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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 839-850, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168371

RESUMO

Granulomas are complex cellular structures composed predominantly of macrophages and lymphocytes that function to contain and kill invading pathogens. Here, we investigated the single-cell phenotypes associated with antimicrobial responses in human leprosy granulomas by applying single-cell and spatial sequencing to leprosy biopsy specimens. We focused on reversal reactions (RRs), a dynamic process whereby some patients with disseminated lepromatous leprosy (L-lep) transition toward self-limiting tuberculoid leprosy (T-lep), mounting effective antimicrobial responses. We identified a set of genes encoding proteins involved in antimicrobial responses that are differentially expressed in RR versus L-lep lesions and regulated by interferon-γ and interleukin-1ß. By integrating the spatial coordinates of the key cell types and antimicrobial gene expression in RR and T-lep lesions, we constructed a map revealing the organized architecture of granulomas depicting compositional and functional layers by which macrophages, T cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts can each contribute to the antimicrobial response.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/microbiologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/genética , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/microbiologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transcriptoma
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777045

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease that remains endemic in approximately 100 developing countries, where about 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. Moreover, multibacillary leprosy, the most contagious form of the disease, has been detected at continuously higher rates among Brazilian elderly people. Due to the so-called immunosenescence, characterized by several alterations in the quality of the immune response during aging, this group is more susceptible to infectious diseases. In view of such data, the purpose of our work was to investigate if age-related alterations in the immune response could influence the pathogenesis of leprosy. As such, we studied 87 individuals, 62 newly diagnosed and untreated leprosy patients distributed according to the age range and to the clinical forms of the disease and 25 healthy volunteers, who were studied as controls. The frequency of senescent and memory CD8+ leukocytes was assessed by immunofluorescence of biopsies from cutaneous lesions, while the serum levels of IgG anti-CMV antibodies were analyzed by chemiluminescence and the gene expression of T cell receptors' inhibitors by RT-qPCR. We noted an accumulation of memory CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as reduced CD8+CD28+ cell expression in skin lesions from elderly patients, when compared to younger people. Alterations in LAG3 and PDCD1 gene expression in cutaneous lesions of young MB patients were also observed, when compared to elderly patients. Such data suggest that the age-related alterations of T lymphocyte subsets can facilitate the onset of leprosy in elderly patients, not to mention other chronic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Imunossenescência/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos CD/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Hanseníase/sangue , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/sangue , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 378-380, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600120

RESUMO

Leprosy is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae which mainly affects the skin and nervous system. The course of the disease is determined by host immunity, it is thus believed that in lepromatous leprosy (LL), all manifestations are bilaterally symmetrical. This is because of the inability of the host to mount an adequate cell-mediated immune response, resulting in widespread haematogenous dissemination of bacilli. Varied manifestations of LL have been reported; however, a multidermatomal pattern of nodules is hitherto unreported and we suggest a hypothesis for its presentation.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Pele/patologia , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Negligenciadas , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia
5.
J Immunol ; 205(1): 102-112, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434940

RESUMO

To maintain homeostasis, macrophages must be capable of assuming either an inflammatory or an anti-inflammatory phenotype. To better understand the latter, we stimulated human macrophages in vitro with TLR ligands in the presence of high-density immune complexes (IC). This combination of stimuli resulted in a broad suppression of inflammatory mediators and an upregulation of molecules involved in tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. Transcriptomic analysis of TLR stimulation in the presence of IC predicted the downstream activation of AKT and the inhibition of GSK3. Consequently, we pretreated LPS-stimulated human macrophages with small molecule inhibitors of GSK3 to partially phenocopy the regulatory effects of stimulation in the presence of IC. The upregulation of DC-STAMP and matrix metalloproteases was observed on these cells and may represent potential biomarkers for this regulatory activation state. To demonstrate the presence of these anti-inflammatory, growth-promoting macrophages in a human infectious disease, biopsies from patients with leprosy (Hanseniasis) were analyzed. The lepromatous form of this disease is characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia and defective cell-mediated immunity. Lesions in lepromatous leprosy contained macrophages with a regulatory phenotype expressing higher levels of DC-STAMP and lower levels of IL-12, relative to macrophages in tuberculoid leprosy lesions. Therefore, we propose that increased signaling by FcγR cross-linking on TLR-stimulated macrophages can paradoxically promote the resolution of inflammation and initiate processes critical to tissue growth and repair. It can also contribute to infectious disease progression.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Biópsia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Progressão da Doença , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Fisiológica/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Immunohorizons ; 4(2): 47-56, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034084

RESUMO

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an inflammatory complication in leprosy. Yet, the involvement of ENL neutrophils in the inflammatory response against Mycobacterium leprae remains poorly explored. Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of the surface expression of neutrophil IL-10R1 as an ENL biomarker and, secondarily, to evaluate whether leprosy or healthy M. leprae-stimulated neutrophils produce cytokines and are able to respond to IL-10. We, in this study, describe a subpopulation of circulating neutrophils of ENL patients that exclusively expressed IL-10R1, providing evidence that IL-10R1+ neutrophils are present in ENL lesions. It was also found that ENL neutrophils, but not those of nonreactional leprosy controls, were able to secret detectable levels of TNF ex vivo and the addition of IL-10 blocked TNF release. It was likewise observed that M. leprae-stimulated, healthy neutrophils expressed IL-10R1 in vitro, and ENL-linked cytokines were released by M. leprae-cultured neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, consistent with the presence of a fully functional IL-10R, the addition of IL-10 prevented the release of M. leprae-induced cytokines. Most importantly, dead M. leprae revealed its superior capacity to induce CCL4 and IL-8 in primary neutrophils over live Mycobacterium, suggesting that M. leprae may hamper the inflammatory machinery as an immune escape mechanism.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pele/imunologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 100(3): 161-174, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124597

RESUMO

This study evaluated the immune response of nude and BALB/c mice inoculated in the footpads (FP) with Mycobacterium leprae after 3, 5 and 8 months. At each timepoint peritoneal cells, peripheral blood, FP and popliteal lymph nodes (PLN) were collected. Peritoneal cell cultures were performed to measure the H2 O2 , O2 - , NO, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF levels. Serum levels of anti-PGL-I antibodies were also quantified. The results showed that the infection was progressive in nude mice with bacterial multiplication, development of macroscopic lesions in the FP and presence of bacilli in the PLN at 8 months. In BALB/c mice, the infection reached a plateau of bacillary multiplication at 5 months and regressed at 8 months. Histopathological analysis of FP revealed a mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate with a large number of neutrophils at 5 months, with a higher number in nude mice. At 8 months, the number of neutrophils decreased and the infiltrate was predominantly mononuclear in both mouse strains. There was no H2 O2, O2 - , IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ production in the course of infection in nude mice; however, in BALB/c, O2 - and IL-12 production was higher at 5 months and NO, IFN-γ and TNF production was higher at 8 months when there was a decrease in the number of bacilli. The level of anti-PGL-I antibodies was higher in BALB/c mice. Thus, nude and BALB/c mice can be used as experimental models for the study of various aspects of leprosy.


Assuntos
Pé/patologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Lavagem Peritoneal , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Hanseníase/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia
11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 495, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949168

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. One of the most intriguing aspects of leprosy is the diversity of its clinical forms. Paucibacillary patients are characterized as having less than five skin lesions and rare bacilli while the lesions in multibacillary patients are disseminated with voluminous bacilli. The chronic course of leprosy is often interrupted by acute episodes of an inflammatory immunological response classified as either reversal reaction or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Although ENL is considered a neutrophilic immune-complex mediated condition, little is known about the direct role of neutrophils in ENL and leprosy disease overall. Recent studies have shown a renewed interest in neutrophilic biology. One of the most interesting recent discoveries was that the neutrophilic population is not homogeneous. Neutrophilic polarization leads to divergent phenotypes (e.g., a pro- and antitumor profile) that are dynamic subpopulations with distinct phenotypical and functional abilities. Moreover, there is emerging evidence indicating that neutrophils expressing CD64 favor systemic inflammation during ENL. In the present review, neutrophilic involvement in leprosy is discussed with a particular focus on ENL and the potential of neutrophils as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Eritema Nodoso/imunologia , Humanos , Pele/imunologia , Dermatopatias/imunologia
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(5): 656-659, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Leprosy is a chronic slowly progressive infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. Lepromatous leprosy is characterized by absence of T-cell responses to M. leprae and advanced clinical disease. It is frequently associated with the presence of autoantibodies, which might be related to CD19+CD5+ and CD19+CD5- B lymphocyte percentages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of CD19+CD5+ and CD19+CD5- B cell subsets as well as the total B cells in lepromatous leprosy patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty lepromatous leprosy patients and ten healthy subjects served as control were included in this study. Venous blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the B cell subsets and total B cell percentages. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, the percentages of CD19+CD5+ B cell subset and total B cells were found to be significantly higher in the patient group. While, the percentage of CD19+CD5- B cell subset was found to be higher in the patient group than the control without any significantly difference. Regarding the eye affection, the percentage of total B cells was observed to be significantly higher in affected patients compared to the non-affected group. CONCLUSION: The observed significant increases in CD19+CD5+ and total B cell percentages in patients with lepromatous leprosy suggests a possible role of these cells in the disorganized protective immune response as well as the development of eye complications in these patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos CD5/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 576, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since macrophages are one of the major cell types involved in the Mycobacterium leprae immune response, roles of the M1 and M2 macrophage subpopulations have been well defined. However, the role of M4 macrophages in leprosy or other infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria has not yet been clearly characterized. This study aimed to investigate the presence and potential role of M4 macrophages in the immunopathology of leprosy. METHODS: We analyzed the presence of M4 macrophage markers (CD68, MRP8, MMP7, IL-6, and TNF-α) in 33 leprosy skin lesion samples from 18 patients with tuberculoid leprosy and 15 with lepromatous leprosy by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The M4 phenotype was more strongly expressed in patients with the lepromatous form of the disease, indicating that this subpopulation is less effective in the elimination of the bacillus and consequently is associated with the evolution to one of the multibacillary clinical forms of infection. CONCLUSION: M4 macrophages are one of the cell types involved in the microbial response to M. leprae and probably are less effective in controlling bacillus replication, contributing to the evolution to the lepromatous form of the disease.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/imunologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/metabolismo , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 629, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670618

RESUMO

Background: Notwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (re)vaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations. Methods: Within a randomized controlled BCG vaccination trial in Bangladesh, 14,828 contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients received BCG vaccination between 2012 and 2017 and were examined for adverse events 8 to 12 weeks post-vaccination. From a selection of vaccinated contacts, venous blood was obtained at follow-up examination and stimulated with Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) antigens in overnight whole-blood assays (WBA). M. leprae phenolic glycolipid-I-specific antibodies and 32 cytokines were determined in WBAs of 13 individuals with and 13 individuals without adverse events after vaccination. Results: Out of the 14,828 contacts who received BCG vaccination, 50 (0.34%) presented with adverse events, mainly (80%) consisting of skin ulcers. Based on the presence of BCG scars, 30 of these contacts (60%) had received BCG in this study as a booster vaccination. Similar to the pathological T-cell immunity observed for tuberculoid leprosy patients, contacts with adverse events at the site of BCG vaccination showed elevated IFN-γ levels in response to M. leprae-specific proteins in WBA. However, decreased levels of sCD40L in serum and GRO (CXCL1) in response to M. leprae simultaneously indicated less T-cell regulation in these individuals, potentially causing uncontrolled T-cell immunity damaging the skin. Conclusion: Skin complications after BCG vaccination present surrogate markers for protective immunity against leprosy, but also indicate a higher risk of developing tuberculoid leprosy. Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3087.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bangladesh , Ligante de CD40/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL1/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Hanseníase/complicações , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 246, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487601

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It may present as one of two distinct poles: the self-limiting tuberculoid leprosy and the highly infectious lepromatous leprosy (LL) characterized by M. leprae-specific absence of cellular immune response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) enhance the bactericide activities of macrophages after interaction with its receptor, CD74. Importantly, MIF also possesses chemoattractant properties, and it is a key factor in situ for the activation of macrophages and in blood to promote leukocytes migration. MIF-mediated activation of macrophages is a key process for the elimination of pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, its participation for the clearance of M. leprae is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of MIF as well as MIF and CD74 expression in skin lesions of LL and compare it with healthy skin (HSk) taken from subjects attending to dermatological consult. Samples of serum and skin biopsies were taken from 39 LL patients and compared with 36 serum samples of healthy subjects (HS) and 10 biopsies of HSk. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC smears were observed in 12 100× microscopic fields, in which percentage of stained cells and staining intensity were evaluated. Both variables were used to calculate a semi-quantitative expression score that ranged from 0 to 3+. We found no differences in MIF levels between LL patients and HS in sera. In addition, MIF was observed in over 75% of cells with high intensity in the skin of patients and HSk. Although we found no differences in MIF expression between the groups, a CD74 score statistically higher was found in LL skin than HSk (p < 0.001); this was the result of a higher percentage of cells positive for CD74 (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, we found that CD74-positive cells are intensely recruited to the skin with LL lesions. In this manner, MIF signaling may be enhanced in the skin of LL patients due to increased expression of its receptor, but further studies are required.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/sangue , Pele/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/imunologia , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Hanseníase Virchowiana/sangue , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/imunologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 189, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479352

RESUMO

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a systemic inflammatory complication occurring mainly in patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and borderline lepromatous leprosy. Prednisolone is widely used for treatment of ENL reactions but clinical improvement varies. However, there is little good in vivo data as to the effect of prednisolone treatment on the pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with ENL reactions. As a result, treatment and management of reactional and post-reactional episodes of ENL often pose a therapeutic challenge. We investigated the effect of prednisolone treatment on the inflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-17 and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß in the skin lesion and blood of patients with ENL and compared with non-reactional LL patient controls. A case-control study was employed to recruit 30 patients with ENL and 30 non-reactional LL patient controls at ALERT Hospital, Ethiopia. Blood and skin biopsy samples were obtained from each patient before and after prednisolone treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ENL cases and LL controls were cultured with M. leprae whole-cell sonicates (MLWCS), phytohemagglutinin or no stimulation for 6 days. The supernatants were assessed with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. For cytokine gene expression, mRNA was isolated from whole blood and skin lesions and then reverse transcribed into cDNA. The mRNA gene expression was quantified on a Light Cycler using real-time PCR assays specific to TNF, IFN-γ, IL-ß, TGF-ß, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The ex vivo production of the cytokines: TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, and IL-17A was significantly increased in untreated patients with ENL. However, IL-10 production was significantly lower in untreated patients with ENL and significantly increased after treatment. The ex vivo production of IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ENL did not show statistically significant differences before and after prednisolone treatment. The mRNA expression in blood and skin lesion for TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-17A significantly reduced in patients with ENL after treatment, while mRNA expression for IL-10 and TGF-ß was significantly increased both in blood and skin lesion after treatment. This is the first study examining the effect of prednisolone on the kinetics of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in patients with ENL reactions before and after prednisolone treatment. Our findings suggest that prednisolone modulates the pro-inflammatory cytokines studied here either directly or through suppression of the immune cells producing these inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Invest Dermatol ; 138(7): 1546-1554, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458119

RESUMO

Dapsone-induced hypersensitivity reactions may cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). It has been reported that HLA-B*13:01 is strongly associated with dapsone-induced hypersensitivity reactions among leprosy patients. However, the phenotype specificity and detailed immune mechanism of HLA-B*13:01 remain unclear. We investigated the genetic predisposition, HLA-B*13:01 function, and cytotoxic T cells involved in the pathogenesis of dapsone-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions. We enrolled patients from Taiwan and Malaysia with DRESS and maculopapular eruption with chronic inflammatory dermatoses. Our results showed that the HLA-B*13:01 allele was present in 85.7% (6/7) of patients with dapsone DRESS (odds ratio = 49.64, 95% confidence interval = 5.89-418.13; corrected P = 2.92 × 10-4) but in only 10.8% (73/677) of general population control individuals in Taiwan. The level of granulysin, the severe cutaneous adverse reaction-specific cytotoxic protein released from cytotoxic T cells, was increased in both the plasma of DRESS patients (36.14 ± 9.02 ng/ml, P < 0.05) and in vitro lymphocyte activation test (71.4%, 5/7 patients) compared with healthy control individuals. Furthermore, dapsone-specific cytotoxic T cells were significantly activated when co-cultured with HLA-B*13:01-expressing antigen presenting cells in the presence of dapsone (3.9-fold increase, compared with cells with no HLA-B*13:01 expression; P < 0.01). This study indicates that HLA-B*13:01 is strongly associated with dapsone DRESS and describes a functional role for the HLA-restricted immune mechanism induced by dapsone.


Assuntos
Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/genética , Antígeno HLA-B13/genética , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/sangue , Técnicas de Cocultura , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/sangue , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/etiologia , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígeno HLA-B13/imunologia , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(10): e0006011, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions are a significant cause of morbidity in leprosy population. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immunological complication affecting approximately 50% of patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 10% of borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy. ENL is associated with clinical features such as skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis. ENL is treated mainly with corticosteroids and corticosteroids are often required for extended periods of time which may lead to serious adverse effects. High mortality rate and increased morbidity associated with corticosteroid treatment of ENL has been reported. For improved and evidence-based treatment of ENL, documenting the systems affected by ENL is important. We report here the clinical features of ENL in a cohort of patients with acute ENL who were recruited for a clinico-pathological study before and after prednisolone treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed at ALERT hospital, Ethiopia. Forty-six LL patients with ENL and 31 non-reactional LL matched controls were enrolled to the study and followed for 28 weeks. Clinical features were systematically documented at three visits (before, during and after predinsolone treatment of ENL cases) using a specifically designed form. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from each patient before and after treatment and used for histopathological investigations to supplement the clinical data. RESULTS: Pain was the most common symptom reported (98%) by patients with ENL. Eighty percent of them had reported skin pain and more than 70% had nerve and joint pain at enrolment. About 40% of the patients developed chronic ENL. Most individuals 95.7% had nodular skin lesions. Over half of patients with ENL had old nerve function impairment (NFI) while 13% had new NFI at enrolment. Facial and limb oedema were present in 60% patients. Regarding pathological findings before treatment, dermal neutrophilic infiltration was noted in 58.8% of patients with ENL compared to 14.3% in LL controls. Only 14.7% patients with ENL had evidence of vasculitis at enrolment. CONCLUSION: In our study, painful nodular skin lesions were present in all ENL patients. Only 58% patients had dermal polymorphonuclear cell infiltration showing that not all clinically confirmed ENL cases have neutrophilic infiltration in lesions. Very few patients had histological evidence of vasculitis. Many patients developed chronic ENL and these patients require inpatient corticosteroid treatment for extended periods which challenges the health service facility in resource poor settings, as well as the patient's quality of life.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso/patologia , Eritema Nodoso/fisiopatologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/fisiopatologia , Pele/patologia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Edema/etiologia , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Extremidades , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Hanseníase Dimorfa/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Vasculite/etiologia , Vasculite/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 305, 2017 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man presented 34 months after a successful renal transplantation a borderline-tuberculoid leprosy with signs of mild type 1 upgrading reaction (T1R). Cutaneous manifestations were atypical, and diagnosis was only made when granulomatous neuritis was found in a cutaneous biopsy. He was successfully treated with the WHO recommended multidrug therapy (MDT: rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). However he developed a severe T1R immediately after completion of the MDT but no signs of allograft rejection. T1R results from flare-ups of the host T-helper-1 cell-mediated immune response against Mycobacterium leprae antigens in patients with immunologically unstable, borderline forms of leprosy and has been considered an inflammatory syndrome in many aspects similar to the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRS). The T1R was successfully treated by increasing the prednisone dose without modifying the other immunosuppressive drugs used for preventing allograft rejection. Immunological study revealed that the patient had a profound depletion of both in situ and circulating regulatory T-cells and lack of expansion of the Tregs upon M. leprae stimulation compared to T1R leprosy patients without iatrogenic immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report highlights that leprosy, especially in the transplant setting, requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and the contribution of histopathology. It also suggests that the development of upgrading inflammatory syndromes such as T1R can occur despite the sustained immunosuppressors regimen for preventing graft rejection. Our hypothesis is that the well-known deleterious effects of these immunosuppressors on pathogen-induced regulatory T-cells contributed to the immunedysregulation and development T1R.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/diagnóstico , Transplante de Rim , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Dapsona/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/microbiologia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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