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1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 51(2): 235-238, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711677

RESUMO

In the Horn of Africa, there is a high prevalence of tuberculosis that is reported to be partly driven by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strictu sensu strains. We conducted a prospective study to investigate M. tuberculosis complex species causing tuberculosis in Djibouti, and their in vitro susceptibility to standard anti-tuberculous antibiotics in addition to clofazimine, minocycline, chloramphenicol and sulfadiazine. Among the 118 mycobacteria isolates from 118 successive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, 111 strains of M. tuberculosis, five Mycobacterium canettii, one 'Mycobacterium simulans' and one Mycobacterium kansasii were identified. Drug-susceptibility tests performed on the first 78 isolates yielded nine MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. All isolates were fully susceptible to clofazimine, minocycline and chloramphenicol, and 75 of 78 isolates were susceptible to sulfadiazine. In the Horn of Africa, patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by an in vitro susceptible strain may benefit from anti-leprosy drugs, sulfamides and phenicol antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium kansasii/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Clofazimina/farmacologia , Djibuti , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minociclina/farmacologia , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
2.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 128(5): 627-37, 2001 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11427798

RESUMO

Minocycline belongs to the second generation class of cyclines. It was synthesized in 1967 and marketed in 1972. Minocycline has an antiinfectious activity with a spectrum similar to that of other cyclines, notably against Chlamydias, Treonema and Proprionibacterium acenes. The antiinflammatory activity is associated with this antiinfectious action is greater than that of first generation cyclines with specifically a modulator effect on epidermal cytokines. The pharmokinetics of minocycline is characterized by an excellent absorption, a long half-life and an important lipophilic property inducing good tissue distribution. Clinical trials of minocycline have mainly been performed in sexually transmissible diseases and in acne, a field where randomized studies are the most frequent. These trials show that the effect of minocycline is not stronger than first generation cyclines or doxycycline, but that the action is quicker than that of tetracycline at the dose of 500 mg a day. Minocycline is also efficient in nocardiasis, mycobacteriosis, leprosy, Lyme disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, autoimmune bullous dermatitis, Carteaud disease, and prurigo. However, the effect of minocycline in these different conditions has always been evaluated in open trials with a small number of patients. The usual side effects of cyclines, i.e. digestive problems, fungal infections, are less frequent than with first generation cyclines. No photosensitivity has been demonstrated although pigmentations have been described. Dizziness is a specific side effect of minocycline. Furthermore, rare but severe side effects have been reported, including hypersensitivity syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and lupus. Regular indications for minocycline in dermatology are acne and three sexually transmissible diseases (mycoplasm, chlamydia, treponema). Proposed dosage is 100 mg per day in sexually transmissible disease with a reduction to 50 mg per day after 15 days in acne.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Minociclina , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/classificação , Minociclina/farmacologia , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Nocardiose/tratamento farmacológico , Prurigo/tratamento farmacológico , Pioderma Gangrenoso/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 65(3): 375-8, 1997 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9401493

RESUMO

The in vitro activity of lomefloxacin and minocycline was tested against 46 strains of M. tuberculosis resistant to streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H) and rifampin (R) or SHR and 51 strains sensitive to SHR by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method on two different media, namely, Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) and Middlebrook 7H11. The results of the study showed that, irrespective of the medium used, minocycline had little activity against the strains tested and the MIC was > 64 micrograms/ml. The MIC of lomefloxacin in 7H11 medium ranged from 2 to 16 micrograms/ml. There were highly significant differences in the MICs of lomefloxacin in L-J compared with 7H11. The results suggest that the activity of lomefloxacin against M. tuberculosis merits further study.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas , Minociclina/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 62(1): 37-42, 1994 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8189087

RESUMO

The anti-Mycobacterium leprae activities of single doses of rifampin (RMP), clarithromycin (CLARI), or minocycline (MINO) alone, and various combinations of CLARI + MINO were determined in immunocompetent mice by the kinetic method. A single dose of RMP 10 mg/kg, CLARI 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg, MINO 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg alone, or various combinations of CLARI & MINO were active. RMP was more active than the other treatments; the activity of CLARI 100 mg/kg was greater than that of 50 mg/kg, but did not differ significantly from that of 200 mg/kg; MINO 50 mg/kg was more active than 25 mg/kg; and none of the combinations of CLARI + MINO was more active than any of the stronger components administered alone. Therefore, both CLARI and MINO may be applied, either alone or in combination, as components of monthly administered, fully supervised, multidrug regimens for the treatment of multibacillary leprosy. Taking into account the effectiveness of the drugs and the comparative pharmacokinetic data, we propose that the optimal dosage in human trials is CLARI 1000 mg per month or MINO 200 mg per month.


Assuntos
Claritromicina/farmacologia , Minociclina/farmacologia , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Claritromicina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/farmacologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium leprae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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