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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 31-36, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232909

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. China was once one of the countries with severe leprosy epidemics, but its incidence has remained low in recent years. Despite this, there has been no decrease in its incidence more recently, and it is still a public health problem which needs to be controlled. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and trends in the detection rate of new cases of leprosy in China between 2004 and 2016. There were 4,519 cases of leprosy in 28 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions between 2004 and 2016, and the total incidence was 0.02815 (per 100,000 individuals) and 21 deaths. The overall incidence of leprosy showed an inverted "V" distribution (i.e., an increase followed by a decrease). Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Guangxi were the top five regions with the highest incidence rates, and they accounted for 68.7% of the total cases. There were more male patients than female patients, and peasants accounted for 71.7% of the leprosy cases. The patients with leprosy in China were mainly concentrated in the age-group 15-44 years, as this group accounted for 57.2% of the total cases. The purpose of this study is to explore the epidemiology of leprosy in China. This analysis will be useful for future monitoring of leprosy and establishment of public health measures in China, in keeping with the "Programme for the Elimination of Leprosy in China 2011-2020."


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 536.e1-536.e7, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early orchidopexy has been linked to improved long term outcomes of fertility and reduced malignancy rates. However, the optimal age of intervention has been subject to change over the years. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to study males aged 6 months or less who undergo laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy for intraabdominal testes to establish the safety, efficacy, and benefit in the defined age group. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively assessed 19 boys at or below 6 months of age, who had laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy for intraabdominal undescended testes at Salmaniya Medical Complex in Bahrain between January 2014 and December 2018. We examined: demographics, laterality, testicular locations, testicular volumes, operative time, complications, and durations of hospitalization and follow-up. Ultrasound-derived testicular volumes were assessed before and after orchidopexy. They were calculated using the Hansen formula (Testicular volume = 0.52 × length [L] × width [W]2 [1]. They were then compared with reference ranges from a Dutch cohort study of 769 healthy boys. Successful outcomes were correct intrascrotal position with minimal complications and normal testicular volumes. RESULTS: A total of 19 males were operated at a mean age of 5.6 months and followed for a mean of 2.35 years. Of these, 7 had left-sided and 12 had right-sided cryptorchidism. Testicular locations were noted intra-operatively; 10 were above the internal ring, 5 near the iliac vessels, and 4 close to the kidney. The mean operative time was 59.58 minutes. Only 2 minor complications occurred and no cases of testicular atrophy. None of the patients required hospital-stay beyond 24 hours. The success rate was 89.46% in achieving correct scrotal position. Testicular volumes were normal before and after orchidopexy. They significantly increased after orchidopexy (P ≤ 0.05). The testicular growth rate after 24 months was slightly higher than normal. DISCUSSION: In line with previous studies we were 89.46% successful in re-positioning testes [2]. In contrast to studies intervening at older ages which associated intra-abdominal testes with greater risks of complications, we found few minor complications and no testicular atrophy [3,4]. Testicular volumes in the affected testes were normal, contrary to decreased volumes found by other researchers [5]. Limitations of this study are the small number of patients and short follow-up which limits assessment of long-term outcomes. CONCLUSION: Early orchiopexy is safe and effective. Laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy at an early age was beneficial and resulted in normal testicular volumes before and after surgery.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquidopexia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testículo/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009201, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008881, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The province of Formosa, Argentina, is endemic for leprosy. In the present paper, we assessed the trend (T, 2002-2016 time series) and the forecast for 2022 of new case detection rate (NCDR) and determined the spatial distribution of new cases detected (NCD) of leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a descriptive observational study of 713 NCD of leprosy from provincial medical records between January 2002 and December 2016. The whole dataset from the provincial medical record was used to independently estimate the NCDR trends of the general population, age groups, sexes and Departments. This same database was used to estimate the NCDR forecast of the general population for 2022, applying a dynamic linear model with a local linear trend, using the MCMC algorithm. The NCDR was higher in men (p<0.05), increased with age (0.20, 8.17, 21.04, and 29.49 for the 0-14, 15-44, 45-64 and over 65-year-old age groups, respectively; p<0.05) and showed a downward trend (negative values) of estimated slopes for the whole province and each Department. Bermejo Department showed the highest (T:-1.02, 95%CI: [-1.42, -0.66]) and Patiño the lowest decreasing trend (T:-0.45, 95%CI: [-0.74, -0.11]). The NCDR trend for both sexes was similar (T:-0.55, 95%CI: [-0.64, -0.46]), and age groups showed a decreasing trend (S15-44:-103, S45-64:-81, S>65:-61, p<0.05), except for the 0-14 age group (S:-3, p>0.05), which showed no trend. Forecasts predicted that leprosy will not be eliminated by 2022 (3.64, 95%CI: [1.22, 10.25]). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the status of leprosy in Formosa and provide information to the provincial public health authorities on high-risk populations, stressing the importance of timely detection of new cases for further elimination of the disease in the province.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2379, 20210126. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292037

RESUMO

Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença tropical negligenciada causada por Mycobacterium leprae. O Brasil é um dos principais países endêmicos para a doença, persistindo como problema de saúde pública. Além disso, é a principal doença infecciosa causadora de incapacidades físicas. Objetivos: Analisar a magnitude e os fatores associados à limitação de atividade nos casos novos de hanseníase diagnosticados no centro de referência do nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal envolvendo 50 pessoas com diagnóstico de hanseníase. Foram coletadas variáveis clínicas e sociodemográficas além de aplicação da escala SALSA para análise da limitação funcional. Empregou-se regressão logística com cálculo de odds ratio. Resultados: A presença de limitações funcionais foi registrada em 32% (n=16) dos casos analisados, destacando-se sexo feminino (56,3%), idosos (37,5%), baixa escolaridade (87,6%), forma dimorfa (62,5%), classificação multibacilar (75,0%) e grau 2 de incapacidade física (50,0%). A limitação funcional esteve associada a faixa etária ≥45 anos (OR 3,80; p=0,047), classificação multibacilar (OR 4,28; p=0,021) e escore OMP ≥6 (OR 4,69; p=0,041). Conclusão: Observou-se elevada frequência de pessoas com incapacidade físicas. Os fatores associados à limitação funcional foram idade igual ou superior a 45 anos, classificação multibacilar e escore OMP maior ou igual a seis.


Introduction: Leprosy is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Brazil is one of the main endemic countries for the disease, persisting as a public health problem. In addition, it is the main infectious disease that causes physical disabilities. Objectives: To analyze the magnitude and factors associated with activity limitation in new cases of leprosy diagnosed in the reference center in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 50 people diagnosed with leprosy. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were collected in addition to the application of the SALSA scale for the analysis of functional limitations. Logistic regression was used with the calculation of odds ratio. Results: The presence of functional limitations was registered in 32% (n=16) of the cases analyzed, especially female (56.3%), elderly (37.5%), low education (87.6%), dimorphic form (62.5%), multibacillary classification (75.0%), and degree 2 of physical disability (50.0%). Functional limitation was associated with an age range ≥45 years (OR 3.80; p=0.047), multibacillary classification (OR 4.28; p=0.021), and OMP score ≥6 (OR 4.69; p=0.041). Conclusion: There was a high frequency of people with physical disabilities. The factors associated with functional limitation were age equal to or greater than 45 years, multibacillary classification and OMP score greater than or equal to six.


Introducción: La lepra es una enfermedad tropical desatendida causada por Mycobacterium leprae. Brasil es uno de los principales países endémicos de la enfermedad, persistiendo como problema de salud pública. Además, es la principal enfermedad infecciosa que causa discapacidades físicas. Objetivo: Analizar la magnitud y los factores asociados a la limitación de la actividad en los nuevos casos de lepra diagnosticados en el centro de referencia del noreste de Brasil. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal en el que participaron 50 personas diagnosticadas con lepra. Se recogieron variables clínicas y sociodemográficas además de la aplicación de la escala SALSA para el análisis de limitaciones funcionales. Se utilizó regresión logística con el cálculo del odds ratio. Resultados: La presencia de limitaciones funcionales se registró en el 32% (n=16) de los casos analizados, especialmente mujeres (56,3%), ancianos (37,5%), baja escolaridad (87,6%), forma dismórfica (62,5%), clasificación multibacilar (75,0%) y grado 2 de discapacidad física (50,0%). La limitación funcional se asoció con un rango de edad ≥45 años (OR 3,80; p=0,047), clasificación multibacilar (OR 4,28; p=0,021) y puntuación OMP ≥6 (OR 4,69; p=0,041). Conclusión: Hubo una alta frecuencia de personas con discapacidad física. Los factores asociados a la limitación funcional fueron edad igual o superior a 45 años, clasificación multibacilar y puntuación OMP mayor o igual a seis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105791, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy causes a range of symptoms, and most diagnoses are established based on the clinical picture. Therefore, false negative and positive diagnoses are relatively common. We analyzed the spatial pattern of leprosy misdiagnosis and associated factors in Brazil. METHOD: Exploratory analyses of Kernel density of the new case detection rate (NCDR) and proportion of misdiagnosis in Brazil, 2003-2017. Factors associated with misdiagnosis were identified by logistic regression at the 5% significance level. RESULT: A total of 574,181 new leprosy cases were recorded in Brazil within the study period, of which 7,477 (1.3%) were misdiagnoses. No spatial correlation was observed between the proportion of misdiagnoses and the NCDR. The likelihood of misdiagnosis was elevated for females [OR: 1.58 (1.51-1.66)], children [OR: 1.49 (1.36-1.64)]; paucibacillary [OR: 1.08 (1.02-1.13)], indeterminate clinical forms [OR: 2.37 (2.15-2.62)], for cases diagnosed in the frame of mass screenings [OR: 3.36 (3.09- 3.73)] and contact examination [OR: 2.30 (2.13-2.49)] and for cases with affected nerves but no skin lesions [OR: 2.47 (2.19-2.77)] when compared with those presenting both skin lesion and affected nerves. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis of leprosy is not correlated with the endemicity level in Brazil but rather with personal, diagnosis-related and disease characteristics.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(5): e13010, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325540

RESUMO

World Health Organisation recommends the practice of BCG vaccination at birth in countries which have a high incidence of tuberculosis and/or high leprosy burden. The BCG vaccination is considered safe for a competent immune system. However, in children with weakened immune systems cause of which can be primary or secondary, the vaccine may lead to side effects which can be localized or disseminated. In this study, we report a spectrum of inborn errors of immunity (IEI) commonly referred to as primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) diagnosed in a large cohort of patients presenting with complications to BCG vaccination from India. Retrospective data analysis of patients referred to ICMR- National Institute of Immunohematology (ICMR-NIIH) for IEI workup between 2007 and 2019 was done. IEI was identified in n = 52/90 (57.7%) patients presenting with BCG complications. Of these, n = 13(14.4%) patients were diagnosed with severe combined immune deficiency, n = 15(16.7%) with chronic granulomatous disease, n = 19(21.1%) with Inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity, n = 4(4.4%) with Combined immunodeficiency and n = 1(1.1%) with Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency type1. Majority of cases with BCGosis (88%) had an underlying IEI. This study strongly highlights the need for evaluation of patients with BCG complications for underlying IEI. While disseminated BCGosis strongly predicts underlying IEI, even localized persistent adenitis may be a warning sign of underlying IEI. It is also strongly recommended to record a family history of previous sibling death prior to administration of this live vaccine and deferring live vaccine till the diagnosis of IEI is ruled out in cases with a positive family history.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e037913, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the predictors in estimating the probability of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) when all versus only significant variables are combined into a decision model (1) among all clinical suspects and (2) among smear-negative cases based on the results of culture tests. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two public referral hospitals in Tigray, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 426 consecutive adult patients admitted to the hospitals with clinical suspicion of PTB were screened by sputum smear microscopy and chest radiograph (chest X-ray (CXR)) in accordance with the Ethiopian guidelines of the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program. Discontinuation of antituberculosis therapy in the past 3 months, unproductive cough, HIV positivity and unwillingness to give written informed consent were the basis of exclusion from the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A total of 354 patients were included in the final analysis, while 72 patients were excluded because culture tests were not done. RESULTS: The strongest predictive variables of culture-positive PTB among patients with clinical suspicion were a positive smear test (OR 172; 95% CI 23.23 to 1273.54) and having CXR lesions compatible with PTB (OR 10.401; 95% CI 5.862 to 18.454). The regression model had a good predictive performance for identifying culture-positive PTB among patients with clinical suspicion (area under the curve (AUC) 0.84), but it was rather poor in patients with a negative smear result (AUC 0.64). Combining all the predictors in the model compared with only the independent significant variables did not really improve its performance to identify culture-positive (AUC 0.84-0.87) and culture-negative (AUC 0.64-0.69) PTB. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that predictive models based on clinical variables will not be useful to discriminate patients with culture-negative PTB from patients with culture-positive PTB among patients with smear-negative cases.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Escarro , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008687, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy transmission is ongoing; globally and within Bangladesh. Household contacts of leprosy cases are at increased risk of leprosy development. Identification of household contacts at highest risk would optimize this process. METHODS: The temporal pattern of new case presentation amongst household contacts was documented in the COCOA (Contact Cohort Analysis) study. The COCOA study actively examined household contacts of confirmed leprosy index cases identified in 1995, and 2000-2014, to provide evidence for timings of contact examination policies. Data was available on 9527 index cases and 38303 household contacts. 666 household contacts were diagnosed with leprosy throughout the follow-up (maximum follow-up of 21 years). Risk factors for leprosy development within the data analysed, were identified using Cox proportional hazard regression. FINDINGS: The dominant risk factor for household contacts developing leprosy was having a highly skin smear positive index case in the household. As the grading of initial slit skin smear of the index case increased from negative to high positive (4-6), the hazard of their associated household contacts developing leprosy increases by 3.14 times (p<0.001). Being a blood relative was not a risk factor, no gender differences in susceptibility were found. INTERPRETATION: We found a dominance of a single variable predicting risk for leprosy transmission-skin smear positive index cases. A small number of cases are maintaining transmission in the household setting. Focus should be performing contact examinations on these households and detecting new skin smear positive index cases. Conducting slit-skin smears on new cases is needed for predicting risk; such services need supporting. If skin smear positive cases are sustaining leprosy infection within the household setting, the administration of single-dose rifampicin (SDR) to household contacts as the sole intervention in Bangladesh will not be effective.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/transmissão , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 36: 57-64, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958428

RESUMO

The Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed over a century ago and has become one of the most used vaccines without undergoing a modern vaccine development life cycle. Despite this, the vaccine has protected many millions from severe and disseminated forms of tuberculosis (TB). In addition, BCG has cross-mycobacterial effects against non-tuberculous mycobacteria and off-target (also called non-specific or heterologous) effects against other infections and diseases. More recently, BCG's effects on innate immunity suggest it might improve the immune response against viral respiratory infections including SARS-CoV-2. New TB vaccines, developed over the last 30 years, show promise, particularly in prevention of progression to disease from TB infection in young adults. The role of BCG in the context of new TB vaccines remains uncertain as most participants included in trials have been previously BCG immunised. BCG replacement vaccines are in efficacy trials and these may also have off-target effects.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Imunidade Heteróloga/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thalidomide is an anti- tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) drug used mainly in the management of moderate to severe form of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL). Because of its teratogenic potential it has to be used under proper supervision. Our critical analysis tries to look into the rationale with which it has been used by means of case reports on lepra reaction. METHODS: We looked for the case reports between December 2005 to June 2019 in databases like Pubmed, Embase and other relevant resources. We used search words like "erythema nodosum leprosum(ENL)", "thalidomide", "case report" in different combinations to get relevant reports that focus on thalidomide usage atleast once at any time point during management. The information extracted were indication of thalidomide use, dose, response, outcome, complication if any, along with all the demographic details and geographical distribution. RESULTS: We found 41 case reports eligible for analysis.The information was critically evaluated. From the analysis it was found that 7 of the case report mentioned the exact indication, 4 case report showed irrational use of thalidomide in the case of neuritis without use of steroids, 7 showed proper use of Clofazimine prior to thalidomide initiation, 26 case report showed case report of rationale dose range and in 4 case reports clofazimine was used prior to thalidomide along with the rational dose of thalidomide. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis helps to guide the rationale use of thalidomide focussing on few important points that anyone should keep in mind while managing a case of ENL.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hansenostáticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Talidomida , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008563, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis remains the primary goal for leprosy management programs. This study aims to determine whether active surveillance of patients with leprosy and their contact individuals increased identification of latent leprosy cases in the low-endemic areas. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was carried out between October 2014 and August 2016 in 21 counties throughout Shandong Province. The survey was conducted among patients with leprosy released from treatment (RFT) and their contacts from both household and neighbors. RESULTS: A total of 2,210 RFT patients and 9,742 contacts comprising 7877 household contacts (HHCs), including 5,844 genetic related family members (GRFMs) and 2033 non-genetic related family members and 1,865 contacts living in neighboring houses (neighbor contacts, NCs), were recruited. Among identified individuals, one relapsed and 13 were newly diagnosed, giving a detection rate of 0.12%, corresponding to 120 times the passive case detection rate. Detection rates were similar for HHCs and NCs (0.114% vs. 0.214%, P = 0.287). Analysis of the family history of leprosy patients revealed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously-diagnosed multibacillary leprosy cases. CONCLUSION: Active case-finding programs are feasible and contributes to early case detection by tracking HHCs and NCs in low-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Características de Residência , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 910, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RTS,S/AS01 is the first vaccine against malaria to undergo pilot implementation, beginning in 2019 and vaccinating 360,000 children per year in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya. The four-dose vaccine is given as a primary three-dose series with a fourth dose given approximately 18 months later. The efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 was variable among the 11 sites participating in the 2009-2014 phase III trial (MALARIA-055, NCT00866619), possibly due to differences in transmission intensity. However, a within-site examination of environmental factors related to transmission intensity and their impact on vaccine efficacy has yet to be conducted. METHODS: We implemented the phase III RTS,S/AS01 trial at the Malawi site, which enrolled 1578 infants (6-12 weeks) and children (5-17 months) living in the Lilongwe District in Central Malawi and followed them for 3 years between 2009 and 2014. A global positioning system survey and an ecological questionnaire were conducted to collect participant household locations and characteristics, while additional data on background malaria prevalence were obtained from a concurrent Malaria Transmission Intensity (MTI) survey. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess whether the efficacy of the vaccine varied by estimated background malaria prevalence, household roof type, or amount of nearby vegetation. RESULTS: Vaccine efficacy did not significantly vary by estimated malaria prevalence or by roof type. However, increased vegetation cover was associated with an increase in the efficacy of the three-dose primary RTS,S/AS01 series in the 18 months before the fourth dose and a decrease in the efficacy of the primary vaccine series in the second 18 months following, if the fourth dose was not given. Vegetation cover did not alter the efficacy of the fourth dose in a statistically or practically significant manner. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetation coverage in this study site might be a proxy for nearness to rivers or branching, shallow wetlands called "dambos" which could serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes. We observed statistically significant modification of the efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 by forest cover, suggesting that initial vaccine efficacy and the importance of the fourth dose varies based on ecological context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Efficacy of GSK Biologicals' Candidate Malaria Vaccine (257049) Against Malaria Disease Caused by P. falciparum Infection in Infants and Children in Africa. NCT00866619 prospectively registered 20 March 2009.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(3): 547-552, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933458

RESUMO

Resistance to anti-leprosy drugs is on the rise. Several studies have documented resistance to rifampicin, dapsone, and ofloxacin in patients with leprosy. We looked for point mutations within the folP1, rpoB, and gyrA gene regions of the Mycobacterium leprae genome predominantly in the neural form of leprosy. DNA samples from 77 nerve tissue samples were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified for M leprae DNA and sequenced for drug resistance-determining regions of genes rpoB, folP1, and gyrA. The mean age at presentation and onset was 38.2 ± 13.4 (range 14-71) years and 34.9 ± 12.6 years (range 10-63) years, respectively. The majority had borderline tuberculoid leprosy (53 [68.8%]). Mutations associated with resistance were identified in 6/77 (7.8%) specimens. Mutations seen were those associated with resistance to rifampicin, ofloxacin, and dapsone. All the six patients were drug-naive. The clinical and pathological manifestations in this group did not differ from the drug-sensitive group. This study highlights the occurrence of resistance to the standard multidrug therapy and ofloxacin in leprosy. Among the entire cohort, 1/77 (1.3%) showed resistance to rifampicin, 2/77 (2.6%) to dapsone, and 5/77 (6.4%) to ofloxacin. Six new patients showing infection by mutant strains indicated the emergence of primary resistance. Resistance to ofloxacin could be due to frequent use of quinolones for many bacterial infections. The results of the study indicate the need for development of a robust and strict surveillance system for detecting drug resistance in leprosy in India.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(3): 251-261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997793

RESUMO

Background: Benign melanocytic neoplasms have nests of melanocytic cells and show characteristic dermoscopic features. Clinical and dermoscopic features have not been studied previously in the Indian population. Aims: To study the clinical, epidemiological and dermoscopic patterns of benign melanocytic neoplasms. Methods: This was a descriptive, observational, single centre study. In 107 patients with melanocytic neoplasms, 167 lesions were clinically examined and studied under the dermoscope and histopathological examination was done when indicated. The lesions were broadly divided as acquired and congenital. Five main dermoscopic patterns were seen-globular, homogenous, reticular, parallel and streaks. If there were two of these patterns in a particular lesion, it was termed 'mixed pattern'. The presence of three or more patterns was called 'multicomponent pattern'. Various other features were also observed. Results: The majority of patients belonged to the third decade with a female preponderance. History of increased UV exposure and family history was significant in acquired nevi. The dermoscopic pattern progressed from predominantly reticular in junctional nevi to predominantly globular in compound nevi and lesser pigment in intradermal nevi, with more vascular structures. The congenital melanocytic nevi showed additional features of comedo- like lesions, milia- like cysts, perifollicular pigmentary changes and increased colour variation. Even though colour variation was observed in both acquired and congenital lesions, no signs of dysplasia were seen on histopathology. Limitations: A larger sample size is required, with follow up of lesions. No parallel studies in brown skinned population were found for exact comparison. Conclusion: Benign melanocytic proliferations are often neglected in our country. This study will help in understanding the course, clinical features and dermoscopic patterns of various benign melanocytic neoplasms, and will be a step forward towards research in our population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind in India.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397400

RESUMO

Background: Tufted angioma is a rare benign lesion with vascular proliferation. Aim: To retrospectively analyze the clinicopathological manifestations and immunohistochemical features of tufted angioma. Methods: Clinical and histopathological features of tufted angioma (n = 54) were evaluated and analyzed retrospectively in the Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital from 2003 to 2014. Results: Clinically, tufted angioma usually presented as erythematous plaques and papules on the head and neck (n = 11), trunk (n = 21) and extremities (n = 22), mainly in children (n = 48), without gender difference (24 males and 30 females). A total of 45 cases showed solitary lesions and nine cases showed multiple lesions. Common symptoms included pain (n = 11), tenderness (n = 7), itching (n = 1), hypertrichosis (n = 7), hyperhidrosis (n = 6) and Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (n = 1). Histopathologically, typical tufted angioma (n = 37) showed proliferation of endothelial cells in a so-called cannonball pattern, while in the early (n = 4) and regressed (n = 13) stages the tufted appearance was not prominent. The proliferated endothelial cells were diffusely positive for CD31 and Wilms tumor 1, focally positive for D2-40 and Prox1, and negative for Glut-1. Limitations: Our research was confined to patients of Chinese origin and our sample size was limited. Conclusions: Tufted angioma is a rare vascular neoplasm with diverse clinical manifestations and unique pathological features. It should be recognized as a vascular tumor with lymphatic differentiation. We emphasize the importance of considering tufted angioma in the differential diagnoses of any congenital or acquired vascular tumor.


Assuntos
Hemangioma/metabolismo , Hemangioma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Hemangioma/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Adulto Jovem
20.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 48(4): 371-375, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858747

RESUMO

Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is administered worldwide to neonates and considered safe. Serious complications like disseminated BCGosis are extremely rare occurrences (<1 per million vaccinations). A 6 months male was brought to paediatric outpatient department with fever and swelling over the dorsum of the left hand for 5 days. On examination, he was febrile and had hepatosplenomegaly. X-ray of the hand showed lytic lesions in the first and second metacarpals. Provisional clinical diagnosis included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, congenital syphilis, and haematological malignancy. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was done from the swelling and showed diffuse sheets of histiocytes with both intracellular and extracellular rod-shaped unstained structures along with inflammatory cells. These ghost images stained positive with ZN stain. A cytological diagnosis of atypical mycobacteria vs leprosy was made. Child was revisited and found to have an active BCG scar. Further investigations showed low serum IgM and positive AFB culture. These bacilli were confirmed by GenoType MTBDR plus test as Mycobacterium bovis. Despite Antitubercular therapy, the patient succumbed to death. This case highlights the variable clinical presentation of BCGosis. Its occurrence may unmask any underlying immunodeficiency. If unfamiliar with the above cytological features and in absence of routinely performed special stains, the cytopathologist may miss these notorious organisms and treat such cases like suppurative lesions. To conclude, an early and definitive diagnosis of BCGosis can be established on FNAC which would ensure timely management and better outcome in this highly lethal entity.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose , Citodiagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
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