Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 13 de 13
Filtrar
1.
Health (London) ; 21(4): 392-408, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865214

RESUMO

When Hansen's disease became treatable in Taiwan in the mid-20th century, a group of Hansen's disease patients lost their sick role despite still having lingering symptoms that continued to evolve. While sociologists have explored in-depth situations in which the social role of the sick is ambiguous, few studies have investigated body experiences under liminality that requires sick people to find a new sick role. Living with lingering symptoms in a post-Hansen's disease world, the Hansen's disease patients I have studied face the conundrum of having to find an alternative sick role. Ethnographic fieldwork demonstrates how patients develop a specific set of body techniques that shape and are shaped by their membership in a patient community. Exploring the reinforcing projects of re-embodiment and sociality around Hansen's disease, I argue that patients are able both to legitimate each other's feelings of sickness and to use those feelings to manage their illness and, as such, to collectively acquire an alternative sick role. Adding to existing discussions of active patients, this article identifies the body mechanical as a way of practicing active patienthood organized around fixing, trials, mending and functionality.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Hanseníase/psicologia , Papel do Doente , Antropologia Cultural , Comorbidade , Empatia , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Hanseníase/complicações , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autocuidado , Taiwan
2.
J Christ Nurs ; 27(2): 86-90, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20364520

RESUMO

Leprosy in the ancient world involved quarantine from family and society and great stigma. Similarly, mental illness today can involve separation, lost potential, and stigma. As with leprosy, most people misunderstand etiology, treatment, and prognosis in mental illness. Nurses are in a key position to educate, intervene, and improve mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bíblia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Preconceito , Percepção Social , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Hanseníase/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Saúde Mental , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Papel do Doente , Estereotipagem
3.
Lepr Rev ; 76(4): 316-24, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16411511

RESUMO

This paper focuses primarily on the extent to which a Stigma Elimination Programme (STEP) affected the social participation of people affected by leprosy in southern Nepal. The Participation Scale (popularly known as The P Scale) was applied to compare leprosy affected people who participated in STEP groups with a control group comprising leprosy affected people who lived in villages where STEP had not been implemented. It was found that STEP participants had significantly higher levels of participation compared with controls and that their levels of social participation were higher than would be expected even for the general population. It was also found that leprosy affected people without visible deformity or ulceration (whether in the STEP group or not) do not appear to suffer participation restriction in southern Nepal.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Hanseníase/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/psicologia , Masculino , Nepal , Autocuidado , Papel do Doente
4.
Lepr Rev ; 76(4): 335-47, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16411513

RESUMO

After successful control of the endemic of leprosy in Shandong Province, China, how to deal with ex-leprosy patients living in the leprosy villages/leprosaria has become a hot topic among programme managers, medical staff and governmental officials at different levels. One of the possible solutions in dealing with the problem was proposed to combine small leprosy villages into a few larger, already existing, leprosaria/leprosy villages with better facilities, in order to provide better care for ex-leprosy patients and make better use of existing resources. With this assumption, social, economic and medical needs felt by ex-leprosy patients in three leprosy villages of Shandong province were assessed qualitatively, and the possibilities and obstacles regarding combination were explored. The results showed that the basic needs for living, such as food and clothes, were provided by state governments, although living standards remained at a low level. Medical care was not satisfactory, as many health problems related and unrelated to leprosy were increasing, and self-care needed to be addressed, as the dependents grew older and the disability status became worse. Although the majority of ex-leprosy patients, medical staff and government officials interviewed agreed with the idea of the adjustment of leprosy villages/leprosaria, some obstacles, including stigma, existed. Government commitment, ideally at top level, was needed in order to facilitate the process of combination.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Papel do Doente
5.
Lepr Rev ; 75(1): 57-66, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15072127

RESUMO

Stigmatization by the general population and their negative attitudes towards leprosy negatively impacts on patients' mental health, and so too does patients' perception of that stigma. The objective of this present study is to assess the depressive status of leprosy patients, the patient perception of that stigma, and its association with their depressive status in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Subjects were 140 patients, and a selected comparison group of 135 local people without any chronic diseases. To evaluate depressive status, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) Bengali version was applied. The patient group's depressive status was significantly more severe than that of the comparison group. Depressive status of those who answered affirmatively was significantly more severe than that of those who answered negatively for three responses to questions: 1) 'I have been physically attacked by people', 2) 'I feel people regard me as strange' and 3) 'I have been refused the purchase of something by a shopkeeper'. The results showed that the depressive status in leprosy patients was greater than that of the general public. Further, actual experiences of discrimination based on stigma associated with the depressive status of leprosy patients. Mental health care for patients, regulation of discriminatory action and education that would decrease social stigma among the general population, especially people who might often have contact with patients, seem necessary to improve the mental health of Bangladeshi leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Valores de Referência , Autoimagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Papel do Doente , Ajustamento Social , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estereotipagem
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 47(7): 841-52, 1998 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9722105

RESUMO

Skin diseases have been a major source of social stigma, whether they be infectious or not. The potential stigamtizing effect of skin disease associated with onchocerciasis is currently receiving attention because half of the 17 million victims of onchocerciasis in Africa live where the non-blinding form of the disease is prevalent. Some reports are available that onchocercal skin disease (OSD) is associated with social stigma including problems in finding a marriage partner. Previous studies have also implied positive effects of ivermectin treatment on OSD. Therefore a multi-country trial of ivermectin is underway to test the hypothesis that ivermectin treatment might affect perceptions of stigma associated with OSD. This paper presents the baseline stigma findings from the study site located in southwestern Nigeria. A total of 1032 persons living in villages near the Ofiki and Oyan Rivers were screened and interviewed and 500 (48%) were found to have an onchocercal skin lesion. A 13-item, 39-point stigma scale was used in interviews with affected persons. A mean score of 16.8 was obtained. No personal characteristics or disease factors were found to be associated with stigma score. The highest ranking items focused on issues of self-esteem such as feeling embarrassed, feelings of being pitied, thinking less of oneself, feeling that scratching annoys others, feeling that others thought less of the person and feeling that others had avoided the person. During the interviews it was discovered that only about half of those clinically diagnosed as having OSD labeled their own condition as onchocerciasis. Those who said their lesion was OSD had a lower stigma score than those who did not, conforming with previous studies wherein affected persons perceived less stigma from OSD than those without the disease. A broader community perspective on OSD was obtained through 50 interviews using paired comparisons of five skin-related local illnesses. Onchocerciasis placed midway in aversive responses between the higher end represented by leprosy and chicken pox and lower scoring papular rashes known locally as eela and ring worm. In-depth village based interviews yielded several case studies of how onchocerciasis had a negative social impact on its victims. While study on the cultural perceptions of OSD is recommended, the results indicate that with a fairly high prevalence of OSD, the community level effects of social stigma should be regarded as serious.


Assuntos
Oncocercose/psicologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Idoso , Antiparasitários , Feminino , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rejeição em Psicologia , Papel do Doente , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 39(4): 537-41, 1994 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7973853

RESUMO

A study to determine some socio-cultural factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of the community toward leprosy was carried out in north-western Botswana, where cases of leprosy have been known to exist over the years. The study was largely qualitative, using ethnographic approaches. The research was tailored in a way to capture the ethnic diversity of the region, in particular two ethnic groups, namely Bayei and Bambukushu. The name or symptom complex associated with leprosy was 'ngara' or 'lepero' and this was associated with bad blood. Knowledge on disease causation was lacking, which in turn influenced health seeking behaviour of patients. Patients were well integrated and accepted into the social structure of communities. Women caring for these patients did experience some additional burden and identified time as their major constraint in caretaking. It was apparent that the degree of rejection correlated with seriousness of the disease and extent of disabilities and dysfunction. The present pattern of health seeking behaviour needs to be altered, so that an early diagnosis can be made at the health facility. This will aid appropriate management and prevent occurrence of deformities and disabilities, which in turn will reduce rejection and isolation of patients. Education of community, patients, traditional and religious healers on various aspects of the disease, especially causation, is essential to achieve a change in the health seeking behaviour.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hanseníase/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Papel do Doente , Botsuana , Comparação Transcultural , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hanseníase/etnologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Medicina Tradicional , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Religião e Medicina , População Rural
12.
Indian J Lepr ; 56(2): 292-300, 1984.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6548499

RESUMO

It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'.


Assuntos
Identificação Psicológica , Individualidade , Hanseníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Hanseníase/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Papel do Doente , Isolamento Social
13.
Lepr India ; 55(4): 743-51, 1983 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6668935

RESUMO

The paper incorporates five studies (i.e., four of frustration and one of anxiety). The design is 'Multi-group-Control-group'. Each one of the five studies has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments. Each experiment has 360 elements. These are three groups (of lepromatous, non-lepromatous and of disease-free normals). Each group consists of 120 elements (equally distributed among adolescents, adults and senescents). The particulars of the patients have been obtained from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the Kushta Seva Sadan (Agra). The disease-free normal elements are drawn freely from the population of the Agra town. The sample possesses statistical justification for size and representativeness. Data are collected with the help of reliable tools and the 'F' test is run for verification of the 'null hypotheses'. Results show that experiences of 'fixation-regression' frustration, atypically belong to normal senescence. Resignation and anxiety experiences, as growing hazards, specifically relate to leprosy patients. Personality factors that normally demote 'frustration-anxiety' behaviour exhibit 'role-negation' in the leprosy patients. Age shows 'role-reversion'. Implications of such 'role' changes relate to the 'self-eroding' process of personality in the patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Comportamento , Frustração , Hanseníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Papel do Doente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA