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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010799, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is rare in the United Kingdom (UK), but migration from endemic countries results in new cases being diagnosed each year. We documented the clinical presentation of leprosy in a non-endemic setting. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on all new cases of leprosy managed in the Leprosy Clinic at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 1995 and 2018 were analysed. RESULTS: 157 individuals with a median age of 34 (range 13-85) years were included. 67.5% were male. Patients came from 34 different countries and most contracted leprosy before migrating to the UK. Eighty-two (51.6%) acquired the infection in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. 30 patients (19.1%) acquired leprosy in Africa, including 11 from Nigeria. Seven patients were born in Europe; three acquired their leprosy infection in Africa, three in South East Asia, and one in Europe. The mean interval between arrival in the UK and symptom onset was 5.87 years (SD 10.33), the longest time to diagnosis was 20 years. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy (n = 71, 42.0%), and lepromatous leprosy (n =, 53 33.1%) were the commonest Ridley Jopling types. Dermatologists were the specialists diagnosing leprosy most often. Individuals were treated with World Health Organization recommended drug regimens (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). CONCLUSION: Leprosy is not a disease of travellers but develops after residence in an leprosy endemic area. The number of individuals from a leprosy endemic country reflect both the leprosy prevalence and the migration rates to the United Kingdom. There are challenges in diagnosing leprosy in non-endemic areas and clinicians need to recognise the symptoms and signs of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Londres , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Nigéria
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 569-579, set-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399248

RESUMO

hanseníase no Brasil ainda apresenta como um problema de saúde pública. A posição epidemiológica da doença no país é considerada diversificada devido ao alto coeficiente e variação de prevalência nas diversas regiões do país. O objetivo desse estudo é conhecer o perfil epidemiológico da população acometida pela hanseníase na cidade de General Carneiro, no interior do Mato Grosso, durante os anos de 2006 e 2021. A coleta de dados foi realizada nos meses de julho e agosto do ano de 2021. Trata-se de uma pesquisa retrospectiva, documental do tipo descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa. No período em estudo notificou-se 50 casos, sendo 62% do sexo masculino, com faixa etária entre 48 a 69 anos de idade, de cor branca, com predominância da forma dimorfa. Os resultados demonstram que a cidade de General Carneiro, está com o número de casos de hanseníase na média do preconizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde e também, inferior à média brasileira.


Leprosy in Brazil still presents as a public health problem. The epidemiological position of the disease in the country is considered diversified due to the high coefficient and variation in prevalence in different regions of the country. The aim of this study is to know the epidemiological profile of the population affected by leprosy in the city of General Carneiro, in the interior of Mato Grosso, during the years 2006 and 2021. Data collection was carried out in July and August of 2021 This is a retrospective, descriptive documentary research with a quantitative approach. During the study period, 50 cases were reported, 62% male, aged between 48 and 69 years old, white, with a predominance of the borderline form. The results show that the city of General Carneiro has the number of cases of leprosy in the average recommended by the World Health Organization and also below the Brazilian average.


La lepra en Brasil sigue siendo un problema de salud pública. La posición epidemiológica de la enfermedad en el país se considera diversificada debido al alto coeficiente y a la variación de la prevalencia en diferentes regiones del país. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer el perfil epidemiológico de la población afectada por la lepra en la ciudad de General Carneiro, en el interior de Mato Grosso, durante los años 2006 y 2021. La recogida de datos se realizó en julio y agosto del año 2021. Se trata de una investigación retrospectiva, documental y descriptiva, con un enfoque cuantitativo. En el período de estudio se notificaron 50 casos, siendo el 62% de sexo masculino, con una edad entre 48 y 69 años, de color blanco, con predominio de la forma dimorfa. Los resultados muestran que la ciudad de General Carneiro, está con el número de casos de lepra en la media recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y también por debajo de la media brasileña.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/etiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Populacionais em Saúde Pública
3.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida;Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; 20220906. 212 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397766

RESUMO

Olhando para a trajetória histórica compreende-se melhor a relação entre "Democracia e Saúde" estabelecida para 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde realizada em 2019, pois a luta pelo direito à saúde e a implementação do SUS está vinculada a busca pela redemocratização e a ampliação dos direitos sociais no Brasil. As instâncias do controle social se consolidaram no decorrer das três décadas de sua existência, os movimentos sociais, bem como, as mais diversas organizações da sociedade civil, ocuparam estes espaços e buscaram transformá-los numa arena democrática de defesa da sua concepção de saúde, de política pública, de Estado, de desenvolvimento e de direitos humanos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Conferências de Saúde , Conselhos de Saúde , Participação Social , Política de Saúde , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal , Democracia , Direito à Saúde
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010695, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy or Hansen's disease is known to cause disability and disfigurement. A delay in case detection of leprosy patients can lead to severe outcomes. In Ethiopia, the disability rates caused by leprosy among new cases are relatively high compared to other endemic countries. This suggests the existence of hidden leprosy cases in the community and a delay in timely detection. To reduce disability rates, it is crucial to identify the factors associated with this delay. This study aimed to determine the extent of delay in case detection among leprosy cases in Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional explorative study was conducted in January and February 2019 among 100 leprosy patients diagnosed ≤6 months prior to inclusion. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, including the initial onset of symptoms, and the reasons for delayed diagnosis. Descriptive statistics, including percentages and medians, were used to describe the case detection delay. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the predictors of delay in case detection of >12 months. FINDINGS: The median age of patients was 35 years, with a range of 7 to 72 years. The majority were male (80%) and rural residents (90%). The median delay in case detection was 12 months (interquartile range 10-36 months) among the included patients. The mean delay in case detection was 22 months, with a maximum delay of 96 months. The overall prevalence of disability among the study population was 42% (12% grade I and 30% grade II). Fear of stigma (p = 0.018) and experiencing painless symptoms (p = 0.018) were highly associated with a delay in case detection of >12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Being afraid of stigma and having painless symptoms, which are often misinterpreted as non-alarming at the onset of the disease, were associated with a delay in case detection. This study showed the need to increase knowledge on early symptoms of leprosy among affected communities. Furthermore, it is important to support initiatives that reduce leprosy related stigma and promote health worker training in leprosy control activities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010646, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a health problem in Indonesia, with incidence reaching over 10,000 new cases by 2021. Leprosy-related disabilities cause limitation of patients' activity and participation in social activities. To date, no studies have been conducted in Indonesia which investigates disability in terms of bodily function, structure impairment, limitations in performing daily activities, and restrictions in participation in social activities in leprosy patients. This study is aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics that might affect functional activity limitations of leprosy patients in endemic areas in Indonesia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 267 retrospectively-diagnosed cases of leprosy. The Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) scale was used to measure functional activity limitation, which comprises five domains: vision, mobility, self-care, work with hands, and dexterity. Differences among variables were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of participants was 51.89±13.66 years, the majority of which were men (62.5%), uneducated (48.3%), and classified as type 2 in the World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading for hands and feet (66.3% and 68.2%, respectively). Assessment using the SALSA Scale showed 28.5% of subjects were without limitation, 43.8% with mild limitation, 13.5% with moderate limitation, 9.4% with severe limitation, and 4.9% with extreme limitation. Significant differences in the total SALSA Scale were found between age groups (p = 0.014), educational level (p = 0.005), occupation (p<0.001), and WHO disability grades (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor influencing the total score of SALSA was disability grading for feet (score = 0.31, p <0.001) followed by occupational status, disability grading for eyes, and age. Limitation of functional activity was significantly correlated to becoming unemployed with the odds 2.59. CONCLUSION: People affected by leprosy are prone to have functional activity limitation, especially the elderly, uneducated, unemployed and those with multiple disabilities. If they can overcome their barriers in functional activities, they will have better occupational opportunities.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Mycoses ; 65(12): 1146-1158, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chromoblastomycosis is a disease caused by melanized fungi, primarily belonging to the genera Fonsecaea and Cladophialophora, mainly affecting individuals who are occupationally exposed to soil and plant products. This research aimed to determine the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of chromoblastomycosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis treated at the Júlio Müller University Hospital, Cuiabá, Brazil, from January 2015 to December 2020, whose isolates were preserved in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Mato Grosso. Isolates were identified by partly sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) and ß-tubulin (BT2) loci. AFLP fingerprinting was used to explore the genetic diversity. Susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, terbinafine and amphotericin B was determined by the broth microdilution technique. RESULTS: Ten patients were included, nine were male (mean age = 64.1 years). Mean disease duration was 8.6 years. Lesions were mainly observed in the lower limbs. Predominant clinical forms were verrucous and scarring. Systemic arterial hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus were the predominant comorbidities. Leprosy was the main concomitant infectious disease. Fonsecaea pedrosoi was the unique aetiological agent identified with moderate genetic diversity (H = 0.3934-0.4527; PIC = 0.3160-0.3502). Antifungal agents with the highest activity were terbinafine, voriconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSION: Chromoblastomycosis is affecting the poor population in rural and urban areas, mainly related to agricultural activities, with F. pedrosoi being the dominant aetiologic agent. All isolates had low MICs for itraconazole, voriconazole and terbinafine, confirming their importance as therapeutic alternatives for chromoblastomycosis.


Assuntos
Cromoblastomicose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cromoblastomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Cromoblastomicose/epidemiologia , Cromoblastomicose/microbiologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico , Epidemiologia Molecular , Brasil/epidemiologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010533, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the absence of early treatment, leprosy, a neglected tropical disease, due to Mycobacterium leprae or Hansen Bacillus, causes irreversible grade 2 disability (G2D) numerous factors related to the individual, the community and the health care system are believed to be responsible for its late detection and management. This study aims to investigate the factors associated with belated screening for leprosy in Benin. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study conducted from January 1 to June 31, 2019, involving all patients and staff in leprosy treatment centers and public peripheral level health structures in Benin. The dependent variable of the study was the presence or not of G2D, reflecting late or early screening. We used a logistic regression model, at the 5% threshold, to find the factors associated with late leprosy screening. The fit of the final model was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: A number of 254 leprosy patients were included with a mean age of 48.24 ± 18.37 years. There was a male dominance with a sex ratio of 1.23 (140/114). The proportion of cases with G2D was 58.27%. Associated factors with its belated screening in Benin were (OR; 95%CI; p) the fear of stigma related to leprosy (8.11; 3.3-19.94; <0.001), multiple visits to traditional healers (5.20; 2.73-9.89; <0.001) and multiple visits to hospital practitioners (3.82; 2.01-7.27; <0.001). The unawareness of leprosy by 82.69% of the health workers so as the permanent decrease in material and financial resources allocated to leprosy control were identified as factors in link with the health system that helps explain this late detection. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need to implement strategies in the control programs to strengthen the diagnostic abilities of health workers, to improve the level of knowledge of the population on the early signs and symptoms of leprosy, to reduce stigmatization and to ban all forms of discrimination against leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Adulto , Idoso , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0265416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737690

RESUMO

To give an insight into the different manifestations of leprosy and their biological consequences in the Avar Age of the Hungarian Duna-Tisza Interfluve, two cases from the 7th-century-CE osteoarchaeological series of Kiskundorozsma-Daruhalom-dulo II (Hungary; n = 94) were investigated. Based on the macromorphology of the bony changes indicative of Hansen's disease, KD271 (a middle-aged male) and KD520 (a middle-aged female) represent the two extremes of leprosy. KD271 appears to have an advanced-stage, long-standing near-lepromatous or lepromatous form of the disease, affecting not only the rhinomaxillary region but also both upper and lower limbs. This has led to severe deformation and disfigurement of the involved anatomical areas of the skeleton, resulting in his inability to perform the basic activities of daily living, such as eating, drinking, grasping, standing or walking. The skeleton of KD520 shows no rhinomaxillary lesions and indicates the other extreme of leprosy, a near-tuberculoid or tuberculoid form of the disease. As in KD271, Hansen's disease has resulted in disfigurement and disability of both of the lower limbs of KD520; and thus, the middle-aged female would have experienced difficulties in standing, walking, and conducting occupational physical activities. KD271 and KD520 are amongst the very few published cases with leprosy from the Avar Age of the Hungarian Duna-Tisza Interfluve, and the only examples with detailed macromorphological description and differential diagnoses of the observed leprous bony changes. The cases of these two severely disabled individuals, especially of KD271 -who would have required regular and substantial care from others to survive-imply that in the Avar Age community of Kiskundorozsma-Daruhalom-dulo II there was a willingness to care for people in need.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Hanseníase , Benzodiazepinas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enxofre
9.
Mycopathologia ; 187(4): 363-374, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764905

RESUMO

Chromoblastomycosis and leprosy are chronic diseases with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions. Brazil is one of the countries with the highest incidence and prevalence for both diseases, however, reports of co-infections are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe three cases of chromoblastomycosis-leprosy co-infection in patients from Mato Grosso state, Brazil. A review of chromoblastomycosis-leprosy co-infection was performed of English, Portuguese and Spanish publications in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the descriptors (chromoblastomycosis OR cromoblastomicose OR cromoblastomicosis) AND (leprosy OR hanseníase OR lepra), without time period delimitation. Nineteen cases were included, 16 cases were published in 11 articles, plus the three cases reported in the current study. Most reported coninfection cases came from Brazil. Majority of the patients were male with a mean age of 52.2 years. Farmer was the main occupational activity reported. In 12 patients, the clinical signs and symptoms of leprosy started first. No contacts with patients affected by leprosy, armadillos or history of injuries at the anatomical site of chromoblastomycosis lesions were reported. Five leprosy patients who received steroid treatment for leprosy reactions or neuropathies, were diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis during immunosuppressive therapy. Four cases (21.1%) were reported among the elderly patients. Co-infections in patients with chromoblastomycosis or leprosy are uncommon, but the possibility should always be considered, especially if the patient is undergoing immunosuppressive treatment or is elder.


Assuntos
Cromoblastomicose , Coinfecção , Hanseníase , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cromoblastomicose/diagnóstico , Cromoblastomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Cromoblastomicose/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2255-2258, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649013

RESUMO

Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious, systemic or localized dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium lepra. In Brazil, the magnitude and high disabling power keep the disease as a public health problem. Skin spotting and numbness are pathognomonic signs and symptoms in leprosy. The Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2019 National Health Survey (PNS-2019) considered the following question as a proxy to estimate its magnitude in the country. "Do you have a spot with numbness or part of the skin with numbness?". In Brazil, 1,921,289 adults reported having a patch or part of the skin with numbness, with no regional differences. As for the age group, the older, the higher the prevalence, for example, between 18 to 29 years old (235,445) and 30 to 39 years old (236,485), 0.7% had the condition, between 40 to 59 years old (827,887), 1.5% and among the elderly, 1.8% (621,472). Being able to estimate, in population-based surveys, with statistical representativeness, a reported morbidity such as leprosy is essential to support the formulation of public policies, notably those related to primary health care actions. In this way, the IBGE fulfills its constitutional role of portraying the reality of the Brazilian population and today it is the main external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS) and of public policies developed by the federal level.


A hanseníase é uma doença dermato-neurológica, infecciosa, sistêmica ou localizada, debilitante, causada por Mycobacterium leprae. No Brasil, a magnitude e o alto poder incapacitante mantêm a doença como um problema de saúde pública. Mancha na pele e dormência são sinais e sintomas patognomônicos na hanseníase. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019 (PNS-2019), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), considerou a seguinte pergunta como proxy para estimar sua magnitude no país. "O(a) sr(a). tem mancha com dormência ou parte da pele com dormência?". No Brasil, 1.921.289 adultos referiram ter mancha ou parte da pele com dormência, sem diferenças regionais. Com relação ao grupo etário, quanto mais velho, maior a prevalência. Por exemplo, entre os de 18 a 29 anos (235.445) e de 30 a 39 anos (236.485), 0,7% possuía a condição, entre 40 e 59 anos (827.887), 1,5%, e entre os idosos, 1,8% (621.472). Poder estimar, em pesquisas de base populacional, com representatividade estatística, uma morbidade referida tal como a hanseníase é fundamental para apoiar a formulação de políticas públicas, notadamente as relativas às ações da atenção primária à saúde. Dessa forma, o IBGE cumpre seu papel constitucional de retratar a realidade da população brasileira e hoje é o principal avaliador externo do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e das políticas públicas instituídas no âmbito federal.


Assuntos
Hipestesia , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
12.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; 20220324. 210 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377854

RESUMO

Em um contexto de retrocessos políticos, sociais, sanitários e civilizatórios, deparamo-nos com a 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde, carinhosamente apelidada de 8ª + 8, para tornar visível o encontro com a conferência-marco da reforma sanitária brasileira. Durante a conferência foi realizada a pesquisa "Saúde e democracia: estudos integrados sobre participação social na 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde", cujo objetivo foi analisar a participação social no processo da 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde em dimensões que permitissem sistematizar evidências da relevância e da abrangência do processo participativo nas etapas e atividades que a compuseram. A partir das experiências vivenciadas pelos estudantes pesquisadores, afetivamente reconhecidos como "verdinhos e verdinhas", em alusão à camiseta de cor verde que os identificava entre os participantes da 16ª CNS, elaborou-se a chamada de manuscritos que culminou neste livro. Encontram-se aqui reunidos aproximadamente 30 narrativas, somadas a alguns manuscritos feitos sob demanda dos organizadores. Agradecemos a cada uma das pessoas que ofereceu sua narrativa, a cada esforço necessário para compor uma estética capaz de dizer do lugar de aprendizagem que cada um e cada uma das pessoas que estiveram conosco nesse grande laboratório de democracia e cidadania que foi a 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde. E a cada leitor e leitora que, sensivelmente, compreender que cada um dos textos é um convite para a defesa do SUS, do ensino da saúde pautado pelo compromisso ético com todas as saúdes dos territórios e com o SUS como política pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Participação da Comunidade , Conferências de Saúde , Conselhos de Planejamento em Saúde , Política Pública , Sistema Único de Saúde , Conselhos de Saúde , Participação Social
13.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(1): 22-25, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391412

RESUMO

Introdução: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção micótica sistêmica com manifestações pulmonares primária que podem apresentar lesões cutâneas e orais. É mais comum no Brasil e em alguns outros países da América Latina, representando um importante problema de saúde pública devido às suas características potencialmente fatais. Relato de caso: Trabalhador rural de 53 anos, fumante e etilista, apresentando lesão ulcerada de aspecto moriforme em mucosa bucal direita. Realizou-se biópsia incisional cujo laudo histopatológico foi de paracoccidioidomicose. O paciente foi encaminhado ao médico infectologista para tratamento por meio de itraconazol (200mg por dia) por 18 meses. Após 03 meses de tratamento já apresentava regressão da lesão. Considerações Finais: Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é enfatizar a importância do cirurgião-dentista no reconhecimento das lesões oral e realização da biópsia para o correto diagnóstico e manejo desta doença por meio de um relato de caso clínico... (AU)


Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycotic infection with primary pulmonary manifestations that can present cutaneous and oral lesions. It is more common in Brazil and some other Latin American countries, representing an important public health problem due to its potentially fatal characteristics. Case report: 53-year-old rural worker, smoker and drinker, presenting an ulcerated lesion with a moriform aspect in the right oral mucosa. An incisional biopsy was performed, and the histopathological report was of paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient was referred to the infectious disease physician for treatment with itraconazole (200mg per day) for 18 months. After 03 months of treatment, he already had regression of the lesion. Final Considerations: Therefore, the objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of the dentist in recognizing oral lesions and performing a biopsy for the correct diag... (AU)


La paracoccidioidomicosis es una infección micótica sistémica con manifestaciones pulmonares primarias que pueden presentar lesiones cutáneas y bucales. Es más común en Brasil y algunos otros países de América Latina, lo que representa un importante problema de salud pública debido a sus características potencialmente fatales. Caso clínico: trabajador rural de 53 años, fumador y bebedor, con lesión ulcerada de aspecto moriforme en mucosa oral derecha. Se realizó biopsia incisional y el informe histopatológico fue de paracoccidioidomicosis. El paciente fue remitido al médico de enfermedades infecciosas para tratamiento con itraconazol (200 mg al día) durante 18 meses. Después de 03 meses de tratamiento, ya tenía regresión de la lesión. Consideraciones finales: Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es enfatizar la importancia del odontólogo en el reconocimiento de las lesiones bucales y la realización de una biopsia para el correcto diagnóstico y manejo de esta enfermedad a través de la presentación de un caso clínico... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paracoccidioidomicose , Biópsia , Controle de Infecções , Úlceras Orais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Doenças Transmissíveis , Lobomicose
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180265

RESUMO

The aim of our paper is to demonstrate a middle-aged male (KK61) from the 8th-century-CE cemetery of Kiskundorozsma-Kettoshatár I (Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary), who appears to represent the lepromatous form of Hansen's disease. Leprosy has affected not only the rhinomaxillary region of his face but also his lower limbs, with severe deformation and disfigurement of the involved anatomical areas (saddle-nose and flat-foot deformity, respectively). Consequently, he would have experienced disability in performing the basic activities of daily living, such as eating, drinking, standing or walking; and thus, he would have required regular and substantial care from others to survive. Despite his very visible disease and associated debility, it seems that KK61 was accepted as a member of the community in death, since he has been buried within the cemetery boundaries, among others from his community. In addition, his grave has conformed to the mortuary practices characteristic of the Kiskundorozsma-Kettoshatár I cemetery (e.g., burial orientation, position of the body in the grave, and type and quantity of accompanying grave goods). Although distinction or segregation in life do not preclude normative treatment in death, the long-lasting survival of KK61 with Hansen's disease implies that he would not have been abandoned but cared for by others. KK61 is one of the few published historic cases with leprosy from the Avar Age of the Hungarian Duna-Tisza Interfluve. His case gives us a unique insight into the biological consequences of living with Hansen's disease and illustrates the social attitude toward leprosy sufferers in early mediaeval Hungary.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/história , Cemitérios , História Medieval , Humanos , Hungria , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(4): 483-493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138068

RESUMO

Background More than four million people today live with Hansen's disease, and 200,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Lifetime effects of Hansen's disease manifest as changes to bones of the face, hands and feet, resulting in physical impairment, secondary complications and facial changes that can be detrimental to quality of life, particularly among the elderly. Aims This study aimed to perform a detailed characterization of rhinomaxillary syndrome and its clinical manifestations in older persons treated in the past for Hansen's disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study to characterize rhinomaxillary syndrome among older persons (age 60+ years) resident at Pedro Fontes Hospital, Cariacica, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Computed tomography images were examined with three-dimensional reconstructions to assess alterations to maxillofacial bones according to criteria for radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome. Participants were examined to assess facial alterations according to criteria for clinical rhinomaxillary syndrome. Results Rhinomaxillary syndrome was investigated in 16 participants (ten females and six males), median age 70 (range 60-89) years, age at diagnosis 20 (6-43) years and time since diagnosis 46 (26-70) years. Four participants fully met radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome criteria, four partially. All participants with full radiological rhinomaxillary syndrome presented with facial changes which met criteria for clinical rhinomaxillary syndrome, including "saddle nose" (loss of nasal dorsal height and shortened length of nose, due to cartilaginous and/or bone collapse), concave middle third of the face with sunken nose, maxillary retrognathia and inverted upper lip. Limitations Clinical histories were incomplete for some participants because records were lost at the hospital over time. Conclusion Until Hansen's disease is eliminated from endemic countries, persons affected will continue to present with rhinomaxillofacial alterations caused by Mycobacterium leprae infection. Clinical protocols for assessment and long-term care need to include otorhinolaryngological evaluation, mainly to prevent secondary complications. When rhinomaxillofacial bone changes are suspected, this evaluation should be supported by computed tomography imaging, if available.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0009850, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180224

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Timely detection is a challenge in leprosy diagnosis, relying on clinical examination and trained health professionals. Furthermore, adequate care and transmission control depend on early and reliable pathogen detection. Here, we describe a qPCR test for routine diagnosis of leprosy-suspected patients. The reaction simultaneously amplifies two specific Mycobacterium leprae targets (16S rRNA and RLEP), and the human 18S rRNA gene as internal control. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.29 copies of the M. leprae genome. Analytical specificity was evaluated using a panel of 20 other skin pathogenic microorganisms and Mycobacteria, showing no cross-reactivity. Intra- and inter-operator Cp variation was evaluated using dilution curves of M. leprae DNA or a synthetic gene, and no significant difference was observed between three operators in two different laboratories. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 97 patient samples with clinical and histopathological leprosy confirmation, displaying high diagnostic sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%). Validation tests in an independent panel of 50 samples confirmed sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 98%, respectively. Importantly, assay performance remained stable for at least five months. Our results show that the newly developed multiplex qPCR effectively and specifically detects M. leprae DNA in skin samples, contributing to an efficient diagnosis that expedites the appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/normas , Lactente , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195199

RESUMO

As leprosy and leprosy reactions are the most prevalent infectious cause of physical disability, it is important to commit efforts to better understand these chronic reactions. Infections, even when asymptomatic, can trigger leprosy reactions and Bartonella spp. in turn, can cause chronic infections. We presented a case of a 51-year-old man who was admitted presenting with chronic type 2 leprosy reactions. He had a lepromatous form of leprosy that was histologically diagnosed six months after the onset of signs and symptoms compatible with a chronic type 2 reaction. He reported a history of a previous hepatitis B diagnosis. During a 24-month multidrug therapy (MDT), chronic reactions were partially controlled with prednisone and thalidomide. Thirty-three months following the leprosy treatment, he still experienced chronic reactions, and whole bacilli as well as globi were found on a new skin biopsy. Since coinfections can trigger type 2 reactions and the patient had close contact with animals and ticks, we investigated the presence of a Bartonella sp. infection. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in a skin fragment obtained before the beginning of the leprosy retreatment. However, even after six months of a second leprosy MDT, he continued to experience type 2 chronic reactions. He was admitted to the hospital to undergo an intravenous antibiotic therapy for 14 days and then complete the treatment per os for ten more weeks. Leprosy reactions improved following the treatment for B. henselae. After completing the MDT treatment, he has been accompanied for sixty months with no signs of leprosy or leprosy reactions. The asymptomatic infection by B. henselaein this patient was considered the putative trigger of chronic leprosy reactions and leprosy relapse.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella henselae , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato , Hanseníase , Animais , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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