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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1313: 155-177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661895

RESUMO

Leprosy is an ancient insidious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, where the skin and peripheral nerves undergo chronic granulomatous infections, leading to sensory and motor impairment with characteristic deformities. Susceptibility to leprosy and its disease state are determined by the manifestation of innate immune resistance mediated by cells of monocyte lineage. Due to insufficient innate resistance, granulomatous infection is established, influencing the specific cellular immunity. The clinical presentation of leprosy ranges between two stable polar forms (tuberculoid to lepromatous) and three unstable borderline forms. The tuberculoid form involves Th1 response, characterized by a well demarcated granuloma, infiltrated by CD4+ T lymphocytes, containing epitheloid and multinucleated giant cells. In the lepromatous leprosy, there is no characteristic granuloma but only unstructured accumulation of ineffective macrophages containing engulfed pathogens. Th1 response, characterised by IFN-γ and IL-2 production, activates macrophages in order to kill intracellular pathogens. Conversely, a Th2 response, characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, helps in antibody production and consequently downregulates the cell-mediated immunity induced by the Th1 response. M. lepare has a long generation time and its inability to grow in culture under laboratory conditions makes its study challenging. The nine-banded armadillo still remains the best clinical and immunological model to study host-pathogen interaction in leprosy. In this chapter, we present cellular morphology and the genomic uniqueness of M. leprae, and how the pathogen shows tropism for Schwann cells, macrophages and dendritic cells.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Mycobacterium leprae , Pele , Linfócitos T
2.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(2): 210-213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558478

RESUMO

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetic disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous human papilloma virus infections. It was first described by Lewandowsky and Lutz in 1922 as a form of epidermal nevus. Its association with skin cancers was proposed by Sullivan and Ellis in 1939. Initial lesions often occur in childhood and are of two types; lifelong eruptions of pityriasis versicolor like lesions and flat wart like papules. The latter is characterized by malignant transformation in 35%-50% of patients especially after 40-50 years of age. Bowen disease is the most common tumor followed by invasive squamous cell carcinoma, however, metastasis is rarely encountered.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Epidermodisplasia Verruciforme , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Imunidade Celular
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936067

RESUMO

Leprosy is a disease with a clinical spectrum of presentations that is also manifested in diverse histological features. At one pole, lepromatous lesions (L-pole) have phagocytic foamy macrophages heavily parasitized with freely multiplying intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. At the other pole, the presence of epithelioid giant cells and granulomatous formation in tuberculoid lesions (T-pole) lead to the control of M. leprae replication and the containment of its spread. The mechanism that triggers this polarization is unknown, but macrophages are central in this process. Over the past few years, leprosy has been studied using large scale techniques to shed light on the basic pathways that, upon infection, rewire the host cellular metabolism and gene expression. M. leprae is particularly peculiar as it invades Schwann cells in the nerves, reprogramming their gene expression leading to a stem-like cell phenotype. This modulatory behavior exerted by M. leprae is also observed in skin macrophages. Here, we used live M. leprae to infect (10:1 multiplicity of infection) monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for 48 h and analyzed the whole gene expression profile using microarrays. In this model, we observe an intense upregulation of genes consistent with a cellular immune response, with enriched pathways including peptide and protein secretion, leukocyte activation, inflammation, and cellular divalent inorganic cation homeostasis. Among the most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are CCL5/RANTES and CYP27B1, and several members of the metallothionein and metalloproteinase families. This is consistent with a proinflammatory state that would resemble macrophage rewiring toward granulomatous formation observed at the T-pole. Furthermore, a comparison with a dataset retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus of M. leprae-infected Schwann cells (MOI 100:1) showed that the patterns among the DEGs are highly distinct, as the Schwann cells under these conditions had a scavenging and phagocytic gene profile similar to M2-like macrophages, with enriched pathways rearrangements in the cytoskeleton, lipid and cholesterol metabolism and upregulated genes including MVK, MSMO1, and LACC1/FAMIN. In summary, macrophages may have a central role in defining the paradigmatic cellular (T-pole) vs. humoral (L-pole) responses and it is likely that the multiplicity of infection and genetic polymorphisms in key genes are gearing this polarization.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue , Polaridade Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Células de Schwann/imunologia , Células de Schwann/virologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
s.l; s.n; 2021. 12 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1284237

RESUMO

Leprosy is a disease with a clinical spectrum of presentations that is also manifested in diverse histological features. At one pole, lepromatous lesions (L-pole) have phagocytic foamy macrophages heavily parasitized with freely multiplying intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. At the other pole, the presence of epithelioid giant cells and granulomatous formation in tuberculoid lesions (T-pole) lead to the control of M. leprae replication and the containment of its spread. The mechanism that triggers this polarization is unknown, but macrophages are central in this process. Over the past few years, leprosy has been studied using large scale techniques to shed light on the basic pathways that, upon infection, rewire the host cellular metabolism and gene expression. M. leprae is particularly peculiar as it invades Schwann cells in the nerves, reprogramming their gene expression leading to a stem-like cell phenotype. This modulatory behavior exerted by M. leprae is also observed in skin macrophages. Here, we used live M. leprae to infect (10:1 multiplicity of infection) monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for 48 h and analyzed the whole gene expression profile using microarrays. In this model, we observe an intense upregulation of genes consistent with a cellular immune response, with enriched pathways including peptide and protein secretion, leukocyte activation, inflammation, and cellular divalent inorganic cation homeostasis. Among the most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are CCL5/RANTES and CYP27B1, and several members of the metallothionein and metalloproteinase families. This is consistent with a proinflammatory state that would resemble macrophage rewiring toward granulomatous formation observed at the T-pole. Furthermore, a comparison with a dataset retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus of M. leprae-infected Schwann cells (MOI 100:1) showed that the patterns among the DEGs are highly distinct, as the Schwann cells under these conditions had a scavenging and phagocytic gene profile similar to M2-like macrophages, with enriched pathways rearrangements in the cytoskeleton, lipid and cholesterol metabolism and upregulated genes including MVK, MSMO1, and LACC1/FAMIN. In summary, macrophages may have a central role in defining the paradigmatic cellular (T-pole) vs. humoral (L-pole) responses and it is likely that the multiplicity of infection and genetic polymorphisms in key genes are gearing this polarization.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Células de Schwann/imunologia , Polaridade Celular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 46-48, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992010

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease that has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Lepromatous leprosy has a deficient cellular immune response and high bacillary multiplication. It has epidemiological importance, as it is the most contagious clinical form of the disease. Its manifestation in children and adolescents is unusual. In the present study, we report two cases of leprosy at an early age, manifesting the lepromatous clinical form, highlighting the auricular involvement in one case. Early diagnosis is an essential tool to avoid deformities and deficiencies.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Masculino
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008172, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251470

RESUMO

Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous necrotic infection of the skin caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is the third most common human mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy. The available methods for detection of the bacilli in lesions are microscopic detection, isolation and cultivation of the bacterium, histopathology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These methods, although approved by the World Health Organization (WHO), have infrastructural and resource challenges in medical centres and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and/or serology-based tests have been suggested as easier and more appropriate for accurate assessment of the disease, especially in remote or underdeveloped areas. This study systematically reviewed and conducted a meta-analysis for all research aimed at developing cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and/or serology-based tests for M. ulcerans disease. Information for this review was searched through PubMed and Web of Science databases and identified up to June 2019. References from relevant articles and reports from the WHO Annual Meeting of the Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative were also used. Twelve studies beginning in 1952, that attempted to develop CMI and/or serology-based tests for the disease were identified. These studies addressed issues of specificity and sensitivity in context of antigen composition as well as study heterogeneity and bias. The two main types of antigenic preparations considered were pathogen-derived and recombinant protein preparations. There was slight difference in test performance when M. ulcerans recombinant proteins [positivity: 67.5%; 32.5%] or pathogen-derived [positivity: 76.0%; 24.0%] preparations were used as test antigens among BU patients. However, pathogen-derived preparations were better at differentiating between patients and control groups [odds ratio (OR) of 27.92, 95%CI: 5.05-154.28]. This was followed by tests with the recombinant proteins [OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 0.27-5.62]. Overall, study heterogeneity index, I2 was 92.4% (p = 0.000). It is apparent from this review that standardisation is needed in any future CMI and/or serology-based tests used for M. ulcerans disease.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Hanseníase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
7.
Dis Mon ; 66(7): 100918, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813526

RESUMO

The present review summarizes the current updates on dental perspectives on leprosy and the affording factors that are responsible for the prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases in leprosy. It also highlights immunopathological phenomena and reactional episodes of leprosy that occur due to daedal interactions between the perio-odontopathic bacteria and M. leprae. In addition, a brief introduction, historiography, classification and clinicopathological aspects are also been covered.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Periodonto/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana/tendências , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Hanseníase/classificação , Hanseníase/história , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Periodonto/patologia , Prevalência
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007764, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600201

RESUMO

Reversal reactions (RRs) in leprosy are characterized by a reduction in the number of bacilli in lesions associated with an increase in cell-mediated immunity against the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, the causative pathogen of leprosy. To identify the mechanisms that contribute to cell-mediated immunity in leprosy, we measured changes in the whole blood-derived transcriptome of patients with leprosy before, during and after RR. We identified an 'RR signature' of 1017 genes that were upregulated at the time of the clinical diagnosis of RR. Using weighted gene correlated network analysis (WGCNA), we detected a module of 794 genes, bisque4, that was significantly correlated with RR, of which 434 genes were part of the RR signature. An enrichment for both IFN-γ and IFN-ß downstream gene pathways was present in the RR signature as well as the RR upregulated genes in the bisque4 module, including those encoding proteins of the guanylate binding protein (GBP) family that contributes to antimicrobial responses against mycobacteria. Specifically, GBP1, GBP2, GBP3 and GBP5 mRNAs were upregulated in the RR peripheral blood transcriptome, with GBP1, GBP2 and GBP5 mRNAs also upregulated in the RR disease lesion transcriptome. These data indicate that RRs involve a systemic upregulation of IFN-γ downstream genes including GBP family members as part of the host antimicrobial response against mycobacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interferon beta , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17920, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560920

RESUMO

Leprosy remains persistently endemic in several low- or middle income countries. Transmission is still ongoing as indicated by the unabated rate of leprosy new case detection, illustrating the insufficiency of current prevention methods. Therefore, low-complexity tools suitable for large scale screening efforts to specifically detect M. leprae infection and diagnose disease are required. Previously, we showed that combined detection of cellular and humoral markers, using field-friendly lateral flow assays (LFAs), increased diagnostic potential for detecting leprosy in Bangladesh compared to antibody serology alone. In the current study we assessed the diagnostic performance of similar LFAs in three other geographical settings in Asia, Africa and South-America with different leprosy endemicity. Levels of anti-PGL-I IgM antibody (humoral immunity), IP-10, CCL4 and CRP (cellular immunity) were measured in blood collected from leprosy patients, household contacts and healthy controls from each area. Combined detection of these biomarkers significantly improved the diagnostic potential, particularly for paucibacillary leprosy in all three regions, in line with data obtained in Bangladesh. These data hold promise for the use of low-complexity, multibiomarker LFAs as universal tools for more accurate detection of M. leprae infection and different phenotypes of clinical leprosy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL4/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Criança , China , Doenças Endêmicas , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Hanseníase/sangue , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Semin Immunol ; 39: 22-29, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366662

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a well-defined agonist of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 that activates innate immune responses and influences the development of the adaptive response during infection with Gram-negative bacteria. Many years ago, Dr. Edgar Ribi separated the adjuvant activity of LPS from its toxic effects, an effort that led to the development of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). MPL, derived from Salmonella minnesota R595, has progressed through clinical development and is now used in various product-enabling formulations to support the generation of antigen-specific responses in several commercial and preclinical vaccines. We have generated several synthetic lipid A molecules, foremost glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA) and second-generation lipid adjuvant (SLA), and have advanced these to clinical trial for various indications. In this review we summarize the potential and current positioning of TLR4-based adjuvant formulations in approved and emerging vaccines.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Alúmen/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Compostos de Alúmen/química , Animais , Glucosídeos/química , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/parasitologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Lipídeo A/química , Lipídeo A/farmacologia , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Esquistossomose/imunologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/microbiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/química , Vacinas/imunologia
11.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 308(8): 1000-1008, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190103

RESUMO

Utility of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) as a multistage vaccine against mycobacterial infections demands identification of its protective antigens. We explored antigenicity and immunogenicity of a candidate protein MIP_05962 that depicts homology to HSP18 of M. leprae and antigen1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This protein elicited substantial antibody response in immunized mice along with modulation of cellular immune response towards protective Th1 type. Both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets from immunized mice produced hallmark protective cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2. This protein also enhanced the CD4+ effector memory that could act as first line of defence during infections. These results point to MIP_05962 as a protective antigen that contributes, in conjunction with others, to the protective immunity of this live vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , DNA Bacteriano/imunologia , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia
12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1205, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904387

RESUMO

Leprosy causes the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology, posing an important public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of nerve damage induced by M. leprae is mandatory to develop tools for early diagnosis and preventive measures. The phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigens are major components of the bacterial surface and are implicated on leprosy immunopathogenesis and neural damage. Although the anti-PGL-1 serum IgM is highly used for operational classification of patients, the anti-LAM salivary IgA (sIgA) has not been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic marker in leprosy. Our aim was to assess the presence of anti-LAM sIgA in leprosy patients and their contacts in order to demonstrate whether such expression was associated with leprosy reactions. Distinct patterns of anti-LAM slgA were observed among groups, which were stratified into treatment-naïve patients (116), patients who completed multidrug therapy-MDT (39), household contacts (111), and endemic controls (11). Both anti-LAM sIgA and anti-PGL-I serum IgM presented similar prognostic odds toward leprosy reactions [(odds ratio) OR = 2.33 and 2.78, respectively]. Furthermore, the anti-LAM sIgA was highly correlated with multibacillary (MB) forms (OR = 4.15). Contrarily, among contacts the positive anti-LAM sIgA was highly correlated with those with positive Mitsuda test, suggesting that the presence of anti-LAM slgA may act as an indicator of cellular immunity conferred to contacts. Our data suggest that anti-LAM slgA may be used as a tool to monitor patients undergoing treatment to predict reactional episodes and may also be used in contacts to evaluate their cellular immunity without the need of Mitsuda tests.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances
13.
An Bras Dermatol ; 93(1): 123-125, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641713

RESUMO

Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis. However, coinfection of these diseases is still poorly understood. We report a case of a patient who presented with lepromatous leprosy and cutaneous-mucosal leishmaniasis at the same period. After clinical, laboratory, and histopathological diagnosis, the treatment was introduced and the patient showed important clinical improvement. He was followed in our outpatient clinic. Both pathologies play an important role in the immune system. Depending on the immune response profile of the host, diseases may present themselves in different ways. In this case, the patient showed a divergent immune response for each disease. We hypothesized that this response is specific for each pathogen.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/complicações , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 246, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487601

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It may present as one of two distinct poles: the self-limiting tuberculoid leprosy and the highly infectious lepromatous leprosy (LL) characterized by M. leprae-specific absence of cellular immune response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) enhance the bactericide activities of macrophages after interaction with its receptor, CD74. Importantly, MIF also possesses chemoattractant properties, and it is a key factor in situ for the activation of macrophages and in blood to promote leukocytes migration. MIF-mediated activation of macrophages is a key process for the elimination of pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, its participation for the clearance of M. leprae is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of MIF as well as MIF and CD74 expression in skin lesions of LL and compare it with healthy skin (HSk) taken from subjects attending to dermatological consult. Samples of serum and skin biopsies were taken from 39 LL patients and compared with 36 serum samples of healthy subjects (HS) and 10 biopsies of HSk. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC smears were observed in 12 100× microscopic fields, in which percentage of stained cells and staining intensity were evaluated. Both variables were used to calculate a semi-quantitative expression score that ranged from 0 to 3+. We found no differences in MIF levels between LL patients and HS in sera. In addition, MIF was observed in over 75% of cells with high intensity in the skin of patients and HSk. Although we found no differences in MIF expression between the groups, a CD74 score statistically higher was found in LL skin than HSk (p < 0.001); this was the result of a higher percentage of cells positive for CD74 (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, we found that CD74-positive cells are intensely recruited to the skin with LL lesions. In this manner, MIF signaling may be enhanced in the skin of LL patients due to increased expression of its receptor, but further studies are required.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/sangue , Pele/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/imunologia , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 123-125, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-887166

RESUMO

Abstract: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis. However, coinfection of these diseases is still poorly understood. We report a case of a patient who presented with lepromatous leprosy and cutaneous-mucosal leishmaniasis at the same period. After clinical, laboratory, and histopathological diagnosis, the treatment was introduced and the patient showed important clinical improvement. He was followed in our outpatient clinic. Both pathologies play an important role in the immune system. Depending on the immune response profile of the host, diseases may present themselves in different ways. In this case, the patient showed a divergent immune response for each disease. We hypothesized that this response is specific for each pathogen.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/complicações , Coinfecção/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250493

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most severe infectious diseases. It is still of paramount importance to establish more accurate, rapid, and efficient diagnostic methods. Since infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is largely mediated through the respiratory tract, IgA responses against mycobacterial proteins are worthy of investigation for their potential clinical utility. In this study, the IgA response targeting lipoprotein Z (LppZ) was determined by using a homemade ELISA with plasma of TB patients (N = 125), LTBI individuals (N = 92), healthy controls (HCs) (N = 165), as well as TB patients undergoing anti-TB treatment (N = 9). In parallel the antigen-specific IFN-γ release from PBMCs triggered by LppZ and M. tb-specific ESAT-6 or CFP-10 was detected by using an ELISPOT assay. It was found that the LppZ-specific IgA level was dramatically higher in TB patients than in HCs (p < 0.0001). Compared to that before anti-TB treatment, the LppZ-specific IgA level decreased substantially after 2 months of anti-TB treatment (p = 0.0297) and remained at low levels until the end of the treatment. What is more, pulmonary TB patients exhibited significantly higher LppZ-specific IgA-values than extra-pulmonary TB patients (p = 0.0296). Interestingly, the LppZ-specific IgA-values were negatively correlated to the amounts of IFN-γ released in response to LppZ with statistical significance (r = -0.5806, p = 0.0002). LppZ-specific IgA level was also higher in LTBI individuals than in HCs (p < 0.0001). Additionally there were some PPD+ HC individuals with high LppZ-specific IgA levels but the potential of this assay for identifying leaky LTBI in PPD+ HCs needs to be further investigated through follow-up studies. The sensitivity of detecting TB solely with ESAT-6 or CFP-10-specific IFN-γ release was increased by including the LppZ-specific IgA results, respectively, from 86.11 to 100% and 88.89 to 100%; the sensitivity of screening for LTBI was increased from 80.36 to 83.93% and 57.14 to 69.64%, respectively. The higher LppZ-specific IgA responses in TB and LTBI populations than in controls indicated high immunoreactivity to LppZ upon M. tb infection. Although the assay was not efficient enough for independent application in sero-diagnosis, LppZ-specific IgA might become a complementary biomarker for the improvement of TB and LTBI screening.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Lipoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Biomarcadores , ELISPOT/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Lipoproteínas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
17.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 15(8): 801-827, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28763601

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium (M.) leprae. Worldwide, 210,758 new cases were diagnosed in 2015. The highest incidence is found in India, Brazil, and Indonesia. While the exact route of transmission remains unknown, nasal droplet infection is thought to be most likely. The pathogen primarily affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The disease course is determined by individual host immunity. Clinically, multibacillary lepromatous variants are distinguished from paucibacillary tuberculoid forms. Apart from the various characteristic skin lesions, the condition is marked by damage to the peripheral nervous system. Advanced disease is characterized by disfiguring mutilations. Current treatment options are based on WHO recommendations. Early treatment frequently results in complete remission without sequelae. While paucibacillary forms are treated with rifampicin and dapsone for at least six months, multibacillary leprosy is treated for at least twelve months, additionally requiring clofazimine. Leprosy reactions during therapy may considerably aggravate the disease course. Besides individual treatment, WHO-supported preventive measures and strategies play a key role in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Clofazimina/efeitos adversos , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hanseníase Dimorfa/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Dimorfa/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/imunologia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
18.
Cytokine ; 97: 42-48, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28570932

RESUMO

Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease of the skin and nerves, caused by the intracellular bacilli Mycobacterium leprae. It is characterized by a spectrum of clinical forms depending on the host's immune response to M. leprae. Patients with tuberculoid (TT) leprosy have strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with elimination of the bacilli, whereas patients with lepromatous (LL) leprosy exhibit defective CMI to M. leprae. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of leprosy and the development of new therapeutic strategies, there is a need for the identification of biomarkers which be used for early diagnosis and to discrimination between different forms of the disease, as prognostic markers. Here, we analyzed the serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-γ and TNF in order to address the contribution of these cytokines in late phase of M. leprae infection, and the impact of multidrug therapy (MDT). Our results demonstrated that patients of LL group presented higher expression of serum levels of inflammatory cytokines before MDT, while TT patients presented a balance between inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. MDT changes the profile of serum cytokines in M. leprae infected patients, as evidenced by the cytokine network, especially in TT patients. LL patients displayed a multifaceted cytokine system characterized by strong connecting axes involving inflammatory/regulatory molecules, while TT patients showed low involvement of regulatory cytokines in network overall. Cytokines can be identified as good biomarkers of the impact of MDT on the immune system and the effectiveness of treatment.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-12/sangue , Interleucina-13/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/fisiopatologia , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(5): e0005560, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467415

RESUMO

Household contacts of multibacillary leprosy patients (HCMB) constitute the group of individuals at the highest risk of developing leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment of their index cases combined with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization remain important strategies adopted in Brazil to prevent HCMB from evolving into active disease. In the present study, we assessed the impact of these measures on the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae in HCMB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HCMB (n = 16) were obtained at the beginning of leprosy index case treatment (T0). At this time point, contacts were vaccinated (n = 13) or not (n = 3) in accordance with their infancy history of BCG vaccination and PBMCs were recollected at least 6 months later (T1). As expected, a significant increase in memory CD4 and CD8 T cell frequencies responsive to M. leprae whole-cell sonicate was observed in most contacts. Of note, higher frequencies of CD4+ T cells that recognize M. leprae specific epitopes were also detected. Moreover, increased production of the inflammatory mediators IL1-ß, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ, MIP1-ß, and MCP-1 was found at T1. Interestingly, the increment in these parameters was observed even in those contacts that were not BCG vaccinated at T0. This result reinforces the hypothesis that the continuous exposure of HCMB to live M. leprae down regulates the specific cellular immune response against the pathogen. Moreover, our data suggest that BCG vaccination of HCMB induces activation of T cell clones, likely through "trained immunity", that recognize M. leprae specific antigens not shared with BCG as an additional protective mechanism besides the expected boost in cell-mediated immunity by BCG homologues of M. leprae antigens.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Hanseníase Multibacilar/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Hanseníase Multibacilar/prevenção & controle , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46695, 2017 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436433

RESUMO

Multibacillary and paucibacillary paratuberculosis are both caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Multibacillary lesions are composed largely of infected epithelioid macrophages and paucibacillary lesions contain T cells but few bacteria. Multibacillary disease is similar to human lepromatous leprosy, with variable/high levels of antibody and a dysfunctional immune response. Animals with paucibacillary disease have high cell-mediated immunity and variable levels of antibody. This study aims to characterize the immunological dysfunction using TruSeq analysis of the ileocaecal lymph node that drains disease lesions. Immune dysfunction is highlighted by repression of TCR/CD3 genes, T cell co-receptors/co-stimulators, T cell activation and signal-transduction genes. Inflammation was an acute phase response and chronic inflammation, with little evidence of acute inflammation. The high levels of immunoglobulin and plasma cell transcripts is consistent with the anti-MAP antibody responses in paratuberculosis sheep. Also notable was the overwhelming reduction in mast cell transcripts, potentially affecting DC activation of the immune response. This study also shows that there were no fundamental differences in the gene expression patterns in multibacillary and paucibacillary disease, no shift in T cell genes from Th1 to Th2 pattern but rather an incremental decline into immune dysfunction leading to multibacillary pathology.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular/genética , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/fisiologia , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia
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