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1.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7629-7637, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071000

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the presence of immune regulatory cells in the cervical lymph nodes draining Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated site on the dorsum of the ear in guinea pigs. It is shown that whole cervical lymph node cells did not proliferate in vitro in the presence of soluble mycobacterial antigens (PPD or leprosin) despite being responsive to whole mycobacteria. Besides, T cells from these lymph nodes separated as a non-adherent fraction on a nylon wool column, proliferated to PPD in the presence of autologous antigen presenting cells. Interestingly, addition of as low as 20% nylon wool adherent cells to these, sharply decreased the proliferation by 83%. Looking into what cells in the adherent fraction suppressed the proliferation, it was found that neither the T cell nor the macrophage enriched cell fractions of this population individually showed suppressive effect, indicating that their co-presence was necessary for the suppression. Since BCG induced granulomas resolve much faster than granulomas induced by other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae the present experimental findings add to the existing evidence that intradermal BCG vaccination influences subsequent immune responses in the host and may further stress upon its beneficial role seen in Covid-19 patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/farmacologia , Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Granuloma/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculina/farmacologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/microbiologia , COVID-19 , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Orelha , Feminino , Granuloma/microbiologia , Cobaias , Humanos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Remissão Espontânea , Linfócitos T/classificação , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/microbiologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 9: 629, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670618

RESUMO

Background: Notwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (re)vaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations. Methods: Within a randomized controlled BCG vaccination trial in Bangladesh, 14,828 contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients received BCG vaccination between 2012 and 2017 and were examined for adverse events 8 to 12 weeks post-vaccination. From a selection of vaccinated contacts, venous blood was obtained at follow-up examination and stimulated with Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) antigens in overnight whole-blood assays (WBA). M. leprae phenolic glycolipid-I-specific antibodies and 32 cytokines were determined in WBAs of 13 individuals with and 13 individuals without adverse events after vaccination. Results: Out of the 14,828 contacts who received BCG vaccination, 50 (0.34%) presented with adverse events, mainly (80%) consisting of skin ulcers. Based on the presence of BCG scars, 30 of these contacts (60%) had received BCG in this study as a booster vaccination. Similar to the pathological T-cell immunity observed for tuberculoid leprosy patients, contacts with adverse events at the site of BCG vaccination showed elevated IFN-γ levels in response to M. leprae-specific proteins in WBA. However, decreased levels of sCD40L in serum and GRO (CXCL1) in response to M. leprae simultaneously indicated less T-cell regulation in these individuals, potentially causing uncontrolled T-cell immunity damaging the skin. Conclusion: Skin complications after BCG vaccination present surrogate markers for protective immunity against leprosy, but also indicate a higher risk of developing tuberculoid leprosy. Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3087.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bangladesh , Ligante de CD40/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL1/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Hanseníase/complicações , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26577191

RESUMO

Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) continues to be a problem world-wide because of difficulties in identifying infected animals at all stages of infection. The use of the IFN-γ release assays (IGRA) as an ancillary test with the tuberculin skin tests has improved the ability to identify infected animals. However, infected animals may still be missed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a rapid flow-cytometric assay based on intracellular cytokine staining as an alternative to the in vitro IFN-γ release assay (IGRA). Antigen-specific cells producing IFN-γ were identified after a 6h stimulation with PPD-B, PPD-A and ESAT-6/CFP-10. Defined groups of animals naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis (Mbv), animals infected with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and uninfected control animals were analysed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the optimized assay. Both antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests were carried out to verify the status of infection. We show that IFN-γ is induced in T cells from whole blood samples from cattle infected with Mbv 6h post stimulation with PPD-B, PPD-A and ESAT-6/CFP-10, whereas non-infected animals did not respond. Four colour flow cytometric analysis demonstrated responding cells were CD45R0(+)CD69(+)CD4(+) memory T cells. Also, the response to stimulation with ESAT-6/CFP-10 can be used to distinguish between cattle infected with Mbv and cattle exposed to NTM. Although further studies are needed, the results indicate that detection of intracellular IFN-γ may represent an important alternative approach for improved method of detection of cattle secreting IFN-γ below levels of detection in culture medium.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Interferon gama/sangue , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Bovinos , Memória Imunológica , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/imunologia , Linfocinas , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste Tuberculínico
5.
Infect Immun ; 82(12): 5317-26, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25287928

RESUMO

Mycobacteria, the etiological agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, have coevolved with mammals for millions of years and have numerous ways of suppressing their host's immune response. It has been suggested that mycobacteria may contain genes that reduce the host's ability to elicit CD8(+) T cell responses. We screened 3,290 mutant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) strains to identify genes that decrease major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation of mycobacterium-encoded epitope peptides. Through our analysis, we identified 16 mutant BCG strains that generated increased transgene product-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. The genes disrupted in these mutant strains had disparate predicted functions. Reconstruction of strains via targeted deletion of genes identified in the screen recapitulated the enhanced immunogenicity phenotype of the original mutant strains. When we introduced the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag gene into several of these novel BCG strains, we observed enhanced SIV Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. This study demonstrates that mycobacteria carry numerous genes that act to dampen CD8(+) T cell responses and suggests that genetic modification of these genes may generate a novel group of recombinant BCG strains capable of serving as more effective and immunogenic vaccine vectors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Deleção de Genes , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Animais , Tolerância Imunológica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
6.
Infect Immun ; 82(9): 3900-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25001602

RESUMO

Leprosy remains a major global health problem and typically occurs in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. Vaccines are needed that protect against both infections and do so better than the suboptimal Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Here, we evaluated rBCG30, a vaccine previously demonstrated to induce protection superior to that of BCG against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis challenge in animal models, for efficacy against Mycobacterium leprae challenge in a murine model of leprosy. rBCG30 overexpresses the M. tuberculosis 30-kDa major secretory protein antigen 85B, which is 85% homologous with the M. leprae homolog (r30ML). Mice were sham immunized or immunized intradermally with BCG or rBCG30 and challenged 2.5 months later by injection of viable M. leprae into each hind footpad. After 7 months, vaccine efficacy was assessed by enumerating the M. leprae bacteria per footpad. Both BCG and rBCG30 induced significant protection against M. leprae challenge. In the one experiment in which a comparison between BCG and rBCG30 was feasible, rBCG30 induced significantly greater protection than did BCG. Immunization of mice with purified M. tuberculosis or M. leprae antigen 85B also induced protection against M. leprae challenge but less so than BCG or rBCG30. Notably, boosting rBCG30 with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B significantly enhanced r30ML-specific immune responses, substantially more so than boosting BCG, and significantly augmented protection against M. leprae challenge. Thus, rBCG30, a vaccine that induces improved protection against M. tuberculosis, induces cross-protection against M. leprae that is comparable or potentially superior to that induced by BCG, and boosting rBCG30 with antigen 85B further enhances immune responses and protective efficacy.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e64748, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23798993

RESUMO

Herein, we performed microarray experiments in Schwann cells infected with live M. leprae and identified novel differentially expressed genes (DEG) in M. leprae infected cells. Also, we selected candidate genes associated or implicated with leprosy in genetic studies and biological experiments. Forty-seven genes were selected for validation in two independent types of samples by multiplex qPCR. First, an in vitro model using THP-1 cells was infected with live Mycobacterium leprae and M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In a second situation, mRNA obtained from nerve biopsies from patients with leprosy or other peripheral neuropathies was tested. We detected DEGs that discriminate M. bovis BCG from M. leprae infection. Specific signatures of susceptible responses after M. leprae infection when compared to BCG lead to repression of genes, including CCL2, CCL3, IL8 and SOD2. The same 47-gene set was screened in nerve biopsies, which corroborated the down-regulation of CCL2 and CCL3 in leprosy, but also evidenced the down-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, and the up-regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and ubiquitination. Finally, a gene expression signature from DEG was identified in patients confirmed of having leprosy. A classification tree was able to ascertain 80% of the cases as leprosy or non-leprous peripheral neuropathy based on the expression of only LDLR and CCL4. A general immune and mitochondrial hypo-responsive state occurs in response to M. leprae infection. Also, the most important genes and pathways have been highlighted providing new tools for early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/imunologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/microbiologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 7(1): e2015, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23350010

RESUMO

Leprosy is a persistent infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that still affects over 200,000 new patients annually. The host genetic background is an important risk factor for leprosy susceptibility and the PARK2 gene is a replicated leprosy susceptibility candidate gene. The protein product of PARK2, Parkin, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the development of various forms of Parkinsonism. The human macrophage is both a natural host cell of M. leprae as well as a primary mediator of natural immune defenses, in part by secreting important pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Here, we report that down-regulation of Parkin in THP-1 macrophages, human monocyte-derived macrophages and human Schwann cells resulted in a consistent and specific decrease in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) production in response to mycobacteria or LPS. Interestingly, production of IL-6 at 6 hours by THP-1 cells stimulated with live M. leprae and M. bovis BCG was dependent on pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD). Parkin knockdown in VD-treated cells blocked IL-6 induction by mycobacteria. However, IκB-α phosphorylation and levels of IκB-ξ, a nuclear protein required for IL-6 expression, were not affected by Parkin silencing. Phosphorylation of MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 was unaffected by Parkin silencing while JNK activation was promoted but did not explain the altered cytokine production. In a final set of experiments we found that genetic risk factors of leprosy located in the PARK2 promoter region were significantly correlated with M. leprae sonicate triggered CCL2 and IL6 transcript levels in whole blood assays. These results associated genetically controlled changes in the production of MCP-1/CCL2 and IL-6 with known leprosy susceptibility factors.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Macrófagos/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Células de Schwann/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais
9.
s.l; s.n; 2013. 11 p. ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1095732

RESUMO

Herein, we performed microarray experiments in Schwann cells infected with live M. leprae and identified novel differentially expressed genes (DEG) in M. leprae infected cells. Also, we selected candidate genes associated or implicated with leprosy in genetic studies and biological experiments. Forty-seven genes were selected for validation in two independent types of samples by multiplex qPCR. First, an in vitro model using THP-1 cells was infected with live Mycobacterium leprae and M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In a second situation, mRNA obtained from nerve biopsies from patients with leprosy or other peripheral neuropathies was tested. We detected DEGs that discriminate M. bovis BCG from M. leprae infection. Specific signatures of susceptible responses after M. leprae infection when compared to BCG lead to repression of genes, including CCL2, CCL3, IL8 and SOD2. The same 47-gene set was screened in nerve biopsies, which corroborated the down-regulation of CCL2 and CCL3 in leprosy, but also evidenced the down-regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, and the up-regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and ubiquitination. Finally, a gene expression signature from DEG was identified in patients confirmed of having leprosy. A classification tree was able to ascertain 80% of the cases as leprosy or non-leprous peripheral neuropathy based on the expression of only LDLR and CCL4. A general immune and mitochondrial hypo-responsive state occurs in response to M. leprae infection. Also, the most important genes and pathways have been highlighted providing new tools for early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/imunologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Quimiocinas/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Transcriptoma
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 174-182, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-659756

RESUMO

When grown in the presence of exogenous collagen I, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown to form clumps. Scanning electron microscopy examination of these clumps revealed the presence of collagen fibres cross-linking the bacilli. Since collagen is a major constituent of the eukaryotic extracellular matrices, we assayed BCG cytoadherence in the presence of exogenous collagen I. Collagen increased the interaction of the bacilli with A549 type II pneumocytes or U937 macrophages, suggesting that BCG is able to recruit collagen to facilitate its attachment to host cells. Using an affinity chromatography approach, we have isolated a BCG collagen-binding protein corresponding to the previously described mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein (LBP/Hlp), a highly conserved protein associated with the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Aderência Bacteriana , Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 107 Suppl 1: 174-82, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23283469

RESUMO

When grown in the presence of exogenous collagen I, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown to form clumps. Scanning electron microscopy examination of these clumps revealed the presence of collagen fibres cross-linking the bacilli. Since collagen is a major constituent of the eukaryotic extracellular matrices, we assayed BCG cytoadherence in the presence of exogenous collagen I. Collagen increased the interaction of the bacilli with A549 type II pneumocytes or U937 macrophages, suggesting that BCG is able to recruit collagen to facilitate its attachment to host cells. Using an affinity chromatography approach, we have isolated a BCG collagen-binding protein corresponding to the previously described mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein (LBP/Hlp), a highly conserved protein associated with the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
12.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 32(1): 27-33, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21981546

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic but treatable infectious disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. M. leprae cell wall is characterized by a unique phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) reported to have several immune functions. We have examined the role of PGL-1 in the modulation of monocyte cytokine/chemokine production in naive human monocytes. PGL-1 in its purified form or expressed in a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Colmette-Guérin (BCG) background (rBCG-PGL-1) was tested. We found that PGL-1 selectively modulated the induction of specific monocyte cytokines and chemokines and, when used as prestimulus, exerted priming and/or inhibitory effects on the induction of selected cytokines/chemokines in response to a second stimulus. Taken together, the results of this study support a modulatory role for PGL-1 in the innate immune response to M. leprae. Thus, PGL-1 may play an important role in the development of the anergic clinical forms of disease and in tissue damage seen in lepromatous patients and during the reactional states of leprosy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia
13.
Hum Vaccin ; 7(11): 1172-83, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22048122

RESUMO

Prevalence rates for leprosy have declined sharply over the past 20 y, with this decline generally attributed to the WHO multi-drug therapy (MDT) campaign to provide free-of-charge treatment to all diagnosed leprosy patients. The success of this program appears to have reached its nadir, however, as evidenced by the stalled decreases in both global prevalence and new case detection rates of leprosy. Mass BCG vaccination for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) at national levels has had a positive effect on leprosy decline and is often overlooked as an important factor in current leprosy control programs. Because BCG provides incomplete protection against both TB and leprosy, newer more effective TB vaccines are being developed. The impact that application of these vaccines will have on current leprosy control programs is unclear. In this review, we assess the need for vaccines within leprosy control programs. We summarize and discuss leprosy vaccine strategies that have been deployed previously and discuss those strategies that are currently being developed to augment recent breakthroughs in leprosy control.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
Biol Res ; 43(1): 13-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21157628

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis BCG has been proposed as an effective live vector for multivalent vaccines. The development of mycobacterial genetic systems to express foreign antigens and the adjuvanticity of BCG are the basis for the potential use of this attenuated mycobacterium as a recombinant vaccine vector. Stable plasmid vectors without antibiotic resistance markers are needed for heterologous antigen expression in BCG. Our group recently described the construction of a BCG expression system using auxotrophic complementation as a selectable marker. In this work, LipL32 and LigAni antigens of Leptospira interrogans were cloned and expressed in M. bovis BCG Pasteur and in the auxotrophic M. bovis BCG ΔleuD strains under the control of the M. leprae 18 kDa promoter. Stability of the plasmids during in vitro growth and after inoculation of the recombinant BCG strains in hamsters was compared. The auxotrophic complementation system was highly stable, even during in vivo growth, as the selective pressure was maintained, whereas the conventional vector was unstable in the absence of selective pressure. These results confirm the usefulness of the new expression system, which represents a huge improvement over previously described expression systems for the development of BCG into an effective vaccine vector.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Cricetinae , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/imunologia
15.
J Immunol ; 185(10): 6234-43, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20935209

RESUMO

To activate naive T cells convincingly using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), recombinant BCG (BCG-D70M) that was deficient in urease, expressed with gene encoding the fusion of BCG-derived heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and Mycobacterium leprae-derived major membrane protein (MMP)-II, one of the immunodominant Ags of M. leprae, was newly constructed. BCG-D70M was more potent in activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets of naive T cells than recombinant BCGs including urease-deficient BCG and BCG-70M secreting HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein. BCG-D70M efficiently activated dendritic cells (DCs) to induce cytokine production and phenotypic changes and activated CD4(+) T cells even when macrophages were used as APCs. The activation of both subsets of T cells was MHC and CD86 dependent. Pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine inhibited both surface expression of MMP-II on DCs and the activation of T cells by BCG-D70M-infected APCs. The naive CD8(+) T cell activation was inhibited by treatment of DCs with brefeldin A and lactacystin so that the T cell was activated by TAP- and proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. From naive CD8(+) T cells, effector T cells producing perforin and memory T cells having migration markers were produced by BCG-D70M stimulation. BCG-D70M primary infection in C57BL/6 mice produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with MMP-II and HSP70 and more efficiently inhibited the multiplication of subsequently challenged M. leprae than vector control BCG. These results indicate that the triple combination of HSP70, MMP-II, and urease depletion may provide a useful tool for inducing better activation of naive T cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Urease/deficiência , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Western Blotting , Separação Celular , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
16.
Biol. Res ; 43(1): 13-18, 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-548025

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis BCG has been proposed as an effective live vector for multivalent vaccines. The development of mycobacterial genetic systems to express foreign antigens and the adjuvanticity of BCG are the basis for the potential use of this attenuated mycobacterium as a recombinant vaccine vector. Stable plasmid vectors without antibiotic resistance markers are needed for heterologous antigen expression in BCG. Our group recently described the construction of a BCG expression system using auxotrophic complementation as a selectable marker. In this work, LipL32 and LigAni antigens of Leptospira interrogans were cloned and expressed in M. bovis BCG Pasteur and in the auxotrophic M. bovis BCG ΔleuD strains under the control of the M. leprae 18kDa promoter. Stability of the plasmids during in vitro growth and after inoculation of the recombinant BCG strains in hamsters was compared. The auxotrophic complementation system was highly stable, even during in vivo growth, as the selective pressure was maintained, whereas the conventional vector was unstable in the absence of selective pressure. These results confirm the usefulness of the new expression system, which represents a huge improvement over previously described expression systems for the development of BCG into an effective vaccine vector.


Assuntos
Animais , Cricetinae , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/imunologia
17.
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol ; 55(1): 39-46, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19076223

RESUMO

The potential of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) needs to be augmented to efficiently activate CD4(+) T cells through macrophages. Mycobacterium leprae-derived recombinant major membrane protein (MMP)-II induced GM-CSF production from macrophages. A recombinant BCG-SM that secretes MMP-II more efficiently produced GM-CSF and activated interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells than did vector control BCG when infected with macrophages. The T-cell activation by BCG-SM was dependent on the GM-CSF production by macrophages. Interleukin (IL)-10 production by macrophages stimulated with M. leprae was inhibited in a GM-CSF-dependent manner when the precursor monocytes were infected with BCG-SM. BCG inducing GM-CSF production was effective in macrophage-mediated T-cell activation partially through IL-10 inhibition.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/genética
18.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 14(11): 1483-9, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17881504

RESUMO

In this study, we determined if the sensitivity of the currently available in vitro test to detect bovine tuberculosis could be enhanced by adding the following immunomodulators: interleukin-2 (IL-2); granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); antibodies neutralizing IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta); mono-methyl-l-arginine, which blocks nitric oxide production; and l-methyl-tryptophan, which interferes with the indoleamine dioxygenase pathway. Blood was obtained from uninfected control cattle, experimentally infected cattle, cattle responding positively to the skin test in tuberculosis-free areas (false positives), and cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis from New Zealand and Great Britain. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to bovine purified protein derivative (PPD-b), avian purified protein derivative, and a fusion protein of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were measured. Mono-methyl-l-arginine, l-methyl-tryptophan, or an antibody neutralizing TGF-beta had minimal impact on IFN-gamma production. IL-2 and GM-CSF promoted IFN-gamma release whether antigen was present or not. In contrast, adding an antibody against IL-10 enhanced only antigen-specific responses. In particular, addition of anti-IL-10 to ESAT-6/CFP-10-stimulated blood cultures enhanced the test sensitivity. Furthermore, whole blood cells from field reactors produced substantial amounts of IL-10 upon stimulation with PPD-b or ESAT-6/CFP-10. Testing "false-positive" cattle from tuberculosis-free areas of New Zealand revealed that addition of anti-IL-10 did not compromise the test specificity. Therefore, the use of ESAT-6/CFP-10 with anti-IL-10 could be useful to detect cattle potentially infected with tuberculosis, which are not detected using current procedures.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos , Citocinas/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Immunol ; 178(1): 338-44, 2007 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17182571

RESUMO

Leprosy presents with a clinical spectrum of skin lesions that span from strong Th1-mediated cellular immunity and control of bacillary growth at one pole to poor Ag-specific T cell immunity with extensive bacillary load and Th2 cytokine-expressing lesions at the other. To understand how the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae is regulated, human dendritic cells (DC), potent inducers of adaptive immune responses, exposed to M. leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were studied for their ability to be activated and to prime T cell proliferation. In contrast with Mtb and BCG, M. leprae did not induce DC activation/maturation as measured by the expression of selected surface markers and proinflammatory cytokine production. In MLR, T cells did not proliferate in response to M. leprae-stimulated DC. Interestingly, M. leprae-exposed MLR cells secreted increased Th2 cytokines as well as similar Th1 cytokine levels as compared with Mtb- and BCG-exposed cells. Gene expression analysis revealed a reduction in levels of mRNA of DC activation and maturation markers following exposure to M. leprae. Our data suggest that M. leprae does not induce and probably suppresses in vitro DC maturation/activation, whereas Mtb and BCG are stimulatory.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos CD/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Fagocitose , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia
20.
Infect Immun ; 74(11): 6264-71, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17057093

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that major membrane protein II (MMP-II) is one of the immunodominant antigens (Ags) of Mycobacterium leprae capable of activating T cells through Toll-like receptor 2. Based on the observation that Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting a 30-kDa protein offered better protection against tuberculosis, we constructed a recombinant BCG strain (BCG-SM) that secretes MMP-II to improve the potency of BCG against leprosy. The secreted MMP-II protein from BCG-SM stimulated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) to produce interleukin-12. DC infected with BCG-SM expressed MMP-II on their surfaces, and MMP-II expression was suppressed by the pretreatment of DC with chloroquine. These results indicated that secreted MMP-II was processed by DC for higher expression levels on their surfaces. In addition, BCG-SM phenotypically activated DC and induced higher expression levels of major histocompatibility complex, CD86, and CD83 Ags on DC than did vector control BCG (BCG-pMV). The DC infected with BCG-SM more efficiently stimulated naïve and memory CD4+ T cells and memory CD8+ T cells to produce gamma interferon than did those infected with BCG-pMV. However, naïve CD8+ T cells were significantly activated only when they were stimulated with BCG-SM-infected DC. When CD8+ T cells were cocultured with BCG-SM-infected DC, the proportion of perforin-producing T cells was significantly higher than that in cells cocultured with BCG-pMV-infected DC. Moreover, MMP-II-specific memory T cells were more efficiently produced in mice inoculated with BCG-SM than in mice inoculated with BCG-pMV. Taken together, these results indicate that BCG capable of secreting the immunodominant Ag is more potent in the stimulation of T cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/veterinária
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