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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074345


BACKGROUND: Generally, posterior malleolar fragments are fixed either with percutaneous anteroposterior screws or through a posterolateral approach using screws and/or a buttress plate. Both surgical methods have some shortcomings, and the use of anteroposterior screws to fix osteoporotic posterior malleolar fractures carries a risk of failure. METHODS: Nine elderly patients (average age, 67 years) with posterior malleolar fractures were treated with transfibular Kirschner wire tension band fixation. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification, all fractures were of the supination-external rotation type. The operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, and wound healing outcome were recorded. During the follow-up period, clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, and the occurrence of complications was observed. RESULTS: The patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months (mean, 15 months). The operative duration ranged from approximately 30 to 95 minutes, with an average of 70 minutes. Anatomical reduction was achieved in nine cases, and there were no complications, such as skin necrosis, wound infection, or skin sensory disturbance. There was one case of delayed wound healing caused by fat liquefaction, which was cured by a dressing change. The functional scores were excellent in four cases, good in four cases, fair in one case, and poor in zero cases. The rate of excellent and good results was 88.89% (eight of nine), with an average of 78.78 points. CONCLUSION: Kirschner wire tension band fixation through a transfibular approach for the treatment of posterior malleolar fractures does not require a change in patient posture. It facilitates the reduction and internal fixation of the posterior malleolar fragment; furthermore, it is easier to remove internal fixation after fracture healing, which provides a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolus fracture. Thus, this has potential as a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolar fractures.

Fraturas do Tornozelo , Idoso , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fios Ortopédicos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010646, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984857


BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a health problem in Indonesia, with incidence reaching over 10,000 new cases by 2021. Leprosy-related disabilities cause limitation of patients' activity and participation in social activities. To date, no studies have been conducted in Indonesia which investigates disability in terms of bodily function, structure impairment, limitations in performing daily activities, and restrictions in participation in social activities in leprosy patients. This study is aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics that might affect functional activity limitations of leprosy patients in endemic areas in Indonesia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 267 retrospectively-diagnosed cases of leprosy. The Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) scale was used to measure functional activity limitation, which comprises five domains: vision, mobility, self-care, work with hands, and dexterity. Differences among variables were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of participants was 51.89±13.66 years, the majority of which were men (62.5%), uneducated (48.3%), and classified as type 2 in the World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading for hands and feet (66.3% and 68.2%, respectively). Assessment using the SALSA Scale showed 28.5% of subjects were without limitation, 43.8% with mild limitation, 13.5% with moderate limitation, 9.4% with severe limitation, and 4.9% with extreme limitation. Significant differences in the total SALSA Scale were found between age groups (p = 0.014), educational level (p = 0.005), occupation (p<0.001), and WHO disability grades (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor influencing the total score of SALSA was disability grading for feet (score = 0.31, p <0.001) followed by occupational status, disability grading for eyes, and age. Limitation of functional activity was significantly correlated to becoming unemployed with the odds 2.59. CONCLUSION: People affected by leprosy are prone to have functional activity limitation, especially the elderly, uneducated, unemployed and those with multiple disabilities. If they can overcome their barriers in functional activities, they will have better occupational opportunities.

Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
Mech Ageing Dev ; 207: 111713, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931241


Inflammaging is a low-grade inflammatory state generated by the aging process that can contribute to frailty and age-related diseases in the elderly. However, it can have distinct effects in the elderly living in endemic areas for infectious diseases. An increased inflammatory response may confer protection against infectious agents in these areas, although this advantage can cause accelerating epigenetic aging. In this study, we evaluated the inflammatory profile and the epigenetic age of infected and noninfected individuals from an endemic area in Brazil. The profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors analyzed in the sera of the two groups of individuals showed similarities, although infected individuals had a higher concentration of these mediators. A significant increase in IL-1ra, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 production was associated with leprosy infection. Notably, elderly individuals displayed distinct immune responses associated with their infection status when compared to adults suggesting an adaptive remodelling of their immune responses. Epigenetic analysis also showed that there was no difference in epigenetic age between the two groups of individuals. However, individuals from the endemic area had a significant accelerated aging when compared to individuals from São Paulo, a non-endemic area in Brazil. Moreover, the latter cohort was also epigenetically aged in relation to an Italian cohort. Our data shows that living in endemic areas for chronic infectious diseases results in remodelling of inflammaging and acceleration of epigenetic aging in individuals regardless of their infectious status. It also highlights that geographical, genetic and environmental factors influence aging and immunosenescence in their pace and profile.

Doenças Transmissíveis , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1 , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Quimiocinas , Citocinas , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2255-2258, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649013


Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious, systemic or localized dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium lepra. In Brazil, the magnitude and high disabling power keep the disease as a public health problem. Skin spotting and numbness are pathognomonic signs and symptoms in leprosy. The Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2019 National Health Survey (PNS-2019) considered the following question as a proxy to estimate its magnitude in the country. "Do you have a spot with numbness or part of the skin with numbness?". In Brazil, 1,921,289 adults reported having a patch or part of the skin with numbness, with no regional differences. As for the age group, the older, the higher the prevalence, for example, between 18 to 29 years old (235,445) and 30 to 39 years old (236,485), 0.7% had the condition, between 40 to 59 years old (827,887), 1.5% and among the elderly, 1.8% (621,472). Being able to estimate, in population-based surveys, with statistical representativeness, a reported morbidity such as leprosy is essential to support the formulation of public policies, notably those related to primary health care actions. In this way, the IBGE fulfills its constitutional role of portraying the reality of the Brazilian population and today it is the main external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS) and of public policies developed by the federal level.

A hanseníase é uma doença dermato-neurológica, infecciosa, sistêmica ou localizada, debilitante, causada por Mycobacterium leprae. No Brasil, a magnitude e o alto poder incapacitante mantêm a doença como um problema de saúde pública. Mancha na pele e dormência são sinais e sintomas patognomônicos na hanseníase. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019 (PNS-2019), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), considerou a seguinte pergunta como proxy para estimar sua magnitude no país. "O(a) sr(a). tem mancha com dormência ou parte da pele com dormência?". No Brasil, 1.921.289 adultos referiram ter mancha ou parte da pele com dormência, sem diferenças regionais. Com relação ao grupo etário, quanto mais velho, maior a prevalência. Por exemplo, entre os de 18 a 29 anos (235.445) e de 30 a 39 anos (236.485), 0,7% possuía a condição, entre 40 e 59 anos (827.887), 1,5%, e entre os idosos, 1,8% (621.472). Poder estimar, em pesquisas de base populacional, com representatividade estatística, uma morbidade referida tal como a hanseníase é fundamental para apoiar a formulação de políticas públicas, notadamente as relativas às ações da atenção primária à saúde. Dessa forma, o IBGE cumpre seu papel constitucional de retratar a realidade da população brasileira e hoje é o principal avaliador externo do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e das políticas públicas instituídas no âmbito federal.

Hipestesia , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
Mycopathologia ; 187(4): 363-374, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764905


Chromoblastomycosis and leprosy are chronic diseases with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions. Brazil is one of the countries with the highest incidence and prevalence for both diseases, however, reports of co-infections are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe three cases of chromoblastomycosis-leprosy co-infection in patients from Mato Grosso state, Brazil. A review of chromoblastomycosis-leprosy co-infection was performed of English, Portuguese and Spanish publications in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the descriptors (chromoblastomycosis OR cromoblastomicose OR cromoblastomicosis) AND (leprosy OR hanseníase OR lepra), without time period delimitation. Nineteen cases were included, 16 cases were published in 11 articles, plus the three cases reported in the current study. Most reported coninfection cases came from Brazil. Majority of the patients were male with a mean age of 52.2 years. Farmer was the main occupational activity reported. In 12 patients, the clinical signs and symptoms of leprosy started first. No contacts with patients affected by leprosy, armadillos or history of injuries at the anatomical site of chromoblastomycosis lesions were reported. Five leprosy patients who received steroid treatment for leprosy reactions or neuropathies, were diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis during immunosuppressive therapy. Four cases (21.1%) were reported among the elderly patients. Co-infections in patients with chromoblastomycosis or leprosy are uncommon, but the possibility should always be considered, especially if the patient is undergoing immunosuppressive treatment or is elder.

Cromoblastomicose , Coinfecção , Hanseníase , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cromoblastomicose/diagnóstico , Cromoblastomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Cromoblastomicose/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010533, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737675


INTRODUCTION: In the absence of early treatment, leprosy, a neglected tropical disease, due to Mycobacterium leprae or Hansen Bacillus, causes irreversible grade 2 disability (G2D) numerous factors related to the individual, the community and the health care system are believed to be responsible for its late detection and management. This study aims to investigate the factors associated with belated screening for leprosy in Benin. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study conducted from January 1 to June 31, 2019, involving all patients and staff in leprosy treatment centers and public peripheral level health structures in Benin. The dependent variable of the study was the presence or not of G2D, reflecting late or early screening. We used a logistic regression model, at the 5% threshold, to find the factors associated with late leprosy screening. The fit of the final model was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: A number of 254 leprosy patients were included with a mean age of 48.24 ± 18.37 years. There was a male dominance with a sex ratio of 1.23 (140/114). The proportion of cases with G2D was 58.27%. Associated factors with its belated screening in Benin were (OR; 95%CI; p) the fear of stigma related to leprosy (8.11; 3.3-19.94; <0.001), multiple visits to traditional healers (5.20; 2.73-9.89; <0.001) and multiple visits to hospital practitioners (3.82; 2.01-7.27; <0.001). The unawareness of leprosy by 82.69% of the health workers so as the permanent decrease in material and financial resources allocated to leprosy control were identified as factors in link with the health system that helps explain this late detection. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need to implement strategies in the control programs to strengthen the diagnostic abilities of health workers, to improve the level of knowledge of the population on the early signs and symptoms of leprosy, to reduce stigmatization and to ban all forms of discrimination against leprosy patients.

Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
Radiol Clin North Am ; 60(3): 399-408, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534127


Mycobacterial species other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae constitute nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). NTM infections are on the rise, particularly in the Western world. They cause a wide range of pulmonary and systemic manifestations. The 2 most common types are as follows: classical cavitary type, seen with preexisting lung disease, and the nonclassical bronchiectatic type, seen in elderly women without preexisting lung disease. Disseminated infections by the hematogenous route are common in immunocompromised patients including those with HIV. Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of NTM infection.

Bronquiectasia , Pneumopatias , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Idoso , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473


Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)

Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)

Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0009850, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180224


Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Timely detection is a challenge in leprosy diagnosis, relying on clinical examination and trained health professionals. Furthermore, adequate care and transmission control depend on early and reliable pathogen detection. Here, we describe a qPCR test for routine diagnosis of leprosy-suspected patients. The reaction simultaneously amplifies two specific Mycobacterium leprae targets (16S rRNA and RLEP), and the human 18S rRNA gene as internal control. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.29 copies of the M. leprae genome. Analytical specificity was evaluated using a panel of 20 other skin pathogenic microorganisms and Mycobacteria, showing no cross-reactivity. Intra- and inter-operator Cp variation was evaluated using dilution curves of M. leprae DNA or a synthetic gene, and no significant difference was observed between three operators in two different laboratories. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 97 patient samples with clinical and histopathological leprosy confirmation, displaying high diagnostic sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%). Validation tests in an independent panel of 50 samples confirmed sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 98%, respectively. Importantly, assay performance remained stable for at least five months. Our results show that the newly developed multiplex qPCR effectively and specifically detects M. leprae DNA in skin samples, contributing to an efficient diagnosis that expedites the appropriate treatment.

Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/normas , Lactente , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(4): 483-493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138068


Background More than four million people today live with Hansen's disease, and 200,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Lifetime effects of Hansen's disease manifest as changes to bones of the face, hands and feet, resulting in physical impairment, secondary complications and facial changes that can be detrimental to quality of life, particularly among the elderly. Aims This study aimed to perform a detailed characterization of rhinomaxillary syndrome and its clinical manifestations in older persons treated in the past for Hansen's disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study to characterize rhinomaxillary syndrome among older persons (age 60+ years) resident at Pedro Fontes Hospital, Cariacica, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Computed tomography images were examined with three-dimensional reconstructions to assess alterations to maxillofacial bones according to criteria for radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome. Participants were examined to assess facial alterations according to criteria for clinical rhinomaxillary syndrome. Results Rhinomaxillary syndrome was investigated in 16 participants (ten females and six males), median age 70 (range 60-89) years, age at diagnosis 20 (6-43) years and time since diagnosis 46 (26-70) years. Four participants fully met radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome criteria, four partially. All participants with full radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome presented with facial changes which met criteria for clinical rhinomaxillary syndrome, including "saddle nose" (loss of nasal dorsal height and shortened length of nose, due to cartilaginous and/or bone collapse), concave middle third of the face with sunken nose, maxillary retrognathia and inverted upper lip. Limitations Clinical histories were incomplete for some participants because records were lost at the hospital over time. Conclusion Until Hansen's disease is eliminated from endemic countries, persons affected will continue to present with rhinomaxillofacial alterations caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. Clinical protocols for assessment and long-term care need to include otorhinolaryngological evaluation, mainly to prevent secondary complications. When rhinomaxillofacial bone changes are suspected, this evaluation should be supported by computed tomography imaging, if available.

Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010038, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025894


BACKGROUND: Delay in case detection is a risk factor for developing leprosy-related impairments, leading to disability and stigma. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to determine the leprosy case detection delay, defined as the period between the first signs of the disease and the moment of diagnosis, calculated in total number of months. The instrument was developed as part of the PEP4LEP project, a large-scale intervention study which determines the most effective way to implement integrated skin screening and leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis with a single-dose of rifampicin (SDR-PEP) administration in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature review was conducted and leprosy experts were consulted. The first draft of the questionnaire was developed in Ethiopia by exploring conceptual understanding, item relevance and operational suitability. Then, the first draft of the tool was piloted in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. The outcome is a questionnaire comprising nine questions to determine the case detection delay and two annexes for ease of administration: a local calendar to translate the patient's indication of time to number of months and a set of pictures of the signs of leprosy. In addition, a body map was included to locate the signs. A 'Question-by-Question Guide' was added to the package, to provide support in the administration of the questionnaire. The materials will be made available in English, Oromiffa (Afaan Oromo), Portuguese and Swahili via CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that the developed case detection delay questionnaire can be administered quickly and easily by health workers, while not inconveniencing the patient. The instrument has promising potential for use in future leprosy research. It is recommended that the tool is further validated, also in other regions or countries, to ensure cultural validity and to examine psychometric properties like test-retest reliability and interrater reliability.

Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 188-195, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969657


BACKGROUND: The reliability of patch testing with expired Indian standard patch test kits has been not evaluated before. METHODS: Thirty adults (men:women 25:5) with allergic contact dermatitis were divided into three groups of ten patients each for patch testing by Finn chamber® method using Indian standard patch test kits having expiry in 2016, 2015 and 2014. The results were compared with those from a new kit with 2018 expiry. RESULTS: Ten patients in group-1, eight patients in group-2 and seven patients in group-3 developed positive reactions of identical intensities and mostly from identical allergens from all four kits. The major contact allergens eliciting positive reactions of identical intensities were parthenium in nine, five and three patients, colophony in four, one and zero patients, fragrance mix in three, three and one patients, thiuram mix in three, one and one patients, and paraphenylene diamine in two, one and three patients from group-1,-2, and -3, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Small number of patients in each group remains the major limitation of the study. Whether or not these results can be extrapolated with patch test results from other similar patch test kits available across countries also needs confirmation. CONCLUSION: The patch test allergens can be used beyond labeled expiry dates but needs confirmation by a few large studies and using other available patch test kits. This is important as the relevance of patch test results for individual allergen in this scenario may remain debatable requiring careful interpretation.

Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Testes do Emplastro , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(1): e1-e5, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878070


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare radiographic findings in supination external (SE)2 injuries versus stress (+) SE4 injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Academic Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: The study included 350 skeletally mature patients at a single Level 1 trauma center who presented with an isolated, Lauge-Hansen type supination-external rotation pattern, Weber B lateral malleolar fracture, OTA/AO 44-B. RESULTS: We reviewed 350 patients (185 men and 165 women), 18-95 years of age (avg 45), with isolated SE pattern lateral malleolar fractures. One hundred nine had SE4 injuries [medial clear space (MCS) = 8.3 mm]. Two hundred forty-one ankles were stressed; 164 were unstable and 77 were stable (SE2). Avg MCS at presentation and on stress radiographs was 3.59 mm for the SE2 (no widening) and 3.86 mm and 5.94 mm for the stress (+) SE4 group, respectively. The fibular displacement for the SE2, stress (+) SE4, and SE4 groups was 1.5 (0-4.5), 3.5 (0-6.6), and 4.1 (0-30.5), respectively. Sixteen of the 77 (20%) SE2 and 24 of the 164 (15%) stress (+) SE4 fractures had no displacement of the fibula on the lateral view. Similarly, 53 of the 77 (68%) SE2 and 91 of the 164 (55%) stress (+) SE4 had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement Fibular displacement of ≤2 mm on the lateral radiograph corresponded with 0.69 sensitivity and only 0.37 positive predictive value for stable ankle mortise on stress examination. CONCLUSIONS: Previous work indicated that patients with an isolated SE pattern fibula fracture, a normal MCS, and ≤2 mm of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph have a high rate of ankle stability, with a positive predictive value of approximately 97%. We were unable to confirm this finding because 15% of unstable ankles had 0 mm and 55% had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement. We conclude that stability may not be inferred from a lack of fibular displacement on the lateral view in this population of patients. If stability is to be determined, it must be tested irrespective of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas Ósseas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Adulto Jovem
Int Rev Immunol ; 41(2): 283-296, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960271


Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated M. bovis vaccine that was developed about 100 years ago by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin. Many countries have been using the vaccine for decades against tuberculosis (TB). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a single dose of BCG for infants in TB endemic as well as leprosy high risk countries, and globally almost 130 million infants are vaccinated yearly. The role of BCG is well known in reducing neonatal and childhood death rates. Epidemiological and retrospective cross-sectional studies demonstrated that the BCG vaccination protects the children against respiratory tract infections and lowers the risk of malaria in children. In addition, BCG enhances IFN-γ and IL-10 levels, thus providing immunity against respiratory tract infection even in elderly people. The BCG is also known to provide nonspecific innate immunity against viruses and parasites, through an innate immune mechanism termed 'trained immunity' and is defined as the immunological recall of the innate immune system by epigenetic reprogramming. Based on these studies it is suggested that the BCG has the potential to act as a protective agent against COVID-19. Further proven safety records of BCG in humans, its adjuvant activity and low-cost manufacturing make it an attractive option to stop the pandemic and reduce the COVID-19 related mortality. In this review we discuss the heterologous effects of BCG, induction of trained immunity and its implication in development of a potential vaccine against COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Idoso , Vacina BCG , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 61(3): 490-496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763998


Fragility ankle fractures in elderly have a rising incidence and hospitalization may be prolonged due to pre-existing comorbidities, compromised soft tissue and postoperative difficulties in the rehabilitation process. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate risk factors for longer total hospitalization duration in elderly patients with surgically treated fragility (Lauge Hansen supination external rotation type 4) fractures. We included all patients ≥ 70 years with a fragility fracture, who were treated surgically between 2011 and 2019 (n = 97) in a level 1 and 2 trauma center. Data on patient demographics, fracture characteristics, surgical treatment strategies and postoperative complications were retrieved from medical records. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for longer hospitalization duration. The mean age of the included patients was 78.27 (± 6.56) years; 71 patients (73.20%) were female. Ten fractures (10.30%) were classified as open and 49 (50.50%) as a luxation type fracture. Fifty-nine patients (60.80%) were hospitalized after admission to the emergency department. External fixation was performed in 34 patients (35.10%) and served as bridge to definitive fixation in 29 patients (85.30%). The mean total hospital length of stay of all patients was 7.04 (± 6.58) days. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the use of external fixation (p < .001) and the postoperative discharge destination (p < .001) were independently associated with a prolonged hospital stay. External fixation and discharge destination were independent risk factors for a prolonged hospital stay in elderly patients with a fragility fracture.

Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 121-127, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391473


Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença crônica, infectocontagiosa e considerada um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o seguimento farmacoterapêutico de pacientes com diagnóstico de hanseníase. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com pacientes com hanseníase multibacilar do município de Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso. O seguimento farmacoterapêutico foi realizado a partir de uma versão adaptada do Método Dáder. Para análise de dados aplicou-se a estatística descritiva e o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson.Resultados: Uma frequência de 95,6% dos participantes apresentou problemas relacionados aos medicamentos, 59,1% apresentaram 3 ou mais problemas, os mais frequentes foram administração errada do medicamento e interação medicamento/nutriente. A inefetividade não quantitativa foi o resultado negativo associado ao medicamento mais evidenciado. Os indivíduos acompanhados em um serviço especializado apresentaram menor número de problemas relacionados aos medicamentos quando comparados àqueles da Estratégia Saúde da Família (p = 0,027).Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes acompanhados apresentou problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos. O método Dáder possibilitou realizar o seguimento farmacoterapêutico de indivíduos com hanseníase.

Introduction: Leprosy is a chronic, infectious, and contagious disease considered a public health problem in Brazil. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study of patients with multibacillary leprosy in the city of Rondonópolis, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Pharmacotherapy follow-up was conducted based on an adapted version of the Dáder method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Drug-related problems (DRP) were reported in 95.6% of patients, among whom 59.1% had 3 or more problems DRPs. The most common DRPs were incorrect drug administration and drug-nutrient interaction. Nonquantitative ineffectiveness was the most common drug-related negative outcome. Patients monitored in a leprosy treatment center had fewer DRPs than those monitored by a Family Health Strategy team (p = 0.027). Conclusion: Most patients had DRPs. The Dáder method allowed pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients with leprosy.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Hanseníase Multibacilar/tratamento farmacológico
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1569-1577, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898480


Leprosy and tuberculosis are endemic in several countries. The aim of this study was to describe factors associated with co-infection among both diseases. A systematic review was carried out, following the Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses, with the PubMed and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) portals as sources, under eligibility criteria: cross-sectional, cohort, case-control studies or case reports, published in Portuguese, English, French and Spanish, from 2015 to 2020. Studies that dealt with leprosy and tuberculosis not in the context of co-infection were excluded. The initial phase resulted in 1079 articles; 13 went on to a final stage. All were case reports. Thirteen (72.2%) participants were male, aged between 17 and 72 years. Life habits were found in 8 (44.4%) of the articles: 1 (12.5%) reported chronic alcoholism, 1 (12.5%) reported chronic smoking and alcoholism and 1(12.5%) reported chronic smoking, alcoholism and use of illicit drugs. Pathological history was mentioned by 14 (77.8%) patients; 1 (7.1%) reported HIV/AIDS. Three patients (16.6%) described previous history of tuberculosis and/or leprosy. Seven (38.9%) participants reported vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. The pulmonary form of tuberculosis predominated and one third of the patients presented resistance to, at least, one tuberculostatic. All cases had multibacillary leprosy. The study did not highlight any comorbidity, and there was no change in the course of the conditions owing to co-infection.

Coinfecção/complicações , Hanseníase/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010035, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898634


BACKGROUND: Leprosy and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affecting the skin. Their control is challenging but the integration of skin NTDs control programs is recommended to improve timely detection and treatment. However, little is known about the occurrence of leprosy and CL in the same individuals, and what are the characteristics of such patients. This study aimed to identify and characterize patients diagnosed with both leprosy and CL (i.e., outcome) in the hyperendemic state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Also, we investigated the demographic risk factors associated with the period between the diagnosis of both diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2017. From the leprosy (n = 28,204) and CL (n = 24,771) databases of the national reporting system, 414 (0.8%; 414/52,561) patients presenting both diseases were identified through a probabilistic linkage procedure. This observed number was much higher than the number of patients that would be expected by chance alone (n = 22). The spatial distribution of patients presenting the outcome was concentrated in the North and Northeast mesoregions of the state. Through survival analysis, we detected that the probability of a patient developing both diseases increased over time from 0.2% in the first year to 1.0% within seven years. Further, using a Cox model we identified male sex (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9) and low schooling level (HR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) as positively associated with the outcome. Furthermore, the hazard of developing the outcome was higher among individuals aged 40-55 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leprosy and CL are affecting the same individuals in the area. Integration of control policies for both diseases will help to efficiently cover such patients. Measures should be focused on timely diagnosis by following-up patients diagnosed with CL, active case detection, and training of health professionals.

Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem