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2.
Med Phys ; 42(1): 400-11, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25563280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The response of alanine solid state dosimeters to ionizing radiation strongly depends on particle type and energy. Due to nuclear interactions, neutron fields usually also consist of secondary particles such as photons and protons of diverse energies. Various experiments have been carried out in three different neutron beams to explore the alanine dose response behavior and to validate model predictions. Additionally, application in medical neutron fields for boron neutron capture therapy is discussed. METHODS: Alanine detectors have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, Germany, in five experimental conditions, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been made in the epithermal neutron beams at the research reactors FiR 1 in Helsinki, Finland, and Tsing Hua open pool reactor in HsinChu, Taiwan ROC. Readout has been performed with electron spin resonance spectrometry with reference to an absorbed dose standard in a (60)Co gamma ray beam. Absorbed doses and dose components have been calculated using the Monte Carlo codes fluka and mcnp. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using the Hansen & Olsen alanine response model. RESULTS: The measured dose response of the alanine detector in the different experiments has been evaluated and compared to model predictions. Therefore, a relative effectiveness has been calculated for each dose component, accounting for its dependence on particle type and energy. Agreement within 5% between model and measurement has been achieved for most irradiated detectors. Significant differences have been observed in response behavior between thermal and epithermal neutron fields, especially regarding dose composition and depth dose curves. The calculated dose components could be verified with the experimental results in the different primary and secondary particle fields. CONCLUSIONS: The alanine detector can be used without difficulty in neutron fields. The response has been understood with the model used which includes the relative effectiveness. Results and the corresponding discussion lead to the conclusion that application in neutron fields for medical purpose is limited by its sensitivity but that it is a useful tool as supplement to other detectors and verification of neutron source descriptions.


Assuntos
Alanina/efeitos da radiação , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/instrumentação , Nêutrons/uso terapêutico , Radiometria/instrumentação , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/métodos , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Raios gama/uso terapêutico , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Monte Carlo , Fótons , Prótons , Radiometria/métodos
4.
Med Phys ; 38(4): 1859-66, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21626919

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behavior of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results to model predictions. METHODS: Alanine detectors have been irradiated with carbon ions with an energy range of 89-400 MeV/u. The relative effectiveness of alanine has been measured in this regime. Pristine and spread out Bragg peak depth-dose curves have been measured with alanine dosimeters. The track structure based alanine response model developed by Hansen and Olsen has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and calculations were compared to experimental results. RESULTS: Calculations of the relative effectiveness deviate less than 5% from the measured values for monoenergetic beams. Measured depth-dose curves deviate from predictions in the peak region, most pronounced at the distal edge of the peak. CONCLUSIONS: The used model and its implementation show a good overall agreement for quasi-monoenergetic measurements. Deviations in depth-dose measurements are mainly attributed to uncertainties of the detector geometry implemented in the Monte Carlo simulations.


Assuntos
Alanina , Carbono/química , Radiometria/métodos
5.
Acta Leprol ; 7 Suppl 1: 195-9, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2503989

RESUMO

Synergistic effects of combinations of anti-mycobacterial drugs on Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in vitro was studied by radiometric respirometry. Pronounced synergy was seen for several drug combinations where ethambutol was found to be the key drug in the synergistic potentiation. Microcalorimetric studies show that a very rapid physico-chemical interaction occurs between the cell-surface of MAC and ethambutol. When MAC cells were pretreated with ethambutol and then subjected to streptomycin the thermal response significantly differed from that seen with MAC cells which had not been pretreated. The typical thermal effects of the interaction of ethambutol with live and UV-killed MAC cells was not seen with heat-killed MAC cells. It is proposed that specific cell-surface protein(s) act as receptors in the initial interaction with ethambutol.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Etambutol/administração & dosagem , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Calorimetria , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Temperatura Alta , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/metabolismo , Radiometria , Receptores de Droga/metabolismo , Estreptomicina/administração & dosagem
6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 24(4): 579-85, 1983 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6360040

RESUMO

The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of [3H]thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Radiometria , Timidina/metabolismo
7.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 47(2): 126-32, 1979 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-378870

RESUMO

An assay system has been developed based on automated radiometric quantification of 14CO2 produced through oxidation of (1--14C) fatty acids by mycobacteria. With this system, the Hawaiian strain of M. lepraemurium was studied using the K-36 buffer as a suspending solution for the organisms along with 5.0 muCi of one of the following fatty acids: acetate, butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and malonic. The 14CO2 production by this organism was greatest with lauric, decanoic, myristic, octanoic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and malonic. The 14CO2 production by this organism was greatest with lauric, decanoic, myristic, octanoic, and stearic acids, in decreasing order. Assimilation studies and radiochromatograms confirmed that most of the oxidized substrates were converted into by-products with no change in those from which no oxidation was found. These data suggest that the radiometric measurement of differential fatty acid metabolism may provide a basis of radiometric identification of M. lepraemurium and assessment of the growth requirements of this organism.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/metabolismo , Radiometria/instrumentação , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Papel , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
8.
Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis ; 43(3): 234-8, 1975.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-176120

RESUMO

A simple radiometric method has been developed for evaluating the effect of drugs on the metabolism of M. lepraemurium. The method is based on the measurement of the 14CO2 produced through bacterial metabolism of acetate-U-14C. Seventeen drugs were tested: bacitracin, cephaloridine, chloramphenicol, cycloserine, dactinomycin, DDS, ethionamide, INH, kanamycin, methenamine mandelate, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, polymyxin B, rifampicin, streptomycin, sulfadimethoxine and vancomycin. The drugs which caused most marked inhibition were chloramphenicol, INH, ethionamide and nitrofurantoin in order of increasing effectiveness. The radiometric study which is completed in 15 days permits direct study of the drug effect on the metabolism of M. lepraemurium and a more rapid screening of antileprosy drugs than has previously been possible. Currently, these observations are being extended to studies of the structure-activity relationships of antileprosy drugs and the metabolism and drug susceptibility of M. leprae in vitro.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Cefaloridina/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Dactinomicina/farmacologia , Dapsona/farmacologia , Etionamida/farmacologia , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Canamicina/farmacologia , Metenamina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Radiometria , Rifampina/farmacologia , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Sulfadimetoxina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
9.
Appl Microbiol ; 28(3): 452-5, 1974 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4608779

RESUMO

A sensitive and nondestructive radiometric method has been applied to the detection of metabolism of Mycobacterium lepraemurium, as a model for the study of the metabolism and substrate requirements of M. leprae. The method is based on the measurement of the (14)CO(2) produced through the bacterial conversion of [U-(14)C]acetate or [U-(14)C]glycerol by 7 x 10(9) bacteria suspended in 10 ml of either a simple buffer system (K-36) or a complex medium (NC-5). Metabolism of the bacilli was easily detected within 3 days after inoculation and was measured daily. NC-5 medium supported metabolism of M. lepraemurium for several weeks longer than the simple K-36 buffer. The radiometric technique shows promise as a rapid and efficient system for evaluating the metabolism of mycobacteria without introducing any changes in the physiologic state of the organisms, studying their metabolic pathways, determining conditions potentially favorable for multiplication of these organisms in vitro, and studying their susceptibility to inhibition by drugs.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium lepraemurium/metabolismo , Radiometria/métodos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/biossíntese , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Glicerol/metabolismo
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