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1.
Cutis ; 95(4): 222-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25942024

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae that primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has several distinct clinical presentations ranging from moderate to severe, with the extent of disease generally depending on the host's immune response to the infection. Treatment typically involves antimicrobials (eg, clofazimine, dapsone, rifampin). Once treatment is started, an important aspect of patient care is the recognition of possible reversal reactions. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who repeatedly developed physical findings consistent with a type 1 (reversal) reaction after undergoing multiple treatments for leprosy. A discussion of leprosy along with its clinical manifestations, treatment methods, and management of reversal reactions also is provided.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Recidiva
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 13: 42, 2013 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23351151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An early diagnostic test for detecting infection in leprosy is fundamental for reducing patients' sequelae. The currently used lepromin is not adequate for disease diagnosis and, so far, no antigen to be used in intradermoreaction has proved to be sensitive and specific for that purpose. Aiming at identifying new reagents to be used in skin tests, candidate antigens were investigated. METHODS: Random peptide phage display libraries were screened by using antibodies from leprosy patients in order to identify peptides as diagnostic reagents. RESULTS: Seven different phage clones were identified using purified antibodies pooled from sera of leprosy patients. When the clones were tested with serum samples by ELISA, three of them, 5A, 6A and 1B, allowed detecting a larger number of leprosy patients when compared to controls. The corresponding peptides expressed by selected phage clones were chemically synthesized. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the use of peptides in skin tests. The intradermal challenge with peptides in animals previously sensitized with Mycobacterium leprae induced a delayed-type hypersensitivity with peptide 5A (2/5) and peptide 1B (1/5). In positive controls, there was a 3/5 reactivity for lepromin and a 4/5 reactivity of the sensitized animals with soluble extract of M. leprae. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary data suggest that may be possible to develop reagents with diagnostic potential based on peptide mimotopes selected by phage display using polyclonal human antibodies.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Animais , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Antígeno de Mitsuda/imunologia , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Peptídeos/imunologia
3.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 33(5): 433-60, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21694502

RESUMO

Syphilis has plagued mankind for centuries and is currently resurgent in the Western hemisphere. Although there has been a significant reduction of tertiary disease and recognition of facilitative interactions with human immunodeficiency virus infection, the natural history of syphilis has remained largely unchanged; thus, new strategies are required to more effectively combat this pathogen. The immunopathologic features of experimental syphilis in the rabbit; the course, stages, and pathology of human syphilis; and a comparison of human syphilis with leprosy suggest that the clinical course of syphilis and its tissue manifestations are determined by the balance between delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and humoral immunity to the causative agent, Treponema pallidum. A strong DTH response is associated with clearance of the infecting organisms in a well-developed chancre, whereas a cytotoxic T-cell response or strong humoral antibody response is associated with prolonged infection and progression to tertiary disease. Many of the protean symptoms/appearances of secondary and tertiary human syphilis are manifestations of immune reactions that fail to clear the organism, due to a lack of recruitment and, more importantly, activation of macrophages by sensitized CD4 T cells. The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination can enhance DTH and has been shown to produce a low, but measurable, beneficial effect in the prevention of leprosy, a disease that shows a disease spectrum with characteristics in common with syphilis. In the prevention of syphilis, a potential vaccine protective against syphilis should be designed to augment the DTH response.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Sífilis/imunologia , Sífilis/patologia , Animais , Humanos
4.
Microbes Infect ; 11(14-15): 1122-30, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19703581

RESUMO

Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) and protective immunity are thought to be tightly linked. Remarkable similarity exists between their cellular and immune mechanisms. However, their dissociation is also well known. Here we investigate the immunological mechanisms relevant for their dissociation in a group of non-relapsing cured lepromatous leprosy (CLL) patients. In these patients, using lepromin reaction as a model system of DTH we report critical role of tissue chemokine response in synchronous manifestation of these linked phenomena. Results indicate elevation of the threshold of tissue chemokine induction thus dissociating DTH from protective immunity in lepromin -ive CLL patients. We also show that the DTH anergy in these subjects is not an absolute one but depends on the strength of the stimulus. Our data provide insights into the intricate relationship between DTH and immunity and highlight the persistent presence of effector immune mechanisms involving these two pathways in apparently unresponsive lepromatous leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Antígeno de Mitsuda/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
5.
Vaccine ; 27(42): 5760-71, 2009 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19664738

RESUMO

The interactions between three different protein antigens and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) dispersed in aqueous solutions from probe sonication or adsorbed as one bilayer onto particles was comparatively investigated. The three model proteins were bovine serum albumin (BSA), purified 18 kDa/14 kDa antigens from Taenia crassiceps (18/14-Tcra) and a recombinant, heat-shock protein hsp-18 kDa from Mycobacterium leprae. Protein-DODAB complexes in water solution were characterized by dynamic light scattering for sizing and zeta-potential analysis. Cationic complexes (80-100 nm of mean hydrodynamic diameter) displayed sizes similar to those of DODAB bilayer fragments (BF) in aqueous solution and good colloid stability over a range of DODAB and protein concentrations. The amount of cationic lipid required for attaining zero of zeta-potential at a given protein amount depended on protein nature being smaller for 18 kDa/14 kDa antigens than for BSA. Mean diameters for DODAB/protein complexes increased, whereas zeta-potentials decreased with NaCl or protein concentration. In mice, weak IgG production but significant cellular immune responses were induced by the complexes in comparison to antigens alone or carried by aluminum hydroxide as shown from IgG in serum determined by ELISA, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction from footpad swelling tests and cytokines analysis. The novel cationic adjuvant/protein complexes revealed good colloid stability and potential for vaccine design at a reduced DODAB concentration.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Lipídeos/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Cátions/química , Cátions/imunologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Química Farmacêutica , Citocinas/análise , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Lipídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/imunologia , Soroalbumina Bovina/imunologia , Taenia/imunologia
6.
BMC Biotechnol ; 9: 5, 2009 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19152701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. RESULTS: Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001-1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in vivo from delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions determined by foot-pad swelling tests (DTH) and cytokines analysis evidenced the superior performance of the silica/DODAB adjuvant as compared to alum or antigens alone whereas humoral response from IgG in serum was equal to the one elicited by alum as adjuvant. CONCLUSION: Cationized silica is a biocompatible, inexpensive, easily prepared and possibly general immunoadjuvant for antigen presentation which displays higher colloid stability than alum, better performance regarding cellular immune responses and employs very low, micromolar doses of cationic and toxic synthetic lipid.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apresentação do Antígeno , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/imunologia , Dióxido de Silício/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adsorção , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Cátions , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/química
7.
Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 73(3): 263-70, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15508729

RESUMO

Mycobacterial diseases, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and disease due to nontuberculous mycobacteria, are the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world. About one-third of the world population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Over 8 million new cases and nearly 2 million deaths occur each year. Tuberculosis presents a significant health threat to the world. The pathogenicity of mycobacteria is related to their ability to escape killing by ingested macrophages, latent infection, and induce delayed type hypersensitivity. This has been attributed to several components of the mycobacterial cell wall, such as surface glycolipids, lipoarabinomannan, complement activation factor, heat-shock protein, and mycobacterial DNA binding protein. From the aspect of my research interests, I have focused on mycobacterial glycolipids and mycobacterial DNA binding protein in this article. Surface molecules of mycobacteria exert pleiotropic activities in both the microbe and host, and thus participate in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial diseases. The better understanding of mycobacterial pathogenicity may open the new avenue for the development of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Glicolipídeos , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Glicolipídeos/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Mycobacterium/química , Mycobacterium/citologia , Testes Sorológicos
9.
J Infect Dis ; 186(2): 260-5, 2002 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12134264

RESUMO

This study investigated whether peripheral nerve damage in patients with leprosy impairs local cellular immune responses, thereby reducing wound healing and leading to chronic skin ulceration. Anesthetic and contralateral sensitive skin sites in 42 patients with leprosy were compared for delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. Leukocyte recruitment, epidermal activation, keratinocyte proliferation, and rates of wound healing after skin biopsy were compared. No significant differences in PPD-induced induration, epidermal activation and thickening or numbers of total T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD1a+ Langerhans cells, and proliferating Ki67+ keratinocytes were observed between anesthetic and sensitive skin sites. Similarly, rates of wound healing over 5 days after skin biopsy did not differ significantly. Thus, local leprosy-associated anesthesia does not appear to contribute to local immune compromise or impaired wound healing. Rather, chronic cutaneous ulceration in leprosy most likely results from repeated trauma associated with loss of sensation.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/imunologia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD1/análise , Biópsia , Complexo CD3/análise , Antígenos CD8/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurite (Inflamação)/metabolismo , Neurite (Inflamação)/patologia , Teste Tuberculínico
11.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 5(7): 664-72, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11467373

RESUMO

SETTING: Rural northern Malawi, where vaccination with BCG Glaxo (1077) provides protection against leprosy but not against pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the patterns of responsiveness to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) in terms of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. DESIGN: IFN-gamma was measured in 6 day whole blood cultures diluted 1 in 10, stimulated with PPD RT48, and the results compared to the DTH response to PPD RT23. A total of 633 individuals aged 12 to 28 years, without prior BCG vaccination, were recruited. RESULTS: Overall, 63% of subjects made a positive IFN-gamma response (defined as >62 pg/ml), and 37% gave a DTH induration of >5 mm. A strong correlation between skin test and IFN-gamma responses was observed, although with interesting exceptions: 13/270 individuals with zero DTH showed IFN-gamma responses >500 pg/ml, and 7/53 individuals with >10 mm induration showed IFN-gamma responses < or = 62 pg/ml. The prevalence of skin test responsiveness increased with age, and was higher among older males than females; age-sex patterns were less clear for IFN-gamma production. CONCLUSION: The 6 day IFN-gamma response to PPD correlates well with Mantoux skin test induration. The discordant individuals may represent important subsets in terms of protective immunity and risk of clinical tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Tuberculina , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Testes Cutâneos
13.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 69(3): 195-203, 2001 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11875763

RESUMO

The immune responses of 19 treated lepromatous patients who had remained smear negative for a long period were assessed for specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI), anti-Mycobacterium leprae antibodies and cytokine release in response to challenge with M. leprae soluble antigen (MLSA). All of these patients remained anergic to Mitsuda lepromin. Lymphoproliferation in response to M. leprae antigen was noted in only two patients. Significant reduction in the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) antibody response in treated patients with no difference in the M. leprae 35-kDa antibody response was observed when these responses were compared with those of active lepromatous patients. More treated patients produced interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) than did active patients. On the other hand, fewer treated patients produced IL-10 than did active patients. These limited findings suggest that the host immune response makes an attempt toward upregulation of CMI in some treated LL/BL patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Antígeno de Mitsuda/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Scand J Immunol ; 50(6): 580-7, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10607306

RESUMO

The tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is a widely used diagnostic antigen for tuberculosis. It consists of more than 100 denatured proteins in a culture filtrate of a heated culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of PPDs from M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, most proteins were diffusely separated and could not be seen as spots because of denaturation, whereas a few proteins showed relatively clear spots, indicating heat resistance. Two such proteins corresponded to ribosomal proteins L7 and L12. The mixture of these proteins L7/L2 induced a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Another protein showing a clear spot was a GroES analogue, but this did not induce delayed-type hypersensitivity. There were a few other unidentified proteins. It is well known that L7 and L12 are encoded by the same gene and that they differ from each other only by an acetylic post-translational modification that occurs at the N-terminus of L12 converting it to L7 in Escherichia coli. L12, but not L7, was found in two-dimensional electrophoresis of BCG ribosomes, although we found two proteins corresponding to L7 and L12 in PPDs and a native culture filtrate of BCG. We compared the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction elicited by L7/L12 derived from a culture filtrate of BCG and L12 derived from BCG ribosomes. L7/L12 from the culture filtrate could induce delayed-type hypersensitivity, but L12 from ribosomes could not, indicating that L7 was attributable to the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The activity of L7/L12 was heat resistant. Neither glycosylation nor phosphorylation of L7/L12 from a culture filtrate could be detected. The acetylation at N-terminal of L12 was essential for the delayed-type hypersensitivity activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Proteínas Ribossômicas/imunologia , Tuberculina/imunologia , Acetilação , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Feminino , Cobaias , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Mycobacterium bovis/química , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Desnaturação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/isolamento & purificação , Ribossomos/química , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Especificidade da Espécie , Tuberculina/química
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10774662

RESUMO

To assess cell mediated immune (CMI) function in patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous leprosy (LL and BL), 35 patients were examined with the MULTITEST CMI system to evaluate cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responsiveness to 7 recall antigens. Reactions were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, patients were classified as "responsive" (> or = 2 positive reactions), "hypo-responsive" (1 positive reaction), or anergic. Only hyporesponsive and anergic patients were re-tested. In 23 patients tested before treatment started (Group 1), 9 were responsive, 4 hypo-responsive, and 10 anergic. Upon re-testing, 10 of the 14 hyporesponsive-anergic subjects showed improvement. In 12 patients assessed after therapy initiation (Group 2), 9 were responsive and 3 others became responsive upon re-testing. Quantitative assessment indicated variable deficiencies in cutaneous DTH reactivity that, in many cases, improved with therapy. Correlations between reactivity and disease severity (LL versus BL) or duration of disease were not observed. The MULTITEST CMI system provided a convenient, safe, and reproducible method to assess cutaneous DTH responsiveness in LL and BL patients. Our findings indicated that most LL and BL patients are able to generate detectable but generally fewer and less robust cutaneous DTH responses to recall antigens, many improving with therapy. However, a semi-quantitative classification whereby patients that reacted to 2 or more antigens were considered "responsive" showed little difference between patients and controls. Overall, the data support the contention that deficits in cutaneous DTH responsiveness probably neither predispose nor necessarily accompany lepromatous disease, a practical consideration as efforts to develop a leprosy vaccine continue.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hanseníase Dimorfa/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
18.
Lepr Rev ; 68(2): 125-30, 1997 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9217351

RESUMO

Lymphostimulatory and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) immune responses to a candidate antileprosy vaccine Mycobacterium habana have been quantified in inbred AKR mice. M. habana vaccine in three physical states, live, heat-killed and gamma-irradiated, was given intradermally to separate groups of mice and after 28 days these mice were given subcutaneous challenge with heat-killed M. leprae and heat-killed M. habana in the left hind footpad. Live BCG vaccine alone and in combination with gamma-irradiated M. habana were also compared similarly. A sufficient degree of DTH response was generated in mice by M. habana vaccine in all physical forms against two challenge antigens (lepromin and habanin). The BCG combination with M. habana did not increase the DTH response indicating internal adjuvanticity endowed in M. habana. The active hypersensitivity of immunized mice was transferable to syngeneic mice by the transfer of sensitized cells from the donor to the recipient mice intravenously. M. leprae-infected Rhesus monkey PBMC have shown comparable stimulatory response with M. habana (sonicate), and M. leprae (sonicate) antigens. The possibility of developing M. habana as a candidate antileprosy vaccine is discussed.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Animais , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hanseníase/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos AKR , Valores de Referência
19.
Immunology ; 92(4): 429-36, 1997 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9497483

RESUMO

The influence of Mycobacterium leprae cell wall lipids on lymphocyte functions has been investigated in vivo (delayed-type hypersensitivity) and in vitro. The inflammatory response has been earlier evaluated by the mouse footpad oedema model and the delipidated mycobacteria evoked a mild but significant inflammatory response. Herein a higher level of hypersensitivity reaction was observed with delipidated bacilli than with the intact mycobacteria. The lipids obtained from the extract of M. leprae external cell wall were used to prepare liposomes, which have not been shown to be toxic to lymphocytes. The method of lipidic extraction and the sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the lipid fraction did not reveal any trace of proteins. Thin-layer chromatography of this extract detected four different bands with an apolar character, suggestive of mycolic and fatty acids. These same M. leprae liposomes potently suppressed lymph node cells, as well CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lines, and an antigen-specific T-cell clone (T 4-9) proliferation, even under potent stimulus. Cholesterol-choline liposomes, unrelated to M. leprae liposomes, used as a control in the biological assays showed no significant effect on lymphoblastic activity, which points to the specificity of M. leprae lipids. These data demonstrated that M. leprae cell wall lipids induce immune suppression in mice without causing any membrane alteration in T cells as assessed throughout kinetic studies in vitro. This fact is closely related to the down-regulating effect induced by M. leprae lipids which we have previously observed in macrophage functions in vivo and in vitro. Although this lipidic fraction showed a suppressive action on T lymphocytes in vitro (proliferation) and in vivo (delayed-type hypersensitivity), its possible significance in the establishment of a specific immune response to M. leprae must be further investigated.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Divisão Celular/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Cobaias , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Immunology ; 86(4): 519-24, 1995 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8567015

RESUMO

Although mice acquire only a slight degree of protection against tuberculosis by immunization with Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) hsp65 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, protection is substantial following immunization by injection with J774 macrophage-like tumour cells that express the protein from the mycobacterial gene via a retroviral vector. We here took the same vector, used it to transfect the gene into normal murine bone marrow cells in vitro, and then used the transfected cells to reconstitute haematopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. Bone marrow-cell clonal expansion and production of the protein in vivo resulted in specific delayed-type hypersensitivity and protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in about half of recipients. Counts of live bacteria in liver at 3 weeks were fivefold lower in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)-positive than in DTH-negative mice. Other mice acquired neither DTH nor protection despite the presence of the protein in peripheral blood.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Chaperoninas/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Southern Blotting , Chaperonina 60 , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Retroviridae/genética , Transfecção , Irradiação Corporal Total
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