epidemiológica da doença no país é considerada diversificada devido ao alto coeficiente e variação de prevalência nas diversas regiões do país. O objetivo desse estudo é conhecer o perfil epidemiológico da população acometida pela hanseníase na cidade de General Carneiro, no interior do Mato Grosso, durante os anos de 2006 e 2021. A coleta de dados foi realizada nos meses de julho e agosto do ano de 2021. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, documental do tipo descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa. No período em estudo notificou-se 50 casos, sendo 62% do sexo masculino, com faixa etária entre 48 a 69 anos de idade, de cor branca, com predominância da forma dimorfa. Os resultados demonstram que a cidade de General Carneiro, está com o número de casos de hanseníase na média do preconizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde e também, inferior à média brasileira.


Leprosy in Brazil still presents as a public health problem. The epidemiological position of the disease in the country is considered diversified due to the high coefficient and variation in prevalence in different regions of the country. The aim of this study is to know the epidemiological profile of the population affected by leprosy in the city of General Carneiro, in the interior of Mato Grosso, during the years 2006 and 2021. Data collection was carried out in July and August of 2021 This is a retrospective, descriptive documentary research with a quantitative approach. During the study period, 50 cases were reported, 62% male, aged between 48 and 69 years old, white, with a predominance of the borderline form. The results show that the city of General Carneiro has the number of cases of leprosy in the average recommended by the World Health Organization and also below the Brazilian average.


La lepra en Brasil sigue siendo un problema de salud pública. La posición epidemiológica de la enfermedad en el país se considera diversificada debido al alto coeficiente y a la variación de la prevalencia en diferentes regiones del país. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer el perfil epidemiológico de la población afectada por la lepra en la ciudad de General Carneiro, en el interior de Mato Grosso, durante los años 2006 y 2021. La recogida de datos se realizó en julio y agosto del año 2021. Se trata de una investigación retrospectiva, documental y descriptiva, con un enfoque cuantitativo. En el período de estudio se notificaron 50 casos, siendo el 62% de sexo masculino, con una edad entre 48 y 69 años, de color blanco, con predominio de la forma dimorfa. Los resultados muestran que la ciudad de General Carneiro, está con el número de casos de lepra en la media recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y también por debajo de la media brasileña.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/etiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Populacionais em Saúde Pública
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, posterior malleolar fragments are fixed either with percutaneous anteroposterior screws or through a posterolateral approach using screws and/or a buttress plate. Both surgical methods have some shortcomings, and the use of anteroposterior screws to fix osteoporotic posterior malleolar fractures carries a risk of failure. METHODS: Nine elderly patients (average age, 67 years) with posterior malleolar fractures were treated with transfibular Kirschner wire tension band fixation. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification, all fractures were of the supination-external rotation type. The operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, and wound healing outcome were recorded. During the follow-up period, clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, and the occurrence of complications was observed. RESULTS: The patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months (mean, 15 months). The operative duration ranged from approximately 30 to 95 minutes, with an average of 70 minutes. Anatomical reduction was achieved in nine cases, and there were no complications, such as skin necrosis, wound infection, or skin sensory disturbance. There was one case of delayed wound healing caused by fat liquefaction, which was cured by a dressing change. The functional scores were excellent in four cases, good in four cases, fair in one case, and poor in zero cases. The rate of excellent and good results was 88.89% (eight of nine), with an average of 78.78 points. CONCLUSION: Kirschner wire tension band fixation through a transfibular approach for the treatment of posterior malleolar fractures does not require a change in patient posture. It facilitates the reduction and internal fixation of the posterior malleolar fragment; furthermore, it is easier to remove internal fixation after fracture healing, which provides a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolus fracture. Thus, this has potential as a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolar fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Idoso , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fios Ortopédicos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010646, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a health problem in Indonesia, with incidence reaching over 10,000 new cases by 2021. Leprosy-related disabilities cause limitation of patients' activity and participation in social activities. To date, no studies have been conducted in Indonesia which investigates disability in terms of bodily function, structure impairment, limitations in performing daily activities, and restrictions in participation in social activities in leprosy patients. This study is aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics that might affect functional activity limitations of leprosy patients in endemic areas in Indonesia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 267 retrospectively-diagnosed cases of leprosy. The Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) scale was used to measure functional activity limitation, which comprises five domains: vision, mobility, self-care, work with hands, and dexterity. Differences among variables were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of participants was 51.89±13.66 years, the majority of which were men (62.5%), uneducated (48.3%), and classified as type 2 in the World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading for hands and feet (66.3% and 68.2%, respectively). Assessment using the SALSA Scale showed 28.5% of subjects were without limitation, 43.8% with mild limitation, 13.5% with moderate limitation, 9.4% with severe limitation, and 4.9% with extreme limitation. Significant differences in the total SALSA Scale were found between age groups (p = 0.014), educational level (p = 0.005), occupation (p<0.001), and WHO disability grades (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor influencing the total score of SALSA was disability grading for feet (score = 0.31, p <0.001) followed by occupational status, disability grading for eyes, and age. Limitation of functional activity was significantly correlated to becoming unemployed with the odds 2.59. CONCLUSION: People affected by leprosy are prone to have functional activity limitation, especially the elderly, uneducated, unemployed and those with multiple disabilities. If they can overcome their barriers in functional activities, they will have better occupational opportunities.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1074, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite national implementation of several high impact interventions and innovations to bolster tuberculosis (TB) detection and improve quality of TB services in Zambia, notifications have been declining since 2004. A countrywide data quality assessment (DQA) of Zambia's National TB and Leprosy Programme (NTLP) was undertaken to quantify the degree to which undernotification and underreporting of TB notifications may be occurring. METHODS: The NTLP conducted a retrospective DQA of health facilities in high burden districts in all ten Zambian provinces. Multiple routine programmatic data sources were triangulated through a multi-step verification process to enumerate the total number of unique TB patients diagnosed between 1st January and 31st August 2019; both bacteriologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed TB patients were included. Undernotification was defined as the number of TB patients identified through the DQA that were not documented in facility treatment registers, while underreporting was defined as the number of notified TB cases not reported to the NTLP. RESULTS: Overall, 265 health facilities across 55 districts were assessed from which 28,402 TB patients were identified; 94.5% of TB patients were ≥ 15 years old, 65.1% were male, 52.0% were HIV-positive, and 89.6% were a new/relapse case. Among all TB cases, 32.8% (95%CI: 32.2-33.3) were unnotified. Undernotification was associated with age ≥ 15 years old (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] = 2.4 [95%CI: 2.0-2.9]), HIV-positive status (aPOR = 1.6 [95%CI: 1.5-1.8]), being a new/relapse TB case (aPOR = 17.5 [95%CI: 13.4-22.8]), being a clinically diagnosed TB case (aPOR = 4.2 [95%CI:3.8-4.6]), and being diagnosed at a hospital (range, aPOR = 1.5 [95%CI: 1.3-1.6] to 2.6 [95%CI: 2.3-2.9]). There was substantial heterogeneity in the proportion of unnotified TB cases by province (range, 18.2% to 43.6%). In a sub-analysis among 22,199 TB patients with further data available, 55.9% (95%CI: 55.2-56.6) were notified and reported to the NTLP, 32.8% (95%CI: 32.2-33.4) were unnotified, and 11.3% (95%CI: 10.9-11.7) went unreported to the NTLP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from Zambia's first countrywide TB programme DQA demonstrate substantial undernotification and underreporting of TB cases across all provinces. This underscores the urgent need to implement a robust and integrated data management system to facilitate timely registration and reporting of all TB patients who are diagnosed and treated.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a highly stigmatized disease that can range from a minor skin lesion to life-threatening conditions such as deformities and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a tool called "Access, Watch, and Reserve" (AWaRe) to reduce antibiotic misuse and abuse. AIM: The purpose of this review is to determine whether the drugs used in the leprosy treatment regimen are complied with the AWaRe programme, in order to improve the quality of hospital antibiotic use and reduce the incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). METHODS: We started by looking for antibiotics that are used in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of leprosy, as defined by the WHO's AWaRe classification. Furthermore, we look for studies on antibiotics that showed sensitivity or less resistance after antimicrobial sensitivity testing (AST) on isolates from infected leprosy ulcers, as well as their AWaRe category. RESULTS: There were 32 studies found, but only 5 of them met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of four cross-sectional studies and one descriptive retrospective study. A total of 19 antibiotics were identified in 5 studies, with 9 (47.4%) antibiotics in the access category, 8 (42.1%) antibiotics in the watch group, and 2 (10.5%) antibiotics in the reserve group. CONCLUSION: As per our knowledge, this is the first study to explore antibiotics in leprosy treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and complications such as ulcer compliance with the AWaRe programme. Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, which is a global issue that continues to pose challenges to clinical practices. This review may provide physicians with an overview of the current state of drug prescribing trends in leprosy, whether in accordance with the AWaRe classification in selecting the right drug when the use of antimicrobials is indicated and may also aid in rational drug prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Hanseníase , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Int J Dermatol ; 61(9): 1137-1144, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to their genetic characteristics and their high exposure to infectious diseases, Maroons are likely to suffer from a specific spectrum of skin diseases. However, skin disorders have never been explored in this population. We aimed to describe all skin diseases in Maroon villages of the Maroni region in French Guiana. METHODS: This retrospective study concerned all patients who consulted in the remote health centers of Apatou, Grand-Santi, Papaichton, and Maripasoula between October 5, 2017, and June 30, 2020. We included all patients registered with a skin disorder (International Classification of Diseases) in the medical database. We excluded patients whose diagnosis was invalidated after cross-checking by a dermatologist. RESULTS: A total of 4741 patients presented at least one skin disease, for 6058 different disorders. Nonsexually transmitted infections represented 71.6% of all diagnoses, followed by inflammatory diseases (9.8%) and bites/envenomations (4.6%). The three most frequent conditions were scabies, abscesses, and impetigo. Besides scabies, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were still prevalent as we reported 13 cases of leprosy and 63 cutaneous leishmaniasis. Atopic dermatitis (AD) represented only 2.5% of our diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of AD, which was less frequent among Maroons, these results are similar to those previously reported in Amerindians. Therefore, a common exposure to rainforest pathogens seems to induce a common spectrum of skin diseases dominated by infections. The high prevalence of NTDs requires specific public health actions.


Assuntos
Escabiose , Dermatopatias , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia
13.
Skeletal Radiol ; 51(10): 2027-2037, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Radiographs are first-line imaging in ankle trauma but lack sensitivity to detect ligamentous injuries and undisplaced fractures. Our hypothesis was that ankle injuries occur in predefined sequences along two osteoligamentous rings, so that occult injuries non-visible on initial radiographs can be predicted. We, therefore, aimed to validate a ring model of progressive damages in the interpretation of ankle trauma radiographs. METHODS: This study retrospectively enrolled 277 adult patients that presented an acute fibular fracture on ankle radiographs between May and November 2019. Four different types of fibula fracture were differentiated, each being considered to correspond to a different mechanism of injury. Patients were classified into four groups, upon the appearance of their fibular fracture. Then, injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, medial malleolus, and deltoid ligament (medial clear space) were assessed in each patient radiographs. Traumatic injuries were independently evaluated by a resident and an experienced MSK radiologist. For each patient, observed features were compared to those predicted by the ring concept. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated. RESULTS: Injuries were observed according to the predictable sequence in 266 of the 277 patients (96%). In the 11 remaining patients, discordances were presumably due to undisplaced injuries to the syndesmosis or deltoid ligament. Agreements were considered very good for each evaluated item. CONCLUSION: The Lauge-Hansen ring concept was found to be highly accurate and reproducible for radiographic assessment of ankle injuries. Discordances to the predicted sequence might reflect occult injuries, especially of the syndesmosis or deltoid ligament.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas Ósseas , Adulto , Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(6): 774-780, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389022

RESUMO

Background Early inflammatory lesions of lichen sclerosus are histopathologically difficult to diagnose until the hallmark of the disease i.e., papillary sclerosis becomes visible in histological sections. Pre-sclerotic and late or resolved phases of the disease have not been extensively studied. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases diagnosed as genital lichen sclerosus over a ten-year period from 2006 to 2016, correlating the clinical findings with the histological features. Results A total of 133 cases of genital lichen sclerosus (90 males and 43 females) were identified. Both genders demonstrated a similar histological spectrum. Fifty eight (44%) cases were identified as having pre-sclerotic lichen sclerosus, 64 (48%) as having progressive disease and 11 (8%) cases were classified as fully resolved with atrophy. Asymptomatic vitiligoid lesions were identified in 19 (14%) cases of which 12 were male. Low-grade squamous cell carcinoma was seen within the areas affected by long-standing lichen sclerosus, in four patients (3%, 2 male). Limitations We studied only haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The presence of basement membrane thickening could have been better illustrated with the periodic acid-Schiff stain. Conclusion The pathogenesis of lichen sclerosus probably involves an immune reaction to the basement membrane at the epidermal interface and around the adnexa. The initial band of inflammation shifts gradually downwards from the epidermal interface into the dermis destroying the vascular channels and appendages, resulting in excessive deposition of altered extracellular matrix. Basilar infiltration of lymphocytes along with a grossly vacuolated or thickened basement membrane is proposed as the characteristic diagnostic feature of the pre-sclerotic stage. Greater awareness of the clinicopathological spectrum of lichen sclerosus should enable early diagnosis and treatment, thereby preventing structural damage and possible malignant transformation in chronic cases.


Assuntos
Líquen Escleroso e Atrófico , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Líquen Escleroso e Atrófico/diagnóstico , Esclerose/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epiderme/patologia , Genitália/patologia
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 120, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465364

RESUMO

Introduction: leprosy is a disease found and unevenly distributed in Chad. Since 1997, the annual national prevalence has been less than 1/10000 inhabitants, the elimination threshold set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of this study is to describe epidemiological trends of leprosy in Chad between 2015 and 2019, in order to provide the necessary data for the development of more effective strategies for leprosy control. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of patients with leprosy diagnosed between 2015 and 2019 at national level. Data were collected from the database of the National Program for the Control of Leprosy in Chad (NPCLC). Results: a total of 1896 new cases of leprosy were detected in Chad between 2015 and 2019. The rates of patients aged 15 to 70 years and children under 15 years were 92.08% and 7.92% respectively. Sex ratio (M/F) was 1.68. The annual average detection rate was 2.6/100 000, with an average rate of multi-bacillary leprosy of 83.10% and degree 2 disability (2DD) of 20.38%. The average rate of degree 2 disability in children under 15 years of age was 0.92% . However, our study identified five districts as endemic (Adré, Abéché, Aboudeia, Koukou, et Bebedjia) in 2019, where the prevalence rate was above 1/10000 inhabitants. Conclusion: epidemiological trends are in favor of the persistence of the disease and a delay in diagnosis and in the management of leprosy cases.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Chade/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(14): e113, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a useful index to assess exercise capacity. However, there is no reference value for Koreans. This study aimed to compare actual VO2 max and predicted VO2 max using exercise capacity equations in Korean subjects. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 383 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with incremental maximal cycle ergometer test at Asan Medical Center from January 2020 to May 2021. Stage 1 and 2 lung cancer patients with normal lung function and healthy persons of 50 subjects who had maximal CPET were analyzed. RESULTS: The subjects were aged 65 ± 13 years and predominantly male (74%). CPET results were as follows: absolute VO2 max, 1.2 ± 0.3 L/min; body weight referenced VO2 max, 20 ± 3.9 mL/kg/min; peak work rate, 94 ± 24 watts; peak heart rate, 142 ± 21 bpm; peak O2 pulse, 10 ± 3 mL/beat; minute ventilation, 59 ± 14 L/min; peak respiratory rate, 34 ± 6 breaths per minute; and peak breathing reserve, 41 ± 18%. There was significant discordance between the measured and predicted absolute VO2 max using the Jones, Hansen, and Wasserman prediction equations developed for Caucasian population (P < 0.001). Agreement using Bland-Altman test between true and predicted absolute VO2 max was the best in Chinese equation (-0.03, 2SD = 0.55) compared to Jones (0.42, 2SD = 1.07), Hansen (0.44, 2SD = 0.86), and Wasserman (0.42, 2SD = 0.86) equations. CONCLUSION: The reference value and prediction equation from studies including primarily Caucasians may not be appropriate for Koreans. Since the mean difference is the lowest in Chinese equation, the Chinese equation might be used for the Korean adult population.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 7726726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444779

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the clinical outcome and postoperative complications of the treatment of supination-external rotation-type ankle fractures using the posterolateral approach in the prone position and the lateral approach in the supine position. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in our hospital, including a total of 66 patients ranging from January 2013 to February 2016, regardless of age or sex. All the patients were classified as Lauge-Hansen supination-external rotation (SER)-type ankle fractures and were assigned to receive an open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) through a posterolateral approach performed in the prone position (the "posterolateral approach group," 32 patients), or a lateral approach performed in the supine position (the "Lateral Approach Group," 34 patients). In the posterolateral approach group, 5 patients had Grade II fractures, 8 had Grade III fractures, and 19 had Grade IV fractures; among whom, 12 underwent fixation of the posterior malleolus with hollow screws and 6 with plates, and none of them had fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis; in the lateral approach group, 4 patients had Grade II fractures, 12 had Grade III fractures, and 18 had Grade IV fractures; among whom, 21 received fixation of the posterior malleolus, and 5 received fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. The postoperative complications and ankle scores were recorded. Results: After 1 year of follow-up, in the posterolateral approach group, the incision healed by primary intention and sutures were removed 2 weeks after the operation in all patients; 1 patient had pain in the region posterior to the fibula, presumably peroneal tendon irritation induced by internal fixation, which disappeared after fracture union and fixation device removal; no loosening or breakage of the internal fixation device was reported; the rate of good to excellent results was 96.8% at 12 months. In the lateral approach group: 1 case of wound infection, 1 case of necrosis of lateral skin flap, and 3 cases of lateral skin irritation were reported; the rate of good to excellent results was 94.6% at 12 months. Conclusion: Compared with the traditional lateral approach, the posterolateral approach for the reduction and internal fixation of supination-external rotation-type ankle fractures performed in the prone position has more satisfactory clinical outcomes, with better reduction, more secure fixation, and smaller wound.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
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