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1.
Behav Processes ; 157: 142-147, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157465

RESUMO

Animals respond to predation risk with antipredatory behaviours that may disclose the presence of different personality traits among individuals in a population, and how populations may differ for the expression of those traits. Variation among individuals is a necessary condition for the evolution through natural selection and inter-individual behavioural differences may be selected in different environmental situations. We tested whether individuals of two freshwater turtle species, Emys orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa, show consistent risk-taking behaviour when exposed to the presence of a potential predator. In an outdoor experimental setting, we simulated a predatory attack by overturning a turtle onto its carapace and recording three different behavioural response variables. Our results showed clear differences between species. The appearance time was highly consistent over the trials for both species, but was shorter for E. orbicularis and very long for M. leprosa. Waiting time was consistent only for females of E. orbicularis while M. leprosa did not show repeatability and had significantly longer waiting times. The number of failed righting attempts, likely being partially dependent on turtle individual performance, was highly consistent during the experiment for both species. The hiding behaviour in both species of freshwater turtles was consistent over time and, therefore, could be regarded as a personality trait. However, the differences in waiting times consistency suggested possible differences in defensive strategies between sexes and species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Individualidade , Masculino , Personalidade , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Guarapuava, PR; Unicentro; 2. ed; 2013. 309 p. il.
Monografia em Português | HISA | ID: his-35645

RESUMO

A pesquisa analisa discursos de deterioração identitária em Guarapuava,na região cento sul paranaese, e no Leprosário São Roque, no município de Piraquara também no Paraná, durante as primeiras décadas do século XX. Acompanhando a trajetória dos doentes de lepra a partir do projeto de profilaxia da doença, baseado em isolamento centralizado e obrigatório, busca-se entender como a composição do outro é atravessada por noções de impureza, anomia, perigo, barbárie, degenerência, que estigmatizam a pessoa por eles identificada e nomeada, diminuindo a sa condição humana. Ao reconhecer o trágico presente no viver humano deseja-se subtrair distâncias, mesmo entre os mais diferentes seres humanos. Pois os sentimentos que norteiam essa jornada também se ancoram no coro de Antigona: "Em mim só manda um rei:o que constrói as pontes e destrói muralhas que existem nas construções de identificações deterioradas sobre os outros ainda seja uma proveitosa maneira de derrubar aquelas últimas. (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Hanseníase , Individualidade , Epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Brasil
3.
J Couns Psychol ; 57(3): 297-303, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21133581

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to investigate how receiving personal counseling at a university counseling center helps students deal with their personal problems and facilitates academic functioning. To that end, this study used both clinical and academic outcome measures that are relevant to the practice of counseling provided at a counseling center and its unique function in an institution of higher education. In addition, this study used the clinical significance methodology (N. S. Jacobson & P. Truax, 1991) that takes into account clients' differences in making clinically reliable and significant change. Pre-intake and post-termination surveys, including the Outcome Questionnaire (M. J. Lambert, K. Lunnen, V. Umphress, N. Hansen, & G. Burlingame, 1994), were completed by 78 clients, and the responses were analyzed using clinical significance methodology. The results revealed that those who made clinically reliable and significant change (i.e., the recovered group) reported the highest level of improvement in academic commitment to their educational goals and problem resolution, compared with those who did not make clinically significant change. The implications of the findings on practice for counseling at university counseling centers and for administrators in higher education institutions are discussed.


Assuntos
Logro , Aconselhamento , Resolução de Problemas , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nurs Philos ; 10(1): 34-41, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19154295

RESUMO

From the Middle Ages onto the 19th century, following the trend set in leper hospitals, madness was to be hidden, secluded in dark places, far away from the mainstream of society. The emergence of the mad person, perceived as inevitably different, allows to make the boundaries between reason and folly, between human and inhuman, irrelevant. If leper hospitals have almost emptied out, if there are much fewer confinement facilities, the values and images related to the leper or the mad person, as well as the sense of exclusion, continue to persist. The purpose of this paper is to show clearly that this matter of exclusion is a serious legacy that could very well apply nowadays to other figures that, each in their own way, symbolize menace or mockery. It applies notably to the aged and the dying who both appear as the opposite of modern society and its values of efficiency, productivity and profitability. The multiplication of places where old people are left to die, and the elderly who are crowded in old folks homes, stand as proof of their exclusion from society. Nevertheless, youth and old age coexist, as well as life and death. If care of others is the trait of a humane civilization, must it be understood that barbarism consists in ignoring its own humanity as well as that of others? In view of such practices of exclusion, policy statements based on recognition of human dignity, where ethical obligation rests on recognition of others and humanism, are rather paradoxical. Is this a paradox or a deadlock; a condition of exclusion or of reconnaissance?


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Individualidade , Institucionalização/história , Filosofia/história , Distância Psicológica , Envelhecimento , Atitude Frente a Morte , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hanseníase/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Preconceito , Alienação Social , Controle Social Formal , Valores Sociais , Estereotipagem
5.
Indian J Lepr ; 56(2): 292-300, 1984.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6548499

RESUMO

It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'.


Assuntos
Identificação Psicológica , Individualidade , Hanseníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Hanseníase/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Papel do Doente , Isolamento Social
6.
In. Lima, Lauro de Souza; Campos, Nelson de Souza. Sôbre os casos de lepra com evoluçao anômala. Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1950. p.19-39, graf, tab.
Monografia em Português | SES-SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1243476
7.
In. Lima, Lauro de Souza; Campos, Nelson de Souza. Sôbre os casos de lepra com evoluçao anômala. Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1950. p.63-4, ilus.
Monografia em Português | SES-SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1243477
8.
In. Lima, Lauro de Souza; Campos, Nelson de Souza. Sôbre os casos de lepra com evoluçao anômala. Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1950. p.67-115, ilus, graf, tab.
Monografia em Português | SES-SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1243478
9.
Rio de Janeiro; Imprensa Nacional; 1950. 120 p. ilus, graf, tab, ^e24cm.
Monografia em Português | SES-SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1230402
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