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1.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 188-195, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reliability of patch testing with expired Indian standard patch test kits has been not evaluated before. METHODS: Thirty adults (men:women 25:5) with allergic contact dermatitis were divided into three groups of ten patients each for patch testing by Finn chamber® method using Indian standard patch test kits having expiry in 2016, 2015 and 2014. The results were compared with those from a new kit with 2018 expiry. RESULTS: Ten patients in group-1, eight patients in group-2 and seven patients in group-3 developed positive reactions of identical intensities and mostly from identical allergens from all four kits. The major contact allergens eliciting positive reactions of identical intensities were parthenium in nine, five and three patients, colophony in four, one and zero patients, fragrance mix in three, three and one patients, thiuram mix in three, one and one patients, and paraphenylene diamine in two, one and three patients from group-1,-2, and -3, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Small number of patients in each group remains the major limitation of the study. Whether or not these results can be extrapolated with patch test results from other similar patch test kits available across countries also needs confirmation. CONCLUSION: The patch test allergens can be used beyond labeled expiry dates but needs confirmation by a few large studies and using other available patch test kits. This is important as the relevance of patch test results for individual allergen in this scenario may remain debatable requiring careful interpretation.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Testes do Emplastro , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Waste Manag Res ; 40(7): 870-881, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823396

RESUMO

Forecasting the scale of e-waste recycling is the basis for the government to formulate the development plan of circular economy and relevant subsidy policies and enterprises to evaluate resource recovery and optimise production capacity. In this article, the CH-X12 /STL-X framework for e-waste recycling scale prediction is proposed based on the idea of 'decomposition-integration', considering that the seasonal data characteristics of quarterly e-waste recycling scale data may lead to large forecasting errors and inconsistent forecasting results of a traditional single model. First, the seasonal data characteristics of the time series of e-waste recovery scale are identified based on Canova-Hansen (CH) test, and then the time series suitable for seasonal decomposition is extracted with X12 or seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL) model for seasonal components. Then, the Holt-Winters model was used to predict the seasonal component, and the support vector regression (SVR) model was used to predict the other components. Finally, the linear sum of the prediction results of each component is used to obtain the final prediction result. The empirical results show that the proposed CH-X12/STL-X forecasting framework can better meet the modelling requirements for time-series forecasting driven by different seasonal data characteristics and has better and more stable forecasting performance than traditional single models (Holt-Winters model, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model and SVR model).


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Previsões , Reciclagem , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2314: 1-58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235647

RESUMO

Building upon the foundational research of Robert Koch, who demonstrated the ability to grow Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the first time in 1882 using media made of coagulated bovine serum, microbiologists have continued to develop new and more efficient ways to grow mycobacteria. Presently, all known mycobacterial species can be grown in the laboratory using either axenic culture techniques or in vivo passage in laboratory animals. This chapter provides conventional protocols to grow mycobacteria for diagnostic purposes directly from clinical specimens, as well as in research laboratories for scientific purposes. Detailed protocols used for production of M. tuberculosis in large scale (under normoxic and hypoxic conditions) in bioreactors and for production of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae and "Mycobacterium lepromatosis" using athymic nude mice and armadillos are provided.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tatus , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/instrumentação , Reatores Biológicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium leprae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009201, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105791, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy causes a range of symptoms, and most diagnoses are established based on the clinical picture. Therefore, false negative and positive diagnoses are relatively common. We analyzed the spatial pattern of leprosy misdiagnosis and associated factors in Brazil. METHOD: Exploratory analyses of Kernel density of the new case detection rate (NCDR) and proportion of misdiagnosis in Brazil, 2003-2017. Factors associated with misdiagnosis were identified by logistic regression at the 5% significance level. RESULT: A total of 574,181 new leprosy cases were recorded in Brazil within the study period, of which 7,477 (1.3%) were misdiagnoses. No spatial correlation was observed between the proportion of misdiagnoses and the NCDR. The likelihood of misdiagnosis was elevated for females [OR: 1.58 (1.51-1.66)], children [OR: 1.49 (1.36-1.64)]; paucibacillary [OR: 1.08 (1.02-1.13)], indeterminate clinical forms [OR: 2.37 (2.15-2.62)], for cases diagnosed in the frame of mass screenings [OR: 3.36 (3.09- 3.73)] and contact examination [OR: 2.30 (2.13-2.49)] and for cases with affected nerves but no skin lesions [OR: 2.47 (2.19-2.77)] when compared with those presenting both skin lesion and affected nerves. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis of leprosy is not correlated with the endemicity level in Brazil but rather with personal, diagnosis-related and disease characteristics.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 634-639, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200722

RESUMO

Lobomycosis, also referred to as lacaziosis, is an endemic cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal disease that mainly affects Amazonian forest dwellers in Brazil. There is no disease control program in place in Brazil, and antifungal therapy failures are common, and the therapy is inaccessible to most patients. We performed a randomized, unblinded clinical trial testing the cure rate of multiple drug therapy (MDT) for leprosy with surgical excision, with or without itraconazole. A control arm consisted of patients who did not adhere to either therapeutic regimens but continued to be followed up. Multiple drug therapy consisted of monthly supervised doses of 600 mg rifampicin, 300 mg clofazimine, and 100 mg dapsone, in addition to daily doses of 50 mg clofazimine and 100 mg dapsone. The patients in the MDT plus itraconazole arm also received itraconazole 100 mg twice daily. We followed up 54 patients from the MDT group and 26 patients from the MDT plus itraconazole group for an average of 4 years and 9 months. The 23 controls were followed up for 6 months on average. The following endpoints were observed: 1) unchanged (no apparent improvement), 2) improved (reduction in lesion size and/or pruritus), and 3) cured (complete remission of the lesions, no viable fungi, and no relapse for 2 years after the end of the drug treatment). The results indicated a significantly greater likelihood of cure associated with the use of multidrug therapy for leprosy with or without itraconazole when compared with the control group. The addition of itraconazole to MDT was not associated with improved outcomes, suggesting that MDT alone is effective.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Lacazia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Lobomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lacazia/patogenicidade , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Lobomicose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(5): e2019575, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of leprosy indicators in Goiás between 2001 and 2017. METHODS: An ecological time series study was conducted. Leprosy morbidity and operational indicators were calculated using Notifiable Health Conditions Information System data. Prais-Winsten regression was used for trend analysis. RESULTS: There was a falling trend in the detection rate in the general population (Annual Percent Change [APC] = -6.8 - 95%CI -8.2;-5.4) and in children under 15 years old (APC = -7.2 - 95%CI -8.5;-5.9); a rising trend in the proportion of grade 2 disability (APC = 3.7 - 95%CI 2.0;5.3) and in the proportion of examined physical disability (APC = 0.6 - 95%CI 0.3;0.8); healing and examined contacts proportions were stable. CONCLUSION: Detection rates decreased while the proportions of grade 2 physical disability and examined physical disability increased.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764785

RESUMO

This study's objective was to estimate the temporal trends of leprosy according to sex and age groups, as well as to estimate and predict the progression of the disease in a hyperendemic city located in the northeast of Brazil. This ecological time-series study was conducted in Imperatriz, Maranhão, Brazil. Leprosy cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were included. Detection rates stratified by sex and age groups were estimated. The study of temporal trends was accomplished using the Seasonal-Trend Decomposition method and temporal modeling of detection rates using linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model according to Box and Jenkins method. Trend forecasts were performed for the 2017-2020 period. A total of 3,212 cases of leprosy were identified, the average incidence among men aged between 30 and 59 years old was 201.55/100,000 inhabitants and among women in the same age group was 135.28/100,000 inhabitants. Detection rates in total and by sex presented a downward trend, though rates stratified according to sex and age presented a growing trend among men aged less than 15 years old and among women aged 60 years old or over. The final models selected in the time-series analysis show the forecasts of total detection rates and rates for men and women presented a downward trend for the 2017-2020 period. Even though the forecasts show a downward trend in Imperatriz, the city is unlikely to meet a significant decrease of the disease burden by 2020.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 9(2): 223-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474550

RESUMO

Patients with leprosy rarely present ulcerated lesions that can appear during reactional states like Lucio's phenomenon (LP), as in our case. LP is a rare complication of multibacillary leprosy due to massive bacilli invasion of endothelial cells causing a thrombotic syndrome. The initial macular lesion is purpuric followed by multiple infiltrated papules and nodules, some of them ulcerated, associated to loss of sensation on lower limbs. The importance of recognizing ulcers as a specific cutaneous manifestation of leprosy allows early diagnosis and treatment, and therefore avoiding the development of disabilities and persistence of illness. Infection by Mycobacterium lepromatosis is associated with LP and it should be especially sought in patients from endemic areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Úlcera/microbiologia , Úlcera/patologia , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Úlcera/diagnóstico
11.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 9(2): 226-228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474551

RESUMO

Erythema multiforme (EM)-like erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a rare atypical presentation, and its late appearance after the completion of multidrug therapy (MDT) is unusual. We describe the case of a lepromatous leprosy patient who after the completion of MDT presented to us with late EM-like ENL and was found to be resistant to rifampicin. We discuss the implications of this finding and the potential role of resistant bacilli in causing reactions with atypical presentations.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eritema Multiforme/diagnóstico , Eritema Multiforme/patologia , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9774, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555205

RESUMO

Erythroderma is characterized by erythema and scaling affecting more than 80% of the body surface area. It is potentially life-threatening, and diagnosis of the underlying disease is a challenge. Despite laboratory improvements, many cases remain idiopathic. We aimed to analyze clinical and laboratory findings of 309 erythrodermic patients to find clues to the etiologic diagnosis. We performed a prospective study at the University of São Paulo Medical School, from 2007 to 2018, with patients with acquired erythroderma. Clinical, laboratory, histology, and molecular biology data were collected. The median age at diagnosis was 57 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.2. Eczema was the most frequent etiology (20.7%), followed by psoriasis (16.8%), Sézary syndrome (12.3%), drug eruption (12.3%), atopic dermatitis (8.7%), and mycosis fungoides (5.5%). Other diagnoses (6.8%) included pemphigus foliaceous, paraneoplastic erythroderma, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, dermatomyositis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, lichen planus, bullous pemphigoid, and leprosy. In 52 patients (16.8%), it was not possible to elucidate erythroderma etiology. Atopic dermatitis developed erythroderma at an earlier age (median 25 years; P = 0.0001). Acute onset was associated with drug reactions and atopic dermatitis (median time from erythroderma to diagnosis of 1 and 1.5 months, respectively; P = 0.0001). Higher immunoglobulin E levels were observed in atopic dermatitis (median 24,600 U/L; P = 0.0001). Histopathology was helpful and was consistent with the final diagnosis in 72.4%. Monoclonal T-cell proliferation in the skin was observed in mycosis fungoides (33.3%) and Sézary syndrome (90.9%). At the last assessment, 211 patients (69.3%) were alive with disease, 65 (21.7%) were alive without disease, and 27 (9.1%) died with active disease. Erythroderma is a challenging syndrome with a difficult diagnostic approach. Younger age and higher immunoglobulin E levels are associated with atopic dermatitis; acute onset is observed in drug eruptions and atopic dermatitis. Histopathology and molecular biology tests are essential tools in the investigation of erythroderma.


Assuntos
Dermatite Esfoliativa/etiologia , Dermatite Esfoliativa/patologia , Dermatopatias/complicações , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatite Esfoliativa/classificação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 91-94, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088716

RESUMO

Abstract This ecological study aims to analyze both the tendency and the characteristics of leprosy in the elderly population in the state of Bahia, 2001-2017. The tendency was analyzed through joinpoint regression. Epidemiological variables were also included in the study. The average detection rate was 38.73/100,000, with prevalence of men (45.19/100,000). A downward trend occurred in both genders, from 2004, with a greater magnitude in women (annual percent change [APC] = −3.4%). Men presented higher proportions of the multibacillary forms and physical disabilities. The epidemiological scenario indicates the need of implementation of actions that stimulate early diagnosis and treatment of the elderly population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Doenças Endêmicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 52-56, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088713

RESUMO

Abstract Background and objectives: Leprosy remains a leading cause of peripheral neuropathy and disability in the world. Primary objective of the study was to determine the incidence of deformities present at a time of diagnosis and new deformities that patients develop over follow up period. Material and methods: An open, retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary medical center in western India. Recruitment phase of the study was of 2 years (2009-2010) followed by observation/follow up phase of 7 years till 31st December 2017. New patients with leprosy and released from treatment cases who presented with deformity as defined by WHO disability grade (1998) and subsequently developing new deformities during the follow up period of up to 7 years were included in the study. Results: The study included 200 leprosy patients. Of the total 254 deformities, 168 (66.14%) deformities were noticed at the moment of diagnosis, 20 (7.87%) deformities occurred during the follow up phase. Of all patients, 21.25% had Grade 1 deformity and 6.31% had Grade 2 or more severe deformity. Deformities of hand were most common in 44.48%, followed by feet 39.76%, and face 15.74% respectively. Limitation of study: Mode of inclusion of patient was self-reporting during follow up phase so there is possible under reporting of the disabilities. Conclusion: New deformities continue to develop in certain forms of leprosy even after release from treatment. Long-term & regular follow up of patients who have been released from treatment is required.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/fisiopatologia , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/patologia , Deformidades Adquiridas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Deformidades Adquiridas da Mão/patologia , Registros Médicos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos , Progressão da Doença , Face/anormalidades , Índia
17.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(1): 52-56, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leprosy remains a leading cause of peripheral neuropathy and disability in the world. Primary objective of the study was to determine the incidence of deformities present at a time of diagnosis and new deformities that patients develop over follow up period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An open, retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary medical center in western India. Recruitment phase of the study was of 2 years (2009-2010) followed by observation/follow up phase of 7 years till 31st December 2017. New patients with leprosy and released from treatment cases who presented with deformity as defined by WHO disability grade (1998) and subsequently developing new deformities during the follow up period of up to 7 years were included in the study. RESULTS: The study included 200 leprosy patients. Of the total 254 deformities, 168 (66.14%) deformities were noticed at the moment of diagnosis, 20 (7.87%) deformities occurred during the follow up phase. Of all patients, 21.25% had Grade 1 deformity and 6.31% had Grade 2 or more severe deformity. Deformities of hand were most common in 44.48%, followed by feet 39.76%, and face 15.74% respectively. LIMITATION OF STUDY: Mode of inclusion of patient was self-reporting during follow up phase so there is possible under reporting of the disabilities. CONCLUSION: New deformities continue to develop in certain forms of leprosy even after release from treatment. Long-term & regular follow up of patients who have been released from treatment is required.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Seguimentos , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/patologia , Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/fisiopatologia , Deformidades Adquiridas da Mão/patologia , Deformidades Adquiridas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 33(3): 161-166, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if either the rate of onset of clinical signs or duration from initial clinical signs to surgical decompression affected the overall quality or duration of recovery in dogs with intervertebral disc extrusion. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series of 131 client owned dogs. Medical records of dogs surgically treated with hemilaminectomy for intervertebral disc extrusion between January 2016 and December 2017 were reviewed for signalment, neurological grade at presentation, rate of onset and duration of clinical signs and surgical variables. These variables were analysed to determine their effect on return of pain sensation, urinary continence and ambulation. RESULTS: Duration of clinical signs prior to surgery and rate of onset of signs did not correlate with return of pain sensation, urinary continence or ambulation. Preoperative neurological grade was the main variable that was found to be associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Delay from initial clinical signs of intervertebral disc extrusion to surgery is unlikely to affect the ultimate outcome or the length of time for a dog to regain pain sensation, urinary continence or ambulation. The rate of onset of signs likewise does not influence these outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(1): 91-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889593

RESUMO

This ecological study aims to analyze both the tendency and the characteristics of leprosy in the elderly population in the state of Bahia, 2001-2017. The tendency was analyzed through joinpoint regression. Epidemiological variables were also included in the study. The average detection rate was 38.73/100,000, with prevalence of men (45.19/100,000). A downward trend occurred in both genders, from 2004, with a greater magnitude in women (annual percent change [APC]=-3.4%). Men presented higher proportions of the multibacillary forms and physical disabilities. The epidemiological scenario indicates the need of implementation of actions that stimulate early diagnosis and treatment of the elderly population.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(2): 141-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy was declared to be eliminated from India in 2006, but recent reports point to an increase in newly detected cases despite the overall fall in prevalence. AIM: This study aimed to analyze the patterns and trends of epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy at a tertiary care center in northern India over a decade. METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective study from 2005 to 2014 conducted at the urban leprosy centre (ULC) of the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology, Government Medical College, Jammu (J and K), India. Data were obtained from the preformatted standard leprosy cards of the urban leprosy centre. Details of demographic data, clinical features, smear results and treatment received were collected from individual cards and analyzed to observe various epidemiological trends. RESULTS: A total of 743 cases were analyzed for the period 2005-2014, of which 8.6% were childhood cases, 52.5% patients were immigrants, and 56.4% were farmers and laborers. Lepromatous cases showed a significantly increasing trend when compared with tuberculoid cases (P < 0.05). Smear positivity was seen in 29.6% of cases and showed an increasing trend (P < 0.05). An important observation was the increase in multibacillary cases. World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 disability also showed an increasing trend over the past decade pointing to delayed diagnosis. LIMITATION: The study is limited by its retrospective design. CONCLUSION: The increasing trend of lepromatous and multibacillary cases and cases with grade 2 disability is a poor sign as it indicates delays in diagnosis. Further, smear-positive cases contribute to continued transmission of disease in the community. Leprosy has been declared to be eliminated, but recent reports including the present study suggest a rise in newly detected cases and hence in disease burden.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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