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1.
FASEB J ; 32(1): 63-72, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842431

RESUMO

Male exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with seminal defects and with congenital anomalies and childhood cancers in offspring. In mice, paternal exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) causes molecular defects in germ cells and phenotypic effects in their offspring. Here we used an ex vivo testicular explant model and in vivo exposure to determine the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis and offspring development. We explanted testis tissue at postnatal day (P)5.5 and cultured it until P11.5. Assessment of growth parameters by analyzing expression of cell-specific markers revealed that the explant system maintained structural and functional integrity. We exposed the P5.5 to -11.5 explants to various concentrations (40-160 µg/ml) of CSC and confirmed that nicotine in the CSC was metabolized to cotinine. We assessed various growth and differentiation parameters, as well as testosterone production, and observed that many spermatogenesis features were impaired at 160 µg/ml CSC. The same parameters were impaired by a similar CSC concentration in vivo Finally, females mated to males that were exposed to 160 µg/ml CSC neonatally had increased rates of pup resorption. We conclude that male exposure to CSC impairs offspring development and that the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis is similar in vivo and ex vivo. Given that the concentrations of CSC we used contained similar doses of nicotine as human smokers are exposed to, we argue that our model mimics human male reproductive effects of smoking.-Esakky, P., Hansen, D. A., Drury, A. M., Felder, P., Cusumano, A., Moley, K. H. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo.


Assuntos
Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Cotinina/metabolismo , Perda do Embrião/induzido quimicamente , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Nicotina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
J Sex Med ; 14(3): 380-386, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28109691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with psoriasis have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but data on atopic dermatitis (AD) are less clear-cut. However, it is well-established that erectile dysfunction (ED) can serve as a risk marker for coronary disease. AIM: To investigate the incidence, prevalence, and risk of ED in men with psoriasis and AD. METHODS: The sample included all Danish men at least 30 years old. In patients with AD and psoriasis, we determined disease severity based on use of systemic therapy. We performed a cross-sectional study (January 1, 2008) using logistic regression to estimate the prevalence and odds ratio of ED. Moreover, in a cohort study design, patients were followed from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012, and Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of new-onset ED. Models were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, socioeconomic status, health care consumption, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and cholesterol-lowering drug use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was initiation of pharmacotherapy used for treatment of ED. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,756,679 Danish men (age range = 30-100 years), of which 2,373 and 26,536 had adult AD (mild = 1,072; severe = 1,301) and psoriasis (mild = 21,775; severe = 4,761), respectively. Mean ages (SDs) were 53.0 (14.6), 46.7 (12.0), and 56.3 (13.8) years for the general population, patients with AD, and patients with psoriasis, respectively. Prevalences of ED were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 12.8% for the general population, patients with AD, and patients with psoriasis, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios (logistic regression) of ED were decreased in patients with AD (0.68; 0.57-0.80) but increased in those with psoriasis (1.15; 1.11-1.20). Adjusted odds ratios for mild and severe AD were 0.63 (0.48-0.82) and 0.72 (0.58-0.88), respectively, and those for psoriasis these were 1.16 (1.11-1.21) and 1.13 (1.03-1.23). Adjusted hazard ratios (Cox regression) were 0.92 (0.76-1.11) for AD and 1.14 (1.08-1.20) for psoriasis. The ED risk was not increased in men with mild AD (0.85; 0.63-1.14) or severe AD (0.97; 0.76-1.24) but was significantly increased in men with mild psoriasis (1.13; 1.09-1.20) and severe psoriasis (1.17; 1.04-1.32). CONCLUSION: We found an increased prevalence and risk of ED in men with psoriasis, whereas the risk was comparable to (and even slightly lower than) the general population for men with AD. Egeberg A, Hansen PR, Gislason GH, et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. J Sex Med 2017;14:380-386.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 25(8): 575-582.e1, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26066536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We used longitudinal data and instrumental variables (IVs) in a prospective design to test for the causal effects of wages on smoking prevalence among current and past smokers. METHODS: Nationally representative U.S. data were drawn from the 1999-2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our overall sample was restricted to full time employed persons, aged 21-65 years. We excluded part time workers and youths because smoking and wage correlations would be complicated by labor supply decisions. We excluded adult never smokers because people rarely begin smoking after the age of 20 years. IVs were created with state-level minimum wages and unionization rates. We analyzed subsamples of men, women, the less educated, the more educated, quitters, and backsliders. Validity and strength of instruments within the IV analysis were conducted with the Sargan-Hansen J statistic and F tests. RESULTS: We found some evidence that low wages lead to more smoking in the overall sample and substantial evidence for men, persons with high school educations or less (<13 years of schooling), and quitters. Results indicated that 10% increases in wages lead to 5.5 and 4.6 percentage point decreases in smoking for men and the less educated; they also increased the average chance of quitting among base-year smokers from 17.0% to 20.4%. Statistical tests suggested that IVs were strong and valid in most samples. Subjects' other family income, including spouses' wages, was entered as a control variable. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in an individual's wages, independent of other income, decreased the prevalence of smoking among current and past smokers.


Assuntos
Emprego , Características de Residência , Salários e Benefícios , Fumar/economia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Int J Immunogenet ; 39(3): 233-40, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22212192

RESUMO

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of leprosy reported four specific genetic polymorphisms of NOD2 that were associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae in China. Considering the role of NOD2 in innate immune defence, we performed a study in a Chinese population to determine whether the same SNPs of NOD2 that were associated with disease caused by M. leprae were also associated with disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We performed a frequency-matched case-control study in 1043 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 808 unaffected controls. All subjects were >15 years old and were Han Chinese from Jiangsu Province. We extracted DNA from a blood sample from each study participant. SNPs of rs3135499, rs7194886, rs8057341 and rs9302752 in the NOD2 gene were genotyped using a TaqMan-based allelic discrimination system. Using all possible patients with tuberculosis as cases, no significant association was found between the four specific SNPs and the risk of tuberculosis. In a subgroup analysis restricted to cases with bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (sputum culture positive), the variant genotype of rs7194886 was significantly associated with an altered risk of tuberculosis. Compared with the CC genotype, individuals carrying the CT/TT genotype of rs7194886 had an increased risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.05-1.72)]. The association was stronger among tobacco smokers and males. By haplotype analysis, rs9302752C-rs7194886T was associated with an increased risk of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (sputum culture positive) (P = 0.039), but it was not significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. In summary, genetic polymorphisms of the SNP rs7194886 in the NOD2 gene, which were discovered in the GWAS of leprosy, might also be associated with the pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etnologia
5.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 90(1): 100-8, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21562488

RESUMO

Systemic and oral clearances of alfentanil (ALF) are in vivo probes for hepatic and first-pass cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. Both ALF single-point plasma concentrations and miosis are surrogates for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and clearance and are minimal and noninvasive CYP3A probes. This investigation determined ALF sensitivity for detecting graded CYP3A induction and compared it with that of midazolam (MDZ). Twelve volunteers (sequential crossover) received 0, 5, 10, 25, or 75 mg oral rifampin for 5 days. MDZ and ALF were given intravenously and orally on sequential days. Dark-adapted pupil diameter was measured with blood sampling. Graded rifampin decreased plasma MDZ AUCs to 83, 76, 62, and 59% (intravenous (i.v.)) and 78, 66, 39, and 24% (oral) of control. Hepatic and first-pass CYP3A induction were detected comparably by plasma MDZ and ALF AUCs. Single ALF concentrations detected all CYP3A induction, whereas MDZ was less sensitive. ALF miosis detected induction of first-pass but not hepatic CYP3A.


Assuntos
Alfentanil/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/biossíntese , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Miose/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Alfentanil/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/sangue , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Injeções Intravenosas , Cinética , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Masculino , Midazolam/sangue , Midazolam/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fumar/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Respir J ; 4(4): 230-6, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20887346

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies on adults have indicated that lower spirometric lung function may be associated with increased systemic inflammation, but no studies have investigated if this association is already present in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: We explored the temporal relationship between changes in lung function and concentrations of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based cohort study at ages 14 and 20 years using a high-sensitivity CRP assay. METHODS: CRP measurements were performed in a total of 420 subjects at mean age of 13.9 years. Of these, 262 subjects (62%) participated in the follow-up investigation at mean age of 20.1 years. RESULTS: Levels of log-CRP at age 14 were not significantly associated with forced expiratory volume (FEV(1) ) or FEV(1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio at age 20, nor with the change in FEV(1) , FVC or FEV(1) /FVC ratio between 14 and 20 years after controlling for body mass index (BMI), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), asthma, smoking, sex, and height at 14 years, and change in height between 14 and 20 years. Sex, BMI, AHR, ECP and change in height between 14 and 20 years were identified as independent factors associated with the change in FEV(1) , FVC and FEV(1) /FVC ratio in adolescence. CONCLUSION: We did not find an association between CRP levels at age 14 and change in lung function by age 20; whereas, sex, change in height, BMI, AHR and ECP were associated with lung function change in adolescence. Our findings indicate that systemic inflammation is of less importance for change in lung function in adolescence. Please cite this paper as: Nybo M, Hansen HS, Siersted HC and Rasmussen F. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 12(6): 622-9, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20453042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Scottish smoke-free legislation has had considerable success, with high compliance resulting in significant health benefits and the increased denormalization of smoking. International literature on the impact of smoke-free legislation has mostly focused on the success of such policies. Relatively little consideration has been given to the potentially negative, albeit unintended, consequences of smoke-free policies within different social and cultural contexts, in particular the increased stigmatization of smokers. METHODS: A 3-wave longitudinal qualitative study in 4 localities in Scotland using repeat in-depth interviews. Participants comprised a panel of 40 current and recent ex-smokers, interviewed before and after implementation of the legislation in 2 socioeconomically advantaged and 2 disadvantaged localities in Scotland. RESULTS: Smokers perceived the smoke-free legislation to have increased the stigmatization of smoking. By separating, albeit temporarily, those who were smoking from those who were not had led to increased felt stigma. This had led to a social milieu that fostered self-labeling and self-stigmatization by smokers of their own smoking behavior, even when they were not smoking. While there was little reported direct discrimination, there was a loss of social status in public places. Smokers attempted to ameliorate stigmatization by not smoking outside, reducing going out socially, joining in the stigmatization of other smokers, and/or acknowledging the benefits of smoke-free environments. DISCUSSION: The unintended negative consequences of smoke-free legislation for some suggest that tobacco control strategies need to consider how smokers who experience increased stigma are supported by public health to address their smoking while continuing to create smoke-free environments.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Dakar Med ; 51(1): 53-6, 2006.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16924851

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thromboangeitis obliterans (TAO) is an inflammatory, non atheromatous arteriopathy of smoking young adults. It is diagnosed on an association of non specific criteria that we discuss throughout this case. CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION: A forty years old tabagical, Senegalese black man, had peripheral destructive lesions preceded by Raynaud phenomenon. He was admitted in our Internal Medicine department in November 2002. Actually this clinical presentation was evolving since 11 years. At that time, hypo aesthesia and ulceration of the fingers led to successive amputations in the leprology centre. The diagnosis of Hansen disease had been suspected but there were no evidence of mycobacterium. At the admission in our service, biological tests showed a moderated non-specific inflammatory syndrome. Ultra sound Doppler and arteriography showed a peripheral arterial stenosis without atheromatous lesions, in favour of TAO. To meet all the criteria the patient didn't have any thrombotic or systemic disease. The evolution was favourable after tobacco weaning. CONCLUSION: TAO can bring to difficulties of diagnosis by its way of presentation. Physicians should practice a systematic vascular screening in case of distal arteriopathy.


Assuntos
Tromboangiite Obliterante/diagnóstico , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Senegal , Fumar/efeitos adversos
10.
Mutagenesis ; 17(4): 309-12, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12110626

RESUMO

To evaluate the genetic damage in leprosy patients, we carried out the alkaline Comet assay and chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 50 leprosy patients receiving multidrug treatment (MDT) and 50 healthy individuals. The Comet assay showed statistically higher mean values for length to width ratios of DNA mass (P < 0.01) and for mean frequencies of tailed cells (P < 0.001) in cells of leprosy patients than in those of controls. Similarly, the mean frequencies of micronucleated cells (per 1000 cytochalasin B-induced binucleated cells) were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in leprosy patients (19.92 +/- 2.564) than in controls (1.6 +/- 0.231). A statistically significant 10-fold increase in the frequency of CAs (11.16 +/- 0.411) was observed in leprosy patients compared with controls (1.28 +/- 0.242). In multiple regression analyses, when patients and controls were considered together, disease factor alone significantly influenced the genotoxicity markers. In the control group, age and alcohol consumption significantly influenced MN and length to width ratios and CA frequency, respectively. However, in MDT-treated leprosy patients none of the other confounding factors (sex, age, smoking and alcohol drinking) significantly affected the extent of genetic damage.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Ensaio Cometa , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/sangue , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar
13.
J Int Acad Periodontol ; 2(1): 19-23, 2000 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12666982

RESUMO

Inflammatory periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of mankind. Gingival inflammation is widespread, but advanced periodontitis is limited to relatively small subgroups of the population. Gingivitis is initiated by microbial plaque deposits on the dento-gingival interface but progression to periodontitis is modified by several environmental, behavioural, biological and health care variables. This paper reviews the reports dealing with some risk factors for periodontal disease published in recent years and compares the data with findings in a Ljubljana population. It is concluded that male smokers with lower education and low frequency of tooth brushing represent a risk population for progression of periodontal disease. Marital status and body mass need further study to be proved as risk factors for periodontitis. A socioecological model proposed by Hansen et al. (1993) should be used for understanding the interplay of different risk factors for progression of periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Raspagem Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gengivite/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Eslovênia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Health Millions ; 24(4): 10-1, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12349574

RESUMO

PIP: The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka."^ieng


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Publicidade , Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar , Ásia , Ásia Sudeste , Comportamento , Atenção à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Doença , Economia , Infecções por HIV , Serviços de Saúde , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Indonésia , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Sri Lanka , Viroses
16.
Indian J Lepr ; 57(4): 814-9, 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3835211

RESUMO

Olfactory test was carried out in 225 cases of Hansen's disease with 75 cases each of lepromatous leprosy (L.L.), borderline leprosy (B.L.) and tuberculoid leprosy (T). Impairment of olfaction was found in 94(41.7%) cases. It was seen in 69.33% cases of L.L., 33.33% cases of B.L. and 22.6% cases of T. Total anosmia was present in 5(6.61%) cases of L.L. only. Males were more affected than the females. Impairment of olfaction was related to the duration of the disease, severity of the nasal condition, and E.N.L. reaction. It was not related to the type of antileprosy drug used.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Olfato , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Limiar Sensorial , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar
19.
Angiology ; 31(2): 82-90, 1980 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7362079

RESUMO

The prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors were studied in 475 Hansen's patients (HP's) by a special questionnaire, physical examination, electrocardiogram at rest and after exercise, and biochemical and hematologic investigations. It was found that the prevalence of CHD (Minnesota codes 1-1 to 1-3 and 4-1) was 10.92%, which is higher than that found in epidemiologic studies of nonHansen's populations. The only CHD risk factors detected were age, obesity, and hypertension. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of CHD between HP's living confined in the institution and those living in their homes. Factors enhancing the development of CHD in this group may include hypertension and obesity as well as psychological factors, which particularly common in these patients, and of course old age.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Hanseníase/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Criança , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/complicações
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