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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010719, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical disability is the main complication of leprosy. Although understanding the leprosy rate, prevalence, spatiotemporal distribution, and physical nerve characteristic trends is crucial for the implementation of leprosy control programs and identification of remaining challenges, these data are still unclear. We assessed physical disability trends among newly detected leprosy cases over the past 31 years in 129 counties and territories in Yunnan, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the data of newly detected leprosy cases from the Leprosy Management Information System in Yunnan, China, from 1990-2020. All available data related to physical disability were analyzed, including demographic characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity, education level); clinical characteristics (diagnosis duration, detection mode, contact history, leprosy reaction, skin lesions, nerve lesions, disability classification); World Health Organization (WHO) leprosy physical disability indicators; and nerve and eyes, hands and feet (EHF) involvement. A total of 10758 newly diagnosed leprosy cases were identified, and 7328 (65.60%), 1179 (10.55%) and 2251 (20.15%) were associated with grade 0, 1, and 2 disability (G0D, G1D, and G2D), respectively. Male sex, older age, Han ethnicity, urban employment, a longer diagnosis duration, a contact history, greater nerve involvement, and tuberculoid-related forms of leprosy were associated with increased prevalence rates of physical disability. The rates of physical disability in newly detected leprosy cases per 1 million population decreased from 5.41, 2.83, and 8.24 in 1990 to 0.29, 0.25, and 0.54 per 1 million population in 2020, with decreases of 94.64%, 91.17%, and 93.44% in G2D, G1D and total physical disability (G1D + G2D) rates, respectively. In the same period, the proportions of G2D, G1D and total physical disability decreased from 28.02%, 14.65%, and 42.67% in 1990 to 10.08%, 11.76%, and 21.85% in 2020, with decreases of 64.03%, 19.73%, and 48.79%, respectively. Nerve thickening was more common than nerve tenderness, and claw hand, plantar insensitivity, and lagophthalmos were the most frequently reported EHF-related disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Despite general progress in reducing the prevalence of leprosy-related physical disability, the proportion of physical disability among leprosy disease remains high, especially in specific counties. This implies that leprosy cases are being detected at a later stage and that transmission in the community still exists. Further efforts focusing on early detection are crucial for leprosy control and the elimination of the disease burden.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274678, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149867

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Moringa stenopetala Bak. Cuf. is a native plant of Ethiopia with important nutraceutical applications. However, little is known about its nutritional, ethno-pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties. Hence, the present study sought to assess the nutraceutical applications of M. stenopetala among traditional healers in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 selected administrative units in Gamo Gofa, Segen areas and south Omo zones of southern Ethiopia from May to June 2020. Data were gathered using a semi-structured interview, field observation, and group discussion. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using Excel 2019 and open code version 4.03, respectively. The results were presented using descriptive statistics, with the fidelity level (FL)% used to distinguish the preferential use of various plant parts. RESULTS: A total of 120 individuals participated in the study, and the majority of them, 89 (74.2%), were male and farmers by occupation. Eight four (70%) of them were residents of the Gamo Gofa Zone. The fidelity level revealed that the leaf and root were the most commonly used parts for nutraceutical purposes. Remarkably, M. stenopetala is used to treat human ailments such as leprosy and kidney and liver infections via various modes of utilisation and administration. As a result, the most common methods of utilising plant products are chewing or consuming crushed plant parts, and the oral route is the much-preferred method of application. On the other hand, the larvae of Moringa moth Nurda blitealis, are a defoliating insect during the rainy season and have been identified as a limiting factor for its production. CONCLUSIONS: The nutraceutical aspects of M. stenopetala are extremely important to the rural community in southern Ethiopia. However, the defoliating moth larvae threaten its growth and biomass production, necessitating the need to manage and improve the plant's productivity and sustainable use. Additionally, conducting experimental studies to validate the plant's pharmacological potential correspond to a milestone in drug discovery.


Assuntos
Moringa , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Folhas de Planta
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010695, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy or Hansen's disease is known to cause disability and disfigurement. A delay in case detection of leprosy patients can lead to severe outcomes. In Ethiopia, the disability rates caused by leprosy among new cases are relatively high compared to other endemic countries. This suggests the existence of hidden leprosy cases in the community and a delay in timely detection. To reduce disability rates, it is crucial to identify the factors associated with this delay. This study aimed to determine the extent of delay in case detection among leprosy cases in Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional explorative study was conducted in January and February 2019 among 100 leprosy patients diagnosed ≤6 months prior to inclusion. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, including the initial onset of symptoms, and the reasons for delayed diagnosis. Descriptive statistics, including percentages and medians, were used to describe the case detection delay. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the predictors of delay in case detection of >12 months. FINDINGS: The median age of patients was 35 years, with a range of 7 to 72 years. The majority were male (80%) and rural residents (90%). The median delay in case detection was 12 months (interquartile range 10-36 months) among the included patients. The mean delay in case detection was 22 months, with a maximum delay of 96 months. The overall prevalence of disability among the study population was 42% (12% grade I and 30% grade II). Fear of stigma (p = 0.018) and experiencing painless symptoms (p = 0.018) were highly associated with a delay in case detection of >12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Being afraid of stigma and having painless symptoms, which are often misinterpreted as non-alarming at the onset of the disease, were associated with a delay in case detection. This study showed the need to increase knowledge on early symptoms of leprosy among affected communities. Furthermore, it is important to support initiatives that reduce leprosy related stigma and promote health worker training in leprosy control activities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14912, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050504

RESUMO

To characterize maxillofacial, otorhinolaryngological and oral manifestations of Hansen's disease (HD), we conducted a cross-sectional study in 21 current patients attending the Unidade Básica de Saúde de Jardim América, Espírito Santo, Brazil and 16 former patients resident at Pedro Fontes Hospital using data from computed tomography imaging, rhinoscopy, and oroscopy. Maxillofacial characteristics were compared with 37 controls. Differences in bone alterations across the three groups were determined mainly by severe resorption/atrophy being more frequent in former HD patients, with severe resorption/atrophy of the anterior alveolar process of maxilla in 50.0% (8/16) of former patients, 28.6% (6/21) of current patients and 10.8% (4/37) of controls and of nasal bones and aperture in 31.3% (5/16) of former patients compared with 0/21 current patients and two controls. There were no substantial differences in otorhinolaryngological and oroscopic findings between the two patient groups. HD patients had more tooth loss than the age-matched control group. Maxillofacial, otorhinolaryngological and oroscopic finding scores were strongly correlated only in current HD patients. Correlation between otorhinolaryngological and maxillofacial scores suggests that protocols for HD patient assessment and follow-up could include otorhinolaryngological evaluation, with radiological imaging where necessary, subject to replication of our findings in a larger study.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Atrofia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(8.1): 3S-7S, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic neglected tropical disease, classified into two groups: multibacillary (MB) and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy based on the number of skin lesions and nerve involvement. A positive skin slit smear (SSS) result automatically puts a patient in the MB category. Although guidelines do not recommend routine use of SSS for classification and diagnosis of leprosy, it is performed for most patients in Ethiopia. However, the added value of performing SSS for the classification of leprosy on top of clinical classification is unclear. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was done using routine laboratory and clinical data from September 2018 to January 2020 at Boru Meda General Hospital, Ethiopia. All newly diagnosed leprosy cases were included. Descriptive statistics were performed to calculate frequencies and proportions. RESULTS: We included 183 new leprosy patients in our study, of which 166/183 (90.7%) were MB patients and 17/183 (9.3%) were PB patients. All clinical PB cases and 150/166 (90.4%) clinical MB patients had SSS done. All PB patients had negative SSS result and 68 (45.3%) clinical MB patients had a positive result. Based on the SSS, no patient with a clinical classification of PB was reclassified to MB. CONCLUSIONS: SSS microscopy was performed routinely for all leprosy cases without changing the classification and management of patients in Boru Meda Hospital. Therefore, we recommend restricted and rational use of the SSS for PB cases in which SSS could change management.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010646, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a health problem in Indonesia, with incidence reaching over 10,000 new cases by 2021. Leprosy-related disabilities cause limitation of patients' activity and participation in social activities. To date, no studies have been conducted in Indonesia which investigates disability in terms of bodily function, structure impairment, limitations in performing daily activities, and restrictions in participation in social activities in leprosy patients. This study is aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics that might affect functional activity limitations of leprosy patients in endemic areas in Indonesia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 267 retrospectively-diagnosed cases of leprosy. The Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) scale was used to measure functional activity limitation, which comprises five domains: vision, mobility, self-care, work with hands, and dexterity. Differences among variables were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of participants was 51.89±13.66 years, the majority of which were men (62.5%), uneducated (48.3%), and classified as type 2 in the World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading for hands and feet (66.3% and 68.2%, respectively). Assessment using the SALSA Scale showed 28.5% of subjects were without limitation, 43.8% with mild limitation, 13.5% with moderate limitation, 9.4% with severe limitation, and 4.9% with extreme limitation. Significant differences in the total SALSA Scale were found between age groups (p = 0.014), educational level (p = 0.005), occupation (p<0.001), and WHO disability grades (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor influencing the total score of SALSA was disability grading for feet (score = 0.31, p <0.001) followed by occupational status, disability grading for eyes, and age. Limitation of functional activity was significantly correlated to becoming unemployed with the odds 2.59. CONCLUSION: People affected by leprosy are prone to have functional activity limitation, especially the elderly, uneducated, unemployed and those with multiple disabilities. If they can overcome their barriers in functional activities, they will have better occupational opportunities.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1043, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb lymphoedema (swelling of the lower leg) due to Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as podoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis and leprosy is common in Ethiopia, imposing huge burdens on affected individuals and communities. Stigma significantly increases the disease burden and acts as a major barrier to accessing lymphoedema care services. A multi-component stigma reduction intervention was implemented in Northern Ethiopia. Community Conversation (CC) was one of the components implemented, and aimed to reduce stigma and enhance access to and uptake of integrated lymphoedema care services with the active engagement of community members. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative process evaluation was conducted to document lessons focusing on CC's relevance, outcomes and implementation challenges. Data were collected from a total of 55 purposively selected participants (26 from the CC intervention site and 29 from the control site) through key informant interviews, in-depth individual interviews and focus group discussions. RESULTS: Community Conversations increased acceptability of health messages about lymphoedema and created peer learning opportunities for unaffected community members. Improvement in the awareness of CC participants about the causes, prevention and treatment of lymphoedema contributed significantly to the reduction of stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviors, thereby improving access to and utilization of lymphoedema care services provided through primary health care facilities. However, a range of challenges affecting implementation of CC and outcome quality were identified, including perceived complexity of the facilitation guide among facilitators, expectation of incentives among CC participants, inadequate implementation of facilitation principles and procedures, inadequacy of supportive supervision, and low engagement of untrained health workers in CC. CONCLUSIONS: With these challenges addressed, the implementation of CC integrated with other lymphoedema care services shows potential to reduce stigma and promote access to lymphoedema care services.


Assuntos
Elefantíase , Linfedema , Estudos Transversais , Elefantíase/terapia , Etiópia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Linfedema/terapia , Doenças Negligenciadas/terapia
8.
Int J Dermatol ; 61(12): 1506-1510, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implications of COVID-19 co-infection in patients under treatment for Hansen's disease (HD, leprosy) remain uncertain. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes in patients with HD and COVID-19 in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study recruiting adult HD patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 from five HD treatment centers in Brazil between March 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. At the time of this study, no patient had received COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Of 1377 patients under treatment for HD, 70 (5.1%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. Of these, 41 (58.6%) had PCR-confirmed COVID-19, comprising 19 men and 22 women, aged 24-67 (median 45) years. HD was multibacillary in 39/41 patients. Eight patients ceased WHO Multi-Drug Therapy for HD, three for lack of drugs, two because of COVID-19, and three for other reasons. Of the 33 who continued treatment, 26 were on the standard regimen and seven an alternative regimen. Seventeen patients were receiving oral prednisone, including nine patients with type 1 reaction, four with type 2 reaction, three with neuritis, and one with rheumatologic disease. Twelve patients were hospitalized for COVID-19, and six patients died, of whom three had hypertension and one also had type 2 diabetes and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and Hansen's disease co-infection did not appear to change the clinical picture of either disease in this cross-sectional study. The wider impact of the pandemic on persons affected by HD requires follow-up and monitoring.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hanseníase , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a highly stigmatized disease that can range from a minor skin lesion to life-threatening conditions such as deformities and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a tool called "Access, Watch, and Reserve" (AWaRe) to reduce antibiotic misuse and abuse. AIM: The purpose of this review is to determine whether the drugs used in the leprosy treatment regimen are complied with the AWaRe programme, in order to improve the quality of hospital antibiotic use and reduce the incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). METHODS: We started by looking for antibiotics that are used in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of leprosy, as defined by the WHO's AWaRe classification. Furthermore, we look for studies on antibiotics that showed sensitivity or less resistance after antimicrobial sensitivity testing (AST) on isolates from infected leprosy ulcers, as well as their AWaRe category. RESULTS: There were 32 studies found, but only 5 of them met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of four cross-sectional studies and one descriptive retrospective study. A total of 19 antibiotics were identified in 5 studies, with 9 (47.4%) antibiotics in the access category, 8 (42.1%) antibiotics in the watch group, and 2 (10.5%) antibiotics in the reserve group. CONCLUSION: As per our knowledge, this is the first study to explore antibiotics in leprosy treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and complications such as ulcer compliance with the AWaRe programme. Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, which is a global issue that continues to pose challenges to clinical practices. This review may provide physicians with an overview of the current state of drug prescribing trends in leprosy, whether in accordance with the AWaRe classification in selecting the right drug when the use of antimicrobials is indicated and may also aid in rational drug prescribing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Hanseníase , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(8): 694-703, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of leprosy-related disability, stigma and social participation after completing treatment is not well documented in Nigeria. We assessed the extent of disability, level of stigma and predictors of activity limitation and social participation restriction after completing multidrug therapy (MDT) for leprosy in Kano, Nigeria. METHODS: A consecutively recruited cross-section of 354 persons discharged from MDT and 360 community members were interviewed. The Eyes, Hands and Feet sum score, Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness scale, Participation scale and Jacoby Stigma scale were used for affected persons. The Exploratory Model Interview Catalogue scale was used to assess community-perceived stigma. Levels of disability, activity limitation, participation restriction and stigma were scored. Adjusted ORs for predictors were generated from logistic regression models. RESULTS: Most (91.5%, n=324) respondents had a disability; (8.2%, n=29) and (83.3%, n=295) were WHO grades 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, 321 participants (90.7%) had activity limitation and 316 respondents (89.3%) experienced participation restriction. Further, 88.7% of participants (n=314) anticipated stigma. Activity limitation was higher among unemployed participants, men, persons with disability and those who anticipated stigma. Participation restriction was higher among low income earners (≤1000 Nigerian Naira per month (equivalent to US$2.50 per month)) and persons with disability, limited activity and anticipated stigma. CONCLUSION: Leprosy-related disability, stigma, activity limitation and social participation restriction are high after treatment. We recommend community-based rehabilitation to sustain self-care, reduce stigma and ensure social inclusion.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Participação Social
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674635

RESUMO

This cross-sectional population-based study compared clinical features of leprosy and American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in patients diagnosed with both diseases (n=414) and in those diagnosed with only leprosy (n=27,790) or only ATL (n=24,357) in Mato Grosso State, which is a hyperendemic area for both diseases in Midwest Brazil. All new cases of leprosy and ATL reported in the area from 2008 to 2017 were included. Patients diagnosed with both diseases were identified by a probabilistic linkage procedure applied to leprosy and ATL databases of the national reporting system. The distribution of the frequency of clinical features between groups was compared by the chi-square test, followed by a multivariate logistic regression. Patients diagnosed with both leprosy and ATL presented higher odds of having nerve damage (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.66) and leprosy reactions (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.04-1.76) compared to patients diagnosed only with leprosy. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.74-3.00) was more frequent among patients with both diagnoses when compared to patients who only had ATL. In conclusion, patients diagnosed with both leprosy and ATL present more severe clinical features of such diseases. Our data can be useful for designing health policies aimed at timely and integrated management of leprosy and ATL in co-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/complicações , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010533, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the absence of early treatment, leprosy, a neglected tropical disease, due to Mycobacterium leprae or Hansen Bacillus, causes irreversible grade 2 disability (G2D) numerous factors related to the individual, the community and the health care system are believed to be responsible for its late detection and management. This study aims to investigate the factors associated with belated screening for leprosy in Benin. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study conducted from January 1 to June 31, 2019, involving all patients and staff in leprosy treatment centers and public peripheral level health structures in Benin. The dependent variable of the study was the presence or not of G2D, reflecting late or early screening. We used a logistic regression model, at the 5% threshold, to find the factors associated with late leprosy screening. The fit of the final model was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: A number of 254 leprosy patients were included with a mean age of 48.24 ± 18.37 years. There was a male dominance with a sex ratio of 1.23 (140/114). The proportion of cases with G2D was 58.27%. Associated factors with its belated screening in Benin were (OR; 95%CI; p) the fear of stigma related to leprosy (8.11; 3.3-19.94; <0.001), multiple visits to traditional healers (5.20; 2.73-9.89; <0.001) and multiple visits to hospital practitioners (3.82; 2.01-7.27; <0.001). The unawareness of leprosy by 82.69% of the health workers so as the permanent decrease in material and financial resources allocated to leprosy control were identified as factors in link with the health system that helps explain this late detection. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need to implement strategies in the control programs to strengthen the diagnostic abilities of health workers, to improve the level of knowledge of the population on the early signs and symptoms of leprosy, to reduce stigmatization and to ban all forms of discrimination against leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
14.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(5): 623-632, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389031

RESUMO

Background Telemedicine is being increasingly used to provide healthcare to patients, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims The study aimed to study patient perception and satisfaction with a smartphone-based hybrid teledermatology service initiated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This was a cross-sectional telephonic survey including patients ≥18 years of age who had received a teledermatology consultation. After noting the demographic, clinical and teleconsultation details, patients were administered the Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire and an additional 6-item questionnaire. Patients were also asked to give qualitative feedback and suggestions for improvement using a semi-structured interview guide. Results We interviewed 201 subjects. The most common diagnoses were pemphigus (27, 13.4%), superficial fungal infections (24, 11.8%), psoriasis (22, 10.9%) and dermatitis (21, 10.4%). The overall mean Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire score was 4.20± 0.71. One hundred seventy-one (85.1%) patients responded that they would use teledermatology services again, while 168 (83.6%) reported satisfaction with the quality of services. A majority of the patients were largely satisfied with the various components involved, though some concerns were raised about the care perceived as not at par with physical consultations, difficulty in procuring medicines, lack of confidence in photographic diagnoses and the lack of a personal touch. Patients with urticaria (P=0.020), those who were advised a change in treatment (P=0.029) and those with improvement in their skin disease (P=0.026) were more likely to be satisfied. Limitations Our study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic when patient acceptability was likely to be higher. Only follow-up patients were included in the study. Conclusion Patient satisfaction levels were generally high with teledermatology. Addressing lacunae that negatively impact patient perception and satisfaction will help in greater acceptance of teledermatology services.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dermatologia , Consulta Remota , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dermatologia/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , Smartphone , Telemedicina/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(5): e0217021, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435708

RESUMO

Brazil ranks second among countries for new cases and first for relapse cases of leprosy worldwide. The Mycobacterium leprae Resistance Surveillance Plan was established. We aimed to present the results of a 2-year follow-up of the National Surveillance Plan in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of leprosy cases was performed to investigate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Brazil from October 2018 to September 2020. Molecular screening targeting genes related to dapsone (folP1), rifampin (rpoB), and ofloxacin resistance (gyrA) was performed. During the referral period, 63,520 active leprosy patients were registered in Brazil, and 1,183 fulfilled the inclusion criteria for molecular AMR investigation. In total, only 16 (1.4%) patients had genetic polymorphisms associated with AMR. Of these, 8 (50%) had cases of leprosy relapse, 7 (43.8%) had cases of suspected therapeutic failure with standard treatment, and 1 (6.2%) was a case of new leprosy presentation. M. leprae strains with AMR-associated mutations were found for all three genes screened. Isolates from two patients showed simultaneous resistance to dapsone and rifampin, indicating multidrug resistance (MDR). No significant relationship between clinical variables and the presence of AMR was identified. Our study revealed a low frequency of AMR in Brazil. Isolates were resistant mainly to dapsone, and a very low number of isolates were resistant to rifampin, the main bactericidal agent for leprosy, or presented MDR, reinforcing the importance of the standard World Health Organization multidrug therapy. The greater frequency of AMR among relapsed patients supports the need to constantly monitor this group.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Recidiva , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(4): 1641-1652, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475842

RESUMO

This study's objective was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of new leprosy cases under 15 years and their contacts. A cross-sectional descriptive study covering sociodemographic characteristics and spatial analysis was carried out. The participants were from the city of Sobral, Ceará and the study was conducted between August 2014 and September 2015. Contacts were identified by the persons responsible for the children. Seropositivity was determined with the NDO-LID antigen, and positive cases were plotted on Voronoi polygons. Nine new cases of leprosy under 15 years of age have been found. The average number of people living with the cases was higher than the number of people living with non-household contacts. All household contacts were aware of other leprosy cases and had a higher rate of seropositive tests than non-household contacts. The index cases lived in the poorest regions of the municipality and hyper-endemic areas. Spatial analysis revealed a cluster of subclinical infection within a radius of 102 meters, suggesting that non-household transmission is related to proximity with seropositive individuals. In conclusion, the search for new leprosy cases cannot be restricted to household contacts.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acral melanoma refers to melanoma arising on the palms, soles and nail unit, which are sun-protected areas and ultraviolet exposure is not a risk factor. Acral melanoma is associated with a poorer prognosis than other melanoma subtypes most likely due to the high rates of delayed diagnosis. Acral melanoma affects all skin types equally. There is a misconception that people with more pigmented skin types (Fitzpatrick 4-6) do not develop melanoma, due to the protective effect of melanin. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine acral melanoma knowledge and awareness of a group of South African, final phase medical students. METHODS: This was a quantitative and cross-sectional study. A questionnaire consisting of 20 clinical images of skin lesions requiring a diagnosis and management plan was distributed. Responses to six images of melanomas were analysed. Further questions to measure acral melanoma knowledge and related issues were included in the study. A biostatistician appropriately managed statistical analysis. RESULTS: Hundred and one final phase medical students' answers were gathered and analysed. Only 7.9% of the participants diagnosed all six melanomas correctly; 61.4% correctly diagnosed ≥50% of the melanomas. While 77.2% of the participants identified all non-acral cutaneous melanoma correctly, only 8.9% identified all acral melanomas. However, of all participants making the correct diagnosis, >90% selected the appropriate management plan (urgent referral). LIMITATIONS: This study examined a small sample of trainee healthcare workers. The results cannot be assumed to apply to all South African healthcare workers. Responses given in a questionnaire may not reflect actual behaviour. The dermatology division in question has made acral melanoma a research priority, thus acral melanoma knowledge in this group may in fact be better than in other institutions. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that groups of imminent doctors have low rates of recognition of melanoma, particularly acral melanoma. This is consistent with high levels of primary misdiagnosis of acral melanoma reported in the literature. Fortunately, these participants managed the melanomas they diagnosed appropriately in >90% of cases. This confirms that the deficit in the participant group is awareness and knowledge. Those aware of the disease immediately acknowledged the need for urgent referral.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Microb Pathog ; 166: 105511, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398215

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease that remains a serious public health problem in developing countries. According to the Madrid classification, leprosy presents in four clinical forms: two immunologically unstable forms (indeterminate and borderline) and two stable polar forms (tuberculoid and lepromatous). In leprosy, the relationship of cell death to clinical disease outcome remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the extent of autophagy and different cell death mechanisms-such as apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis-in cutaneous lesions of patients with leprosy, as well as the role of these mechanisms in clinical disease progression. This cross-sectional analytical study included 30 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of leprosy, with 10 patients in each of the following groups: lepromatous (LL), tuberculoid (TT), and indeterminate (II) leprosy groups. For histopathological analysis, skin samples were subjected to haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining for apoptotic and necroptotic markers. The results indicated that FasL expression was much higher in the LL form than in the TT and II forms. Similar results (higher expression in the LL form than in the TT and II forms) were observed for caspase 8, RIP1, and RIP3 expressions. MLKL, BAX, and caspase 3 expression levels were highest in the LL form, especially in globular foamy macrophages. Beclin-1 expression was highest in the TT form but was low in LL and II forms. Caspase 1 expression was highest in the LL form, followed by that in the TT and II forms. In conclusion, our study elucidates the role of different cell death mechanisms in the pathophysiology of various forms of leprosy and suggests measures that may be used to control the host response to infection and disease progression.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Apoptose , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae
19.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(3): 360-366, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) affects mainly the head and neck and lesions heal with scaring. Early diagnosis of DLE is crucial; dermoscopy may enable early diagnosis and help to assess the prognosis of well-established lesions. AIMS: To describe the dermoscopic features of DLE and to correlate them with the histological findings, site and duration of DLE. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study included 28 patients diagnosed as DLE based on clinical and histopathological examination. We examined the lesions clinically, dermoscopically and histopathologically. Evaluated dermoscopic variables were based on data in the available literature and on our observations. RESULTS: Whitish scales (89.3%), arborizing blood vessels (85.7%), follicular plugging (82.1%), and pigmentation (82.1%) were the commonest dermoscopic findings. Radial arrangement of arborizing blood vessel in between a radially arranged perifollicular whitish halo (starburst pattern) (39.3%) was noticed for the first time in this study. Rosettes (57.1%) were also seen. There was significant agreement between many dermoscopic and pathological findings with high sensitivity and specificity of many dermoscopic variants in the diagnosis of DLE. Follicular plugging, perifollicular whitish halo, starburst pattern, follicular red dots and rosettes were detected in early stages of the disease but structureless whitish areas and telangiectasia need more time to develop. LIMITATIONS: We examined our patients at the time of presentation only without prospective monitoring and we had a relatively small sample size. CONCLUSION: Dermoscopy helps in the diagnosis of DLE at different body sites.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide , Transtornos da Pigmentação , Telangiectasia , Estudos Transversais , Cabeça/patologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide/patologia
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