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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010799, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is rare in the United Kingdom (UK), but migration from endemic countries results in new cases being diagnosed each year. We documented the clinical presentation of leprosy in a non-endemic setting. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on all new cases of leprosy managed in the Leprosy Clinic at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 1995 and 2018 were analysed. RESULTS: 157 individuals with a median age of 34 (range 13-85) years were included. 67.5% were male. Patients came from 34 different countries and most contracted leprosy before migrating to the UK. Eighty-two (51.6%) acquired the infection in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. 30 patients (19.1%) acquired leprosy in Africa, including 11 from Nigeria. Seven patients were born in Europe; three acquired their leprosy infection in Africa, three in South East Asia, and one in Europe. The mean interval between arrival in the UK and symptom onset was 5.87 years (SD 10.33), the longest time to diagnosis was 20 years. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy (n = 71, 42.0%), and lepromatous leprosy (n =, 53 33.1%) were the commonest Ridley Jopling types. Dermatologists were the specialists diagnosing leprosy most often. Individuals were treated with World Health Organization recommended drug regimens (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). CONCLUSION: Leprosy is not a disease of travellers but develops after residence in an leprosy endemic area. The number of individuals from a leprosy endemic country reflect both the leprosy prevalence and the migration rates to the United Kingdom. There are challenges in diagnosing leprosy in non-endemic areas and clinicians need to recognise the symptoms and signs of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Londres , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Nigéria
2.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida;Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; 20220906. 212 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397766

RESUMO

Olhando para a trajetória histórica compreende-se melhor a relação entre "Democracia e Saúde" estabelecida para 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde realizada em 2019, pois a luta pelo direito à saúde e a implementação do SUS está vinculada a busca pela redemocratização e a ampliação dos direitos sociais no Brasil. As instâncias do controle social se consolidaram no decorrer das três décadas de sua existência, os movimentos sociais, bem como, as mais diversas organizações da sociedade civil, ocuparam estes espaços e buscaram transformá-los numa arena democrática de defesa da sua concepção de saúde, de política pública, de Estado, de desenvolvimento e de direitos humanos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Conferências de Saúde , Conselhos de Saúde , Participação Social , Política de Saúde , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal , Democracia , Direito à Saúde
3.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(4): 483-493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138068

RESUMO

Background More than four million people today live with Hansen's disease, and 200,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Lifetime effects of Hansen's disease manifest as changes to bones of the face, hands and feet, resulting in physical impairment, secondary complications and facial changes that can be detrimental to quality of life, particularly among the elderly. Aims This study aimed to perform a detailed characterization of rhinomaxillary syndrome and its clinical manifestations in older persons treated in the past for Hansen's disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study to characterize rhinomaxillary syndrome among older persons (age 60+ years) resident at Pedro Fontes Hospital, Cariacica, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Computed tomography images were examined with three-dimensional reconstructions to assess alterations to maxillofacial bones according to criteria for radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome. Participants were examined to assess facial alterations according to criteria for clinical rhinomaxillary syndrome. Results Rhinomaxillary syndrome was investigated in 16 participants (ten females and six males), median age 70 (range 60-89) years, age at diagnosis 20 (6-43) years and time since diagnosis 46 (26-70) years. Four participants fully met radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome criteria, four partially. All participants with full radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome presented with facial changes which met criteria for clinical rhinomaxillary syndrome, including "saddle nose" (loss of nasal dorsal height and shortened length of nose, due to cartilaginous and/or bone collapse), concave middle third of the face with sunken nose, maxillary retrognathia and inverted upper lip. Limitations Clinical histories were incomplete for some participants because records were lost at the hospital over time. Conclusion Until Hansen's disease is eliminated from endemic countries, persons affected will continue to present with rhinomaxillofacial alterations caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. Clinical protocols for assessment and long-term care need to include otorhinolaryngological evaluation, mainly to prevent secondary complications. When rhinomaxillofacial bone changes are suspected, this evaluation should be supported by computed tomography imaging, if available.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome
5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 42, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a rare degenerative corneal disease caused by damage to the trigeminal nerve. We hereby describe a severe case with bilateral corneal perforation due to leprosy (Hansen's disease)-associated NK. CASE PRESENTATION: An 89-year-old man with a history of leprosy treated 40 years previously in our sanatorium developed bilateral corneal perforation due to NK. He had a history of bilateral persistent epithelial defects and bacterial keratitis. Although epithelialization was obtained with the use of autologous serum eye drops, progressive corneal thinning concomitant with stromalysis led to bilateral perforation. Over one month treatment with topical antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and lubricants resulted in healing of the epithelial defects and corneal perforations. A Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer demonstrated a total absence of corneal sensation in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The present case indicated the irreversible nerve damage due to leprosy that had been cured 23 years ago, which can progress over the years and cause bilateral corneal perforations.


Assuntos
Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea , Perfuração da Córnea , Ceratite , Hanseníase , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perfuração da Córnea/diagnóstico , Perfuração da Córnea/etiologia , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/etiologia , Masculino , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/complicações , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/diagnóstico
6.
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(1): e1-e5, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare radiographic findings in supination external (SE)2 injuries versus stress (+) SE4 injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Academic Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: The study included 350 skeletally mature patients at a single Level 1 trauma center who presented with an isolated, Lauge-Hansen type supination-external rotation pattern, Weber B lateral malleolar fracture, OTA/AO 44-B. RESULTS: We reviewed 350 patients (185 men and 165 women), 18-95 years of age (avg 45), with isolated SE pattern lateral malleolar fractures. One hundred nine had SE4 injuries [medial clear space (MCS) = 8.3 mm]. Two hundred forty-one ankles were stressed; 164 were unstable and 77 were stable (SE2). Avg MCS at presentation and on stress radiographs was 3.59 mm for the SE2 (no widening) and 3.86 mm and 5.94 mm for the stress (+) SE4 group, respectively. The fibular displacement for the SE2, stress (+) SE4, and SE4 groups was 1.5 (0-4.5), 3.5 (0-6.6), and 4.1 (0-30.5), respectively. Sixteen of the 77 (20%) SE2 and 24 of the 164 (15%) stress (+) SE4 fractures had no displacement of the fibula on the lateral view. Similarly, 53 of the 77 (68%) SE2 and 91 of the 164 (55%) stress (+) SE4 had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement Fibular displacement of ≤2 mm on the lateral radiograph corresponded with 0.69 sensitivity and only 0.37 positive predictive value for stable ankle mortise on stress examination. CONCLUSIONS: Previous work indicated that patients with an isolated SE pattern fibula fracture, a normal MCS, and ≤2 mm of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph have a high rate of ankle stability, with a positive predictive value of approximately 97%. We were unable to confirm this finding because 15% of unstable ankles had 0 mm and 55% had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement. We conclude that stability may not be inferred from a lack of fibular displacement on the lateral view in this population of patients. If stability is to be determined, it must be tested irrespective of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas Ósseas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 61(3): 490-496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763998

RESUMO

Fragility ankle fractures in elderly have a rising incidence and hospitalization may be prolonged due to pre-existing comorbidities, compromised soft tissue and postoperative difficulties in the rehabilitation process. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate risk factors for longer total hospitalization duration in elderly patients with surgically treated fragility (Lauge Hansen supination external rotation type 4) fractures. We included all patients ≥ 70 years with a fragility fracture, who were treated surgically between 2011 and 2019 (n = 97) in a level 1 and 2 trauma center. Data on patient demographics, fracture characteristics, surgical treatment strategies and postoperative complications were retrieved from medical records. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for longer hospitalization duration. The mean age of the included patients was 78.27 (± 6.56) years; 71 patients (73.20%) were female. Ten fractures (10.30%) were classified as open and 49 (50.50%) as a luxation type fracture. Fifty-nine patients (60.80%) were hospitalized after admission to the emergency department. External fixation was performed in 34 patients (35.10%) and served as bridge to definitive fixation in 29 patients (85.30%). The mean total hospital length of stay of all patients was 7.04 (± 6.58) days. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the use of external fixation (p < .001) and the postoperative discharge destination (p < .001) were independently associated with a prolonged hospital stay. External fixation and discharge destination were independent risk factors for a prolonged hospital stay in elderly patients with a fragility fracture.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 121-127, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391473

RESUMO

Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença crônica, infectocontagiosa e considerada um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o seguimento farmacoterapêutico de pacientes com diagnóstico de hanseníase. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com pacientes com hanseníase multibacilar do município de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso. O seguimento farmacoterapêutico foi realizado a partir de uma versão adaptada do Método Dáder. Para análise de dados aplicou-se a estatística descritiva e o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson.Resultados: Uma frequência de 95,6% dos participantes apresentou problemas relacionados aos medicamentos, 59,1% apresentaram 3 ou mais problemas, os mais frequentes foram administração errada do medicamento e interação medicamento/nutriente. A inefetividade não quantitativa foi o resultado negativo associado ao medicamento mais evidenciado. Os indivíduos acompanhados em um serviço especializado apresentaram menor número de problemas relacionados aos medicamentos quando comparados àqueles da Estratégia Saúde da Família (p = 0,027).Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes acompanhados apresentou problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos. O método Dáder possibilitou realizar o seguimento farmacoterapêutico de indivíduos com hanseníase.


Introduction: Leprosy is a chronic, infectious, and contagious disease considered a public health problem in Brazil. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study of patients with multibacillary leprosy in the city of Rondonópolis, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Pharmacotherapy follow-up was conducted based on an adapted version of the Dáder method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Drug-related problems (DRP) were reported in 95.6% of patients, among whom 59.1% had 3 or more problems DRPs. The most common DRPs were incorrect drug administration and drug-nutrient interaction. Nonquantitative ineffectiveness was the most common drug-related negative outcome. Patients monitored in a leprosy treatment center had fewer DRPs than those monitored by a Family Health Strategy team (p = 0.027). Conclusion: Most patients had DRPs. The Dáder method allowed pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients with leprosy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Hanseníase Multibacilar/tratamento farmacológico
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010035, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affecting the skin. Their control is challenging but the integration of skin NTDs control programs is recommended to improve timely detection and treatment. However, little is known about the occurrence of leprosy and CL in the same individuals, and what are the characteristics of such patients. This study aimed to identify and characterize patients diagnosed with both leprosy and CL (i.e., outcome) in the hyperendemic state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Also, we investigated the demographic risk factors associated with the period between the diagnosis of both diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2017. From the leprosy (n = 28,204) and CL (n = 24,771) databases of the national reporting system, 414 (0.8%; 414/52,561) patients presenting both diseases were identified through a probabilistic linkage procedure. This observed number was much higher than the number of patients that would be expected by chance alone (n = 22). The spatial distribution of patients presenting the outcome was concentrated in the North and Northeast mesoregions of the state. Through survival analysis, we detected that the probability of a patient developing both diseases increased over time from 0.2% in the first year to 1.0% within seven years. Further, using a Cox model we identified male sex (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9) and low schooling level (HR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) as positively associated with the outcome. Furthermore, the hazard of developing the outcome was higher among individuals aged 40-55 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leprosy and CL are affecting the same individuals in the area. Integration of control policies for both diseases will help to efficiently cover such patients. Measures should be focused on timely diagnosis by following-up patients diagnosed with CL, active case detection, and training of health professionals.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1155, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with relapses of leprosy should be monitored carefully, however, with respect to paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, it is sometimes difficult to make a definitive diagnosis of relapse, because the bacillary index is often negative. To evaluate the usefulness of cytokine profiling in a patient with relapsed PB leprosy who tested negative for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies, we analyzed the Mycobacterium leprae protein-induced cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patient. CASE PRESENTATION: An 89-year-old-male relapsed PB patient, first treated for leprosy over 50 years prior, was examined. In April 2012, he noticed three skin lesions consisting of annular erythema in the thighs. Slit skin smear tests were negative, and skin biopsies revealed a pathology of indeterminate-to-borderline tuberculoid leprosy. He received 600 mg of rifampicin once per month and 75 mg of dapsone daily for 12 months. The annular erythemas disappeared after starting treatment. Before treatment, and 6 and 12 months after starting treatment, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in the supernatant of mononuclear cells from the patient before and after stimulation with Mycobacterium leprae soluble protein (MLS) were examined using a Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) Human Th1/Th2 Cytokine Kit II. The CBA Enhanced Sensitivity Flex Set system was applied to detect small amounts of cytokines in the serum just before treatment and one year before relapse. In the culture supernatant, just before treatment, increases in IFN-γ level and the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio and a decreased IL-6 level were observed without stimulation. Upon stimulation with MLS, just before treatment, both the IFN-γ and TNF levels increased markedly, and twelve months after starting treatment, the IFN-γ and TNF levels decreased greatly. In the serum, just before treatment, increases in IFN-γ and TNF levels and the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio were evident compared with those measured one year before relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokine profiling using culture supernatants and serum samples may be useful for the diagnosis of relapsed PB leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Paucibacilar , Hanseníase , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Citocinas , Humanos , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009923, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is potentially debilitating. The risk factors related to physical disabilities associated with leprosy disease in Yunnan, China was not clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 10644 newly detected leprosy patients from Yunnan, China, from 1990 to 2019. Factors associated with Grade 1 (G1D) and Grade 2 (G2D) physical disabilities or overall physical disabilities (combined G1D and G2D) associated with leprosy were analyzed using multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses. The following factors were associated with the development of physical disability in these patients with leprosy: delayed diagnosis [odds ratio (OR): 5.652, 4.399, and 2.275; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 4.516-7.073, 3.714-5.212, and 2.063-2.509; for ≥ 10, 5-10 y, and 2-5 years, respectively], nerve damage (OR: 3.474 and 2.428; 95% CI: 2.843-4.244, and 1.959-3.008; for 2 and 1 damaged nerves, respectively), WHO classification of PB (OR: 1.759; 95% CI: 1.341-2.307), Ridley-Jopling classification (OR: 1.479, 1.438, 1.522 and 1.239; 95% CI: 1.052-2.079, 1.075-1.923, 1.261-1.838, and 1.072-1.431; for TT, BT, BB, and BL when compared with LL, respectively), advanced age (OR: 1.472 and 2.053; 95% CI: 1.106-1.960 and 1.498-2.814; for 15-59 and over 60 years old, respectively), zero skin lesions (OR: 1.916; 95% CI: 1.522-2.413), leprosy reaction (OR: 1.528; 95% CI: 1.195-1.952), rural occupation (OR: 1.364; 95% CI: 1.128-1.650), Han ethnicity (OR: 1.268; 95% CI: 1.159-1.386), and male sex (OR: 1.128; 95% CI: 1.024-1.243). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed diagnosis, nerve damage, no skin lesions, WHO and Ridley-Jopling classifications, leprosy reactions, advanced age, rural occupation, Han ethnicity, and male sex were associated with disability in leprosy patients. Identifying risk factors could help to prevent physical disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009913, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is associated with different dermatologic and neurologic manifestations within a wide clinical spectrum, causing a great diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we aimed to examine associations between common presenting symptoms of leprosy and stage at diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed population-level data from the Leprosy Management Information System (LEPMIS) in Yunnan, China, from 2010-2020 and enrolled patients with newly detected leprosy. The data of 2125 newly detected leprosy patients, with 5000 symptoms, were analyzed. Numbness (828/5000, 16.56%), erythema (802/5000, 16.04%), Painless nor pruritic skin lesions (651/5000, 13.02%), eyebrow hair loss (467/5000, 9.34%), and tubercles (442/5000, 8.84%) were common symptoms of leprosy. The symptoms related to skin (1935/2533, 76.39%) and leprosy reaction (279/297, 93.94%) were mainly existed in MB group. While the symptoms related to disability (263/316, 83.49%), clinical feature (38/56, 69.09%), and facial features (19/23, 82.61%) were predominantly presented in delayed diagnostic group. Despite low proportions, formic sensation (99/5000, 1.98%), pain (92/5000, 1.84%), pruritus (56/5000, 1.12%), finger contracture (109/5000, 2.18%), muscle atrophy (71/5000, 1.42%), and motor dysfunction (18/5000, 0.36%) were reported during the diagnosis of leprosy. The proportions of skin, skin and nerve, and nerve symptoms as initial symptoms were 33.25%, 44.95%, and 21.80% and as only symptoms were 28.66%, 57.81%, and 13.91%, respectively. In those with physical disability, nerve symptoms were the most frequent symptoms (57.65% and 65.36% for the initial and only symptoms, respectively) compared with skin and skin and nerve symptoms. In the delayed diagnosis group, nerve symptoms were the most frequent symptoms (15.73% and 17.25%) and were associated with the longest diagnostic intervals (mean±SD: 38.88±46.02 and 40.35±49.36 months for initial and only symptoms, respectively) when compared with skin and skin and nerve symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the nature of presenting symptoms and developing symptom awareness campaigns would improve the level of leprosy awareness in the community. As nerve symptoms were related to a higher proportion of physical disability and longer diagnosis interval, we should increase awareness about nerve symptoms. Individuals with nerve symptoms should be considered the target group. Neurology outpatient visits may provide potential screening opportunities, and holding focused training for specialized neurology medical staff would enhance the capacity of the health system to recognize leprosy early.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/etnologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Pele/patologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 31-36, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232909

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. China was once one of the countries with severe leprosy epidemics, but its incidence has remained low in recent years. Despite this, there has been no decrease in its incidence more recently, and it is still a public health problem which needs to be controlled. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and trends in the detection rate of new cases of leprosy in China between 2004 and 2016. There were 4,519 cases of leprosy in 28 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions between 2004 and 2016, and the total incidence was 0.02815 (per 100,000 individuals) and 21 deaths. The overall incidence of leprosy showed an inverted "V" distribution (i.e., an increase followed by a decrease). Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Guangxi were the top five regions with the highest incidence rates, and they accounted for 68.7% of the total cases. There were more male patients than female patients, and peasants accounted for 71.7% of the leprosy cases. The patients with leprosy in China were mainly concentrated in the age-group 15-44 years, as this group accounted for 57.2% of the total cases. The purpose of this study is to explore the epidemiology of leprosy in China. This analysis will be useful for future monitoring of leprosy and establishment of public health measures in China, in keeping with the "Programme for the Elimination of Leprosy in China 2011-2020."


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(6): 807-815, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypochromatic macules with altered sensitivity are the first manifestations of skin leprosy. Validation of this sensory loss assists in the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. AIMS: The aim of the study was to quantify the loss of sensation in leprosy lesions using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament to strengthen the clinical diagnosis mainly of macular forms. METHODS: Seventy-four hypochromatic macules in the macular leprosy subgroup, 27 typical borderline leprosy subgroup lesions and 49 macules of other macular dermatoses (non-leprosy group) were evaluated using the 0.05 g force Semmes-Weinstein monofilament to quantify the alteration of sensitivity within and outside of the lesions. The esthesiometric change index was established as the total number of points with altered sensation divided by the total number of tested points within the lesions to calculate the internal esthesiometric change index and outside the lesions to calculate the peripheral esthesiometric change index; these indexes were calculated for all groups. The difference (Δ) between the esthesiometric change indices of the lesional area and the adjacent skin was calculated for the leprosy and nonleprosy groups. RESULTS: The percentage of points with touch sensitivity alterations within the macular and typical borderline leprosy lesions was higher in leprosy than in the non-leprosy group. The borderline and macular leprosy presented higher esthesiometric change index within injured areas than outside injured areas or in the nonleprosy group (P < 0.005). When internal esthesiometric change index values in the macular and borderline leprosy groups were higher than 0.53 and 0.5, respectively, the receiver operating characteristic curve showed 98% sensitivity and approximately 99% specificity for both groups (P < 0.0001). Regarding the difference between indices, borderline and macular leprosy had values that were higher and closer to one than in the nonleprosy group (P < 0.0001), with 100% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity for leprosy diagnosis when ΔLG was higher than 0.34. A limitation was the inability to perform a double-blind study. CONCLUSION: Semmes-Weinstein esthesiometry is a simple, useful and low-cost tool to quantify the focal alteration of cutaneous sensitivity to improve clinical leprosy diagnosis, especially for macular lesions.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/complicações , Exame Neurológico/instrumentação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Pele/inervação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009495, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates implementation strategies for leprosy diagnosis based on responses to a Leprosy Suspicion Questionnaire (LSQ), and analyzes immunoepidemiological aspects and follow-up of individuals living in a presumptively nonendemic area in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quasi-experimental study based on LSQ throughout Jardinópolis town by community health agents, theoretical-practical trainings for primary care teams, dermatoneurological examination, anti-PGL-I serology, RLEP-PCR, and spatial epidemiology. A Leprosy Group (LG, n = 64) and Non-Leprosy Group (NLG, n = 415) were established. Overall, 3,241 LSQs were distributed; 1,054 (32.5%) LSQ were positive for signs/symptoms (LSQ+). Among LSQ+ respondents, Q2-Tingling (pricking)? (11.8%); Q4-Spots on the skin? (11.7%); Q7-Pain in the nerves? (11.6%); Q1-Numbness in your hands and/or feet? (10.7%) and Q8-Swelling of hands and feet? (8.5%) were most frequently reported symptoms. We evaluated 479 (14.8%) individuals and diagnosed 64 new cases, a general new case detection rate (NCDR) of 13.4%; 60 were among 300 LSQ+ (NCDR-20%), while 4 were among 179 LSQ negative (NCDR-2.23%). In LG, Q7(65%), Q2(60%), Q1(45%), Q4(40%) and Q8(25%) were most frequent. All 2x2 crossings of these 5 questions showed a relative risk for leprosy ranging from 3 to 5.8 compared with NLG. All patients were multibacillary and presented hypochromatic macules with loss of sensation. LG anti-PGL-I titers were higher than NLG, while 8.9% were positive for RLEP-PCR. The leprosy cases and anti-PGL-I spatial mappings demonstrated the disease spread across the town. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Implementation actions, primarily LSQ administration focused on neurological symptoms, indicate hidden endemic leprosy in a nonendemic Brazilian state.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
EBioMedicine ; 68: 103408, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high incidence of leprosy among house-contacts compared with the general population. We aimed to establish a predictive model using these genetic factors along with epidemiological factors to predict leprosy risk of leprosy household contacts (HHCs). METHODS: Weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) encompassing genome wide association studies (GWAS) variants and five non-genetic factors were examined in a case-control design associated with leprosy risk including 589 cases and 647 controls from leprosy HHCs. We constructed a risk prediction nomogram and evaluated its performance by concordance index (C-index) and calibration curve. The results were validated using bootstrap resampling with 1000 resamples and a prospective design including 1100 HHCs of leprosy patients. FINDING: The C-index for the risk model was 0·792 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0·768-0·817), and was confirmed to be 0·780 through bootstrapping validation. The calibration curve for the probability of leprosy showed good agreement between the prediction of the nomogram and actual observation. HHCs were then divided into the low-risk group (nomogram score ≤ 81) and the high-risk group (nomogram score > 81). In prospective analysis, 12 of 1100 participants had leprosy during 63 months' follow-up. We generated the nomogram for leprosy in the validation cohort (C-index 0·773 [95%CI 0·658-0·888], sensitivity75·0%, specificity 66·8%). Interpretation The nomogram achieved an effective prediction of leprosy in HHCs. Using the model, the risk of an individual contact developing leprosy can be determined, which can lead to a rational preventive choice for tracing higher-risk leprosy contacts. FUNDING: The ministry of health of China, ministry of science and technology of China, Chinese academy of medical sciences, Jiangsu provincial department of science and technology, Nanjing municipal science and technology bureau.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Nomogramas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mycoses ; 64(11): 1442-1447, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent and clinically unresponsive dermatophytosis is being increasingly observed in India. However, there is little information regarding the extent of the problem and the factors responsible for these difficult to treat superficial fungal infections. AIM: To identify factors contributing to difficult to treat recurrent superficial fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 105 patients of all age groups presenting with either recurrent or long-standing dermatophyte infection attending the outpatient department of Dermatology, Venerology and Leprosy of Bharati Hospital, Pune, India, between September 2018 and March 2020. Patients were clinically examined, clinical history was taken and questions were asked regarding their current complaints and recorded in a proforma. Data were analysed using the SPSS software package. RESULTS: The males outnumbered females (74.3% vs 25.7%). A strong association was observed between the presence of past history and duration of disease (p = .007). The association of use of topical steroids or keratolytic agents with the duration of disease was statistically significant (p = .022). There was a statistically significant inverse association of duration of disease with dermatologist consultation (p < .001). The association between consultation with non-dermatologist and the duration of disease was statistically significant (p = .035). CONCLUSION: Hyperhidrosis, obesity, positive family history, tight clothing and chronic diseases may be considered important factors in acquiring dermatophytic infection. However, when it comes to difficult to treat tinea infections, irrational usage of topical steroids, treatment from non-dermatologists and a past history of tinea appear to be more critical causative factors. Treatment of dermatophytosis by dermatologists/ trained physicians and increasing general awareness of the public regarding the current situation about tinea in the country would help to alleviate the current crisis.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
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