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1.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(6): 759-761, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518034

RESUMO

Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy, characterized by the presence of papules, plaques, or nodules whose appearance is keloid-like, skin colored, or erythematous. Fusiform cells are the main histopathological feature. Due to the fact that it can simulate other dermatological lesions, for example, dermatofibroma and neurofibroma, it constitutes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists. It is a bacilliferous form of leprosy, and it plays an important role in disease transmission. A case of a patient with histoid leprosy living in the Northeast Region of Brazil is reported.


Assuntos
Queloide , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Neoplasias , Humanos , Queloide/patologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/patologia , Pele/patologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 839-850, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168371

RESUMO

Granulomas are complex cellular structures composed predominantly of macrophages and lymphocytes that function to contain and kill invading pathogens. Here, we investigated the single-cell phenotypes associated with antimicrobial responses in human leprosy granulomas by applying single-cell and spatial sequencing to leprosy biopsy specimens. We focused on reversal reactions (RRs), a dynamic process whereby some patients with disseminated lepromatous leprosy (L-lep) transition toward self-limiting tuberculoid leprosy (T-lep), mounting effective antimicrobial responses. We identified a set of genes encoding proteins involved in antimicrobial responses that are differentially expressed in RR versus L-lep lesions and regulated by interferon-γ and interleukin-1ß. By integrating the spatial coordinates of the key cell types and antimicrobial gene expression in RR and T-lep lesions, we constructed a map revealing the organized architecture of granulomas depicting compositional and functional layers by which macrophages, T cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts can each contribute to the antimicrobial response.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/microbiologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/genética , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/microbiologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transcriptoma
4.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952660

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections claim more than a million lives each year, and better treatments or vaccines are required. A crucial pathogenicity factor is translocation from phagolysosomes to the cytosol upon phagocytosis by macrophages. Translocation from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is an ESX-1-dependent process, as previously shown in vitro Here, we show that in vivo, mycobacteria also translocate to the cytosol but mainly when host immunity is compromised. We observed only low numbers of cytosolic bacilli in mice, armadillos, zebrafish, and patient material infected with M. tuberculosis, M. marinum, or M. leprae In contrast, when innate or adaptive immunity was compromised, as in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1)-deficient mice, significant numbers of cytosolic M. tuberculosis bacilli were detected in the lungs of infected mice. Taken together, in vivo, translocation to the cytosol of M. tuberculosis is controlled by adaptive immune responses as well as IL-1R1-mediated signals.IMPORTANCE For decades, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been one of the deadliest pathogens known. Despite infecting approximately one-third of the human population, no effective treatment or vaccine is available. A crucial pathogenicity factor is subcellular localization, as M. tuberculosis can translocate from phagolysosome to the cytosol in macrophages. The situation in vivo is more complicated. In this study, we establish that high-level cytosolic escape of mycobacteria can indeed occur in vivo but mainly when host resistance is compromised. The IL-1 pathway is crucial for the control of the number of cytosolic mycobacteria. The establishment that immune signals result in the clearance of cells containing cytosolic mycobacteria connects two important fields, cell biology and immunology, which is vital for the understanding of the pathology of M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Citosol/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Fagossomos/microbiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Translocação Bacteriana , Citosol/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Mycobacterium/classificação , Fagossomos/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Células THP-1 , Peixe-Zebra
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009382, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939710

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has raised concerns about the increasing number of Hansen disease (HD) relapses worldwide, especially in Brazil, India, and Indonesia that report the highest number of recurrent cases. Relapses are an indicator of MDT effectiveness and can reflect Mycobacterium leprae persistence or re-infection. Relapse is also a potential marker for the development or progression of disability. In this research, we studied a large cohort of persons affected by HD treated with full fixed-dose multibacillary (MB) multidrug therapy (MDT) followed for up to 20 years and observed that relapses are a rare event. We estimated the incidence density of relapse in a cohort of patients classified to receive MB regime (bacillary index (BI) > 0), diagnosed between September 1997 and June 2017, and treated with twelve-dose MB-MDT at a HD reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We obtained the data from the data management system of the clinic routine service. We linked the selected cases to the dataset of relapses of the national HD data to confirm possible relapse cases diagnosed elsewhere. We diagnosed ten cases of relapse in a cohort of 713 patients followed-up for a mean of 12.1 years. This resulted in an incidence rate of 1.16 relapse cases per 1000 person-year (95% CI = 0.5915-2.076). The accumulated risk was 0.025 in 20 years. The very low risk observed in this cohort of twelve-dose-treated MB patients reinforces the success of the current MDT scheme.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 661135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017337

RESUMO

HLA-B*13:01 allele has been identified as the genetic determinant of dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) among leprosy and non-leprosy patients in several studies. Dapsone hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH), an active metabolite of dapsone, has been believed to be responsible for DHS. However, studies have not highlighted the importance of other genetic polymorphisms in dapsone-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR). We investigated the association of HLA alleles and cytochrome P450 (CYP) alleles with dapsone-induced SCAR in Thai non-leprosy patients. A prospective cohort study, 16 Thai patients of dapsone-induced SCARs (5 SJS-TEN and 11 DRESS) and 9 Taiwanese patients of dapsone-induced SCARs (2 SJS-TEN and 7 DRESS), 40 dapsone-tolerant controls, and 470 general Thai population were enrolled. HLA class I and II alleles were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 genotypes were determined by the TaqMan real-time PCR assay. We performed computational analyses of dapsone and DDS-NHOH interacting with HLA-B*13:01 and HLA-B*13:02 alleles by the molecular docking approach. Among all the HLA alleles, only HLA-B*13:01 allele was found to be significantly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs (OR = 39.00, 95% CI = 7.67-198.21, p = 5.3447 × 10-7), SJS-TEN (OR = 36.00, 95% CI = 3.19-405.89, p = 2.1657 × 10-3), and DRESS (OR = 40.50, 95% CI = 6.38-257.03, p = 1.0784 × 10-5) as compared to dapsone-tolerant controls. Also, HLA-B*13:01 allele was strongly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs in Asians (OR = 36.00, 95% CI = 8.67-149.52, p = 2.8068 × 10-7) and Taiwanese (OR = 31.50, 95% CI = 4.80-206.56, p = 2.5519 × 10-3). Furthermore, dapsone and DDS-NHOH fit within the extra-deep sub pocket of the antigen-binding site of the HLA-B*13:01 allele and change the antigen-recognition site. However, there was no significant association between genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4) and dapsone-induced SCARs (SJS-TEN and DRESS). The results of this study support the specific genotyping of the HLA-B*13:01 allele to avoid dapsone-induced SCARs including SJS-TEN and DRESS before initiating dapsone therapy in the Asian population.


Assuntos
Alelos , Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-B/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777045

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease that remains endemic in approximately 100 developing countries, where about 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. Moreover, multibacillary leprosy, the most contagious form of the disease, has been detected at continuously higher rates among Brazilian elderly people. Due to the so-called immunosenescence, characterized by several alterations in the quality of the immune response during aging, this group is more susceptible to infectious diseases. In view of such data, the purpose of our work was to investigate if age-related alterations in the immune response could influence the pathogenesis of leprosy. As such, we studied 87 individuals, 62 newly diagnosed and untreated leprosy patients distributed according to the age range and to the clinical forms of the disease and 25 healthy volunteers, who were studied as controls. The frequency of senescent and memory CD8+ leukocytes was assessed by immunofluorescence of biopsies from cutaneous lesions, while the serum levels of IgG anti-CMV antibodies were analyzed by chemiluminescence and the gene expression of T cell receptors' inhibitors by RT-qPCR. We noted an accumulation of memory CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as reduced CD8+CD28+ cell expression in skin lesions from elderly patients, when compared to younger people. Alterations in LAG3 and PDCD1 gene expression in cutaneous lesions of young MB patients were also observed, when compared to elderly patients. Such data suggest that the age-related alterations of T lymphocyte subsets can facilitate the onset of leprosy in elderly patients, not to mention other chronic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Imunossenescência/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos CD/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Hanseníase/sangue , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/sangue , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009214, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a public health problem in Brazil. Furthermore, detection rates in elderly people have increased, particularly those of multibacillary (L-Lep) patients, who are responsible for transmitting M. leprae. Part of the decline in physiological function during aging is due to increased oxidative damage and change in T cell subpopulations, which are critical in defense against the disease. It is not still clear how age-related changes like those related to oxidation affect elderly people with leprosy. The aim of this work was to verify whether the elderly leprosy patients have higher ROS production and how it can impact the evolution of leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 87 leprosy patients, grouped according to age range and clinical form of leprosy, and 25 healthy volunteers were analyzed. Gene expression analysis of antioxidant and oxidative burst enzymes were performed in whole blood using Biomark's microfluidic-based qPCR. The same genes were evaluated in skin lesion samples by RT-qPCR. The presence of oxidative damage markers (carbonylated proteins and 4-hydroxynonenal) was analyzed by a DNPH colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence. Carbonylated protein content was significantly higher in elderly compared to young patients. One year after multidrug therapy (MDT) discharge and M. leprae clearance, oxidative damage increased in young L-Lep patients but not in elderly ones. Both elderly T and L-Lep patients present higher 4-HNE in cutaneous lesions than the young, mainly surrounding memory CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, young L-Lep demonstrated greater ability to neutralize ROS compared to elderly L-Lep patients, who presented lower gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, mainly glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that elderly patients present exacerbated oxidative damage both in blood and in skin lesions and that age-related changes can be an important factor in leprosy immunopathogenesis. Ultimately, elderly patients could benefit from co-supplementation of antioxidants concomitant to MDT, to avoid worsening of the disease.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Aldeídos , Antioxidantes , Carga Bacteriana , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Estresse Oxidativo , Carbonilação Proteica , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1050-1059, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and pathological features of leprosy bacillus-related neuropathy in different clinical stages. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients confirmed to have leprosy between 2012 and 2020 were chosen as the primary study subjects. The patients' clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the clinical and pathological features of the different clinical types of leprosy. RESULTS: Each patient had a different degree of deformity. For instance, in Case 1, upon dermatological examination, the eyebrows were not falling off, and the face was slightly invaded. The great auricular nerve was thickened, and there were plaques on the back of the right hand with ill-defined edges but no itching. No atrophy in the thenar or hypothenar was observed, though pain and a warm sensation were noted. The swelling of the right leg was accompanied by sensory abnormalities. Moreover, the bilateral ulnar nerves were swollen, and demyelination changes were observed upon nerve biopsy. A small number of granulomas were noted in the nerve interstitium, and the acid-fast staining was positive. Additionally, in Case 2, on dermatological examination, scars were observed on the front of the tibia, and large, reddish, symmetrically distributed patches were seen on the back. Satellite foci were visible as well. Contracture was observed in the little finger, and the ulnar nerve was damaged. Skin and nerve biopsy revealed leprosy bacillus via acid-fast staining. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment are important methods of preventing and reducing damage to peripheral nerve function in patients with leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(2): 115232, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130505

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and nerves. The nerve damage in leprosy may be related to alterations in transcriptional factors, such as Krox-20, Oct-6, Sox-10. Thirty skin biopsies in leprosy patients and 15 non-leprosy skin biopsies were evaluated using RT-qPCR to assess Krox-20, Oct-6, and Sox-10 and these data was related with S-100 immunohistochemistry. Changes in gene expression were observed in the skin and dermal nerves of leprosy patients in Oct-6 and Sox-10. When comparing Oct-6 with S-100 IHC as diagnostic tests for leprosy, Oct-6 showed a sensitivity of 73.3%, and specificity of 100%, while S-100 IHC showed a sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 100%. Our data suggest Oct-6 could be an auxiliary biomarker specific to detecting changes in dermal nerves in leprosy and thus useful to health workers and pathologists with no expertise to observe nerve injuries in leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Fator 6 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Proteína 2 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/inervação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Transcrição Genética
15.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(2): 110-114, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863349

RESUMO

Leprosy is a socially stigmatized granulomatous skin disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Due to improvements in medicine and hygiene in Taiwan, the incidence is very low, up to one dozen per year; however, leprosy has never been eradicated due to the increased numbers of immigrants from Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and histopathological features of patients with leprosy in the context of near elimination. Fifteen cases of pathologically proven leprosy were identified from 2000 to 2016 in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The clinical presentations, demographic details, treatment responses, and disease outcomes were reviewed. The mean age was 46 years (range: 26-73 years). Eight cases were native Taiwanese, while 6 cases and 1 case involved foreign workers from Indonesia and Thailand, respectively. The diagnosis was made 3-6 months on average after skin lesions appeared. The most common clinical subtype was lepromatous leprosy (n = 7). Ten patients were multibacillus microscopically. Three cases were deported. The remaining 12 patients received dapsone and rifampicin for 12 months without recurrence to date. In the near leprosy-eradicated country, early diagnosis and physician vigilance are critical in disease control. Immigrants from endemic countries require strict and professional dermatological examinations and regular follow-up.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pele/patologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
18.
Immunity ; 53(4): 878-894.e7, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053333

RESUMO

High-throughput single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) methodologies enable characterization of complex biological samples by increasing the number of cells that can be profiled contemporaneously. Nevertheless, these approaches recover less information per cell than low-throughput strategies. To accurately report the expression of key phenotypic features of cells, scRNA-seq platforms are needed that are both high fidelity and high throughput. To address this need, we created Seq-Well S3 ("Second-Strand Synthesis"), a massively parallel scRNA-seq protocol that uses a randomly primed second-strand synthesis to recover complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules that were successfully reverse transcribed but to which a second oligonucleotide handle, necessary for subsequent whole transcriptome amplification, was not appended due to inefficient template switching. Seq-Well S3 increased the efficiency of transcript capture and gene detection compared with that of previous iterations by up to 10- and 5-fold, respectively. We used Seq-Well S3 to chart the transcriptional landscape of five human inflammatory skin diseases, thus providing a resource for the further study of human skin inflammation.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Inflamação/genética , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/genética , Pele/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA Complementar/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 378-380, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600120

RESUMO

Leprosy is caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae which mainly affects the skin and nervous system. The course of the disease is determined by host immunity, it is thus believed that in lepromatous leprosy (LL), all manifestations are bilaterally symmetrical. This is because of the inability of the host to mount an adequate cell-mediated immune response, resulting in widespread haematogenous dissemination of bacilli. Varied manifestations of LL have been reported; however, a multidermatomal pattern of nodules is hitherto unreported and we suggest a hypothesis for its presentation.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Pele/patologia , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Negligenciadas , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6.1): 10S-15S, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Following the recommendation of the Global Leprosy Strategy, Ethiopia targeted to reduce the incidence of new leprosy cases, and the proportion with severe disability (grade 2) from 13.6% in 2016 to < 1% in 2020. This study assessed the clinical profile of new leprosy cases and the sequelae of previously treated ones 20 years after leprosy was eliminated as a public health problem in the country. METHODOLOGY: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted  by reviewing the medical records of all leprosy patients seen at the dermatology clinic of Boru Meda Hospital from August to December 2018.The  data were captured using a standard data collection form. RESULTS: Over the study period, 57 (27.4%) new cases and 151 (72.6%) previously treated cases were seen.The median age was 44 years (interquartile range 32-57). Among the newly diagnosed cases, two were under the age of 15 years , 51 (89.5%) were multibacillary and 34 (59.6%) had grade 2 disability. This included visual impairment in 10 (17.5%) and neurological complications in 44 (77.2%). Of the 151 previously treated cases, 104 (68.9%) presented with disabilities, including 97 (64.2%) with grade 2. Amongst previously treated cases, 130 (86.1%) had neurological complications. In addition, 53 (35.1%) had vision impairment. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed evidence of ongoing leprosy transmission and delayed diagnosis in the country. This calls for operational research to determine the underlying reasons and provide ways forward. At the same time, the high burden of disabilities in previously treated cases should be addressed.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia
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