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1.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(4): 375-381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857521

RESUMO

Background: Psoriasis is a systemic autoinflammatory disease that is related to an increased risk of organic and psychological comorbidities. Type D personality has been related to poor quality of life and worse physical and psychological outcomes in different diseases. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore whether type D personality is associated with an increased risk of presenting physical and/or psychological comorbidities, their relationship with the capacity of social adaptation, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with psoriasis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In all, 130 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were included in this study. Participants completed the DS14 test and different validated questionnaires regarding quality of life and psychological morbidities. Results: Type D personality was present in 38.4% (50/130) of the participants of the study. Patients with psoriasis and type D personality presented a higher risk of depression and anxiety. We observed that type D personality was associated with a lower educational level. These patients also presented a worse HRQOL in different dimensions of the Short Form Health Survey-36 questionnaire, more sleep problems, poor social adaptation, and a higher frequency of sexual disturbances. Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, we could not confirm causality. Selection of sample was not random. Diagnoses of physical comorbidity were collected through clinical interview of patients under active treatment, which may imply a classification bias. Conclusion: Type D personality could represent a frequent personality profile in patients with psoriasis that could identify subjects with poor coping abilities to the disease with poorer levels of quality of life, increased psychological comorbidities, and inadequate social adaptation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Psoríase/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Saúde Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Behav Processes ; 157: 142-147, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157465

RESUMO

Animals respond to predation risk with antipredatory behaviours that may disclose the presence of different personality traits among individuals in a population, and how populations may differ for the expression of those traits. Variation among individuals is a necessary condition for the evolution through natural selection and inter-individual behavioural differences may be selected in different environmental situations. We tested whether individuals of two freshwater turtle species, Emys orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa, show consistent risk-taking behaviour when exposed to the presence of a potential predator. In an outdoor experimental setting, we simulated a predatory attack by overturning a turtle onto its carapace and recording three different behavioural response variables. Our results showed clear differences between species. The appearance time was highly consistent over the trials for both species, but was shorter for E. orbicularis and very long for M. leprosa. Waiting time was consistent only for females of E. orbicularis while M. leprosa did not show repeatability and had significantly longer waiting times. The number of failed righting attempts, likely being partially dependent on turtle individual performance, was highly consistent during the experiment for both species. The hiding behaviour in both species of freshwater turtles was consistent over time and, therefore, could be regarded as a personality trait. However, the differences in waiting times consistency suggested possible differences in defensive strategies between sexes and species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Individualidade , Masculino , Personalidade , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 35: 169-75, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24075848

RESUMO

Cytokine gene variants are known to influence both infectious disease susceptibility and harm-avoidant behaviors, suggesting that these risk variants may be pleiotropically linked to instinctual disease-avoidant traits. The gamma-interferon (IFNG) +874 T>A polymorphism (rs2430561) is an ideal candidate gene variant for immune-behavioral studies. It is a functional SNP, regulating IFNG mRNA expression; it is known to modulate serotonergic activity and is therefore capable of modifying behavior; and it has previously been associated with increased susceptibility to malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy and Chagas disease. We hypothesized that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele would be associated with four personality traits previously reported as behavioral defenses against infection: Harm Avoidance (HA), Extraversion (E), Exploratory Excitability (Exp E), and Openness to Experience (O). We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 168 healthy university students from Southern California genotyped for IFNG +874 T>A and evaluated by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele was associated with increased HA (P=0.001) and decreased E (P=0.030) and Exp E (P=0.030). These findings suggest that the IFNG +874 A gene variant is linked both to infectious disease susceptibility and to proactive behavioral defenses that reduce infection risk in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Infecções/genética , Interferon gama/fisiologia , Adulto , Caráter , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Humanos , Infecções/imunologia , Infecções/psicologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Temperamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Harv Bus Rev ; 89(7-8): 68-74, 164, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21800471

RESUMO

Social media and technologies have put connectivity on steroids and made collaboration more integral to business than ever. But without the right leadership, collaboration can go astray. Employees who try to collaborate on everything may wind up stuck in endless meetings, struggling to reach agreement. On the other side of the coin, executives who came of age during the heyday of "command and control" management can have trouble adjusting their style to fit the new realities. In their research on top-performing CEOs, Insead professors Ibarra and Hansen have examined what it takes to be a collaborative leader. They've found that it requires connecting people and ideas outside an organization to those inside it, leveraging diverse talent, modeling collaborative behavior at the top, and showing a strong hand to keep teams from getting mired in debate. In this article, they describe tactics that executives from Akamai, GE, Reckitt Benckiser, and other firms use in those four areas and how they foster high-performance collaborative cultures in their organizations.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Liderança , Humanos , Personalidade
5.
Sao Paulo; Martins Fontes; 3 ed; 1998. xviii,451 p. 22cm.(Psicologia e Pedagogia, 2).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1085733
6.
Indian J Lepr ; 56(2): 292-300, 1984.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6548499

RESUMO

It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'.


Assuntos
Identificação Psicológica , Individualidade , Hanseníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Hanseníase/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Papel do Doente , Isolamento Social
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6711219

RESUMO

The authors carried out clinical follow-up and psychological examinations of 40 patients suffering from leprosy and treated at the Astrakhan Institute for Leprosy Research. Under study there were acute psychogenic reactions arising in the patients on diagnosing the disease and putting them to the leprosery. Clinical variants of adequate situational reactions (21 patients) and anomalous neurotic and psychopathic ones (19 patients) are described. These reactions were found to depend on the premorbid characteristics of the patient's personality and influence the subsequent course of the underlying disease.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hanseníase/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Neuróticos/complicações , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico
8.
Lepr India ; 55(4): 743-51, 1983 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6668935

RESUMO

The paper incorporates five studies (i.e., four of frustration and one of anxiety). The design is 'Multi-group-Control-group'. Each one of the five studies has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments. Each experiment has 360 elements. These are three groups (of lepromatous, non-lepromatous and of disease-free normals). Each group consists of 120 elements (equally distributed among adolescents, adults and senescents). The particulars of the patients have been obtained from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the Kushta Seva Sadan (Agra). The disease-free normal elements are drawn freely from the population of the Agra town. The sample possesses statistical justification for size and representativeness. Data are collected with the help of reliable tools and the 'F' test is run for verification of the 'null hypotheses'. Results show that experiences of 'fixation-regression' frustration, atypically belong to normal senescence. Resignation and anxiety experiences, as growing hazards, specifically relate to leprosy patients. Personality factors that normally demote 'frustration-anxiety' behaviour exhibit 'role-negation' in the leprosy patients. Age shows 'role-reversion'. Implications of such 'role' changes relate to the 'self-eroding' process of personality in the patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Comportamento , Frustração , Hanseníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Papel do Doente
9.
Lepr India ; 55(1): 100-6, 1983 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6876750

RESUMO

A preliminary study in which a sample of 25 patients registered with SLR and TC, Karigiri, with proved secondary DDS-resistant leprosy were compared, with 25 patients not suspected to be DDS-resistant, for social and personality factors, which could have lead to non-compliance in treatment. A structured interview schedule enquiring into factors leading to irregular treatment and the psycho-social background of the patient was used. The Eysank's Personality Inventory (EPI) and Personality traits assessment on a linear analogue was also administered to them. Statistical analysis showed that DDS-resistant leprosy patients were as a group more irregular for treatment, showed personality traits of being casual and uncontrolled and scored high on the neuroticism scale of the EPI.


Assuntos
Dapsona/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Personalidade , Adulto , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Personnel ; 57(4): 12-20, 1980.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10248411

RESUMO

Performance appraisals can be vital tools in administering an effective human resources program if they're used properly, although they're particularly useful in salary administration, incentive award determination, and promotability assessment, selecting the method or methods that best meet your needs may not be easy. John D. McMillan, director of compensation services, and Hout W. Doyel, consultant, of A.S. Hansen, Inc., explain the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of four major types of performance appraisal methods: the trait checklist, the management by objectives approach, the free-form approach, and the responsibility rating system. The authors note, for instance, that the most frequently used method, the trait checklist, has these major disadvantages: Traits that are rated tend to be general and don't relate specifically to job performance. The tendency of raters is to focus on personal characteristics rather than job performance results. And the method makes no sense where different levels in a job family are rated on the same form.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/métodos , Administração de Recursos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , Personalidade
11.
Petrópolis; Vozes; 2 ed; 1979. 168 p. 21cm.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1085639
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