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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 936, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A supination-adduction (SAD) ankle fracture is a special type of ankle fracture that results in collapse of the distal tibial articular surface; as such, orthopaedic surgeons require greater awareness of this type of fracture. The severity of this injury lies between that of an ordinary ankle fracture and a pilon fracture, and the treatment of such fractures based on the ankle fracture concept leads to extremely high rates of postoperative complications and a poor prognosis. In this retrospective study, we aimed to explore the treatment of SAD fractures based on the pilon fracture concept. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 67 patients with Lauge-Hansen supination-adduction type II (SAD-II) ankle fractures, most of whom had a 44-A AO classification. Patients underwent surgical treatment at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2009 to June 2019. The patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical concept employed: 43 patients were included in the ankle fracture surgical concept group, and 24 patients were included in the medial pilon fracture surgical concept group. The therapeutic effect was evaluated based on the Burwell-Charnley radiological reduction standard, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score and postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score 1 year after surgery using regression with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: All 67 patients were followed up. Twenty-four patients were treated according to the medial pilon fracture concept, and forty-three patients were treated according to the ankle fracture concept. The AOFAS score 1 year after surgery in the medial pilon group (89.83 ± 2.77) was higher than that in the ankle fracture group (83.63 ± 7.97) (p < 0.05). The VAS score 1 year after surgery in the medial pilon fracture group (1.17 ± 0.96) was significantly better than that in the ankle fracture group (2.28 ± 0.96) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with Lauge-Hansen SAD-II ankle fractures treated based on the medial pilon fracture surgical concept had better postoperative outcomes than those treated based on the ankle fracture surgical concept. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Fraturas da Tíbia , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Injury ; 52(10): 3143-3149, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Randomised controlled trials (RCT) with short-term follow-ups have shown that, in treatment of syndesmosis injuries, a suture button device (SB) resulted in better radiographic and functional outcome compared to syndesmosis screw fixation (SS). However, only one RCT has reported long-term results; thus, the syndesmosis malreduction rates for both implants might increase during longer follow-up. The primary objective of this RCT was to evaluate the maintenance of syndesmosis reduction with the SS compared to the SB fixation in patients during a minimum follow-up of 6-years. The secondary objectives were to assess the post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) grade and the functional outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At Oulu University Hospital, between January 2010 and December 2011, we enrolled 43 patients with Lauge-Hansen pronation-external rotation type 4/Weber C, ankle fractures with unstable syndesmosis. Patients were randomised to treatment with either a single 3.5-mm tricortical SS (22 patients) or an SB (21 patients). The mean follow-up was 7.1 years (range, 6.2-7.9). Syndesmosis reduction and OA grade was assessed with standing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of both ankles. Malreduction was defined as >2 mm side-to-side difference in the mean width of the syndesmosis. OA was graded according to the Morrey & Wiedeman classification. The Olerud-Molander Ankle Outcome Score (OMAS) and a quality of life questionnaire (RAND 36-Item Health Survey) were used to evaluate functional outcome. RESULTS: Two syndesmoses in the SS group and one in the SB group were malreduced (P = 0.58). Moderate OA after a mean of 7 years post-injury was common. In the SS and SB groups, 9 of 16 and 11 of 13 patients, respectively, had one or more grades serious OA in the injured ankle than in the uninjured ankle (P = 0.11). The mean OMAS was 88 in the SS group and 78 in the SB group (difference between means 7.1, 95% CI: -7.0-21.1, P = 0.32). The RAND-36 results did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: The SS and SB maintained syndesmosis reduction equally well during follow-up. Our study findings also suggest that both methods result in moderate OA rates and the functional outcome is comparable between these two syndesmosis fixation methods.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo , Parafusos Ósseos , Seguimentos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Pronação , Suturas , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1590-1597, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials of BCG vaccination to prevent or reduce severity of COVID-19 are taking place in adults, some of whom have been previously vaccinated, but evidence of the beneficial, non-specific effects of BCG come largely from data on mortality in infants and young children, and from in-vitro and animal studies, after a first BCG vaccination. We assess all-cause mortality following a large BCG revaccination trial in Malawi. METHODS: The Karonga Prevention trial was a population-based, double-blind, randomised controlled in Karonga District, northern Malawi, that enrolled participants between January, 1986, and November, 1989. The trial compared BCG (Glaxo-strain) revaccination versus placebo to prevent tuberculosis and leprosy. 46 889 individuals aged 3 months to 75 years were randomly assigned to receive BCG revaccination (n=23 528) or placebo (n=23 361). Here we report mortality since vaccination as recorded during active follow-up in northern areas of the district in 1991-94, and in a demographic surveillance follow-up in the southern area in 2002-18. 7389 individuals who received BCG (n=3746) or placebo (n=3643) lived in the northern follow-up areas, and 5616 individuals who received BCG (n=2798) or placebo (n=2818) lived in the southern area. Year of death or leaving the area were recorded for those not found. We used survival analysis to estimate all-cause mortality. FINDINGS: Follow-up information was available for 3709 (99·0%) BCG recipients and 3612 (99·1%) placebo recipients in the northern areas, and 2449 (87·5%) BCG recipients and 2413 (85·6%) placebo recipients in the southern area. There was no difference in mortality between the BCG and placebo groups in either area, overall or by age group or sex. In the northern area, there were 129 deaths per 19 694 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·6 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·8]) versus 133 deaths per 19 111 person-years at risk in the placebo group (7·0 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·9-8·2]; HR 0·94 [95% CI 0·74-1·20]; p=0·62). In the southern area, there were 241 deaths per 38 399 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·3 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·1]) versus 230 deaths per 38 676 person-years at risk in the placebo group (5·9 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·2-6·8]; HR 1·06 [95% CI 0·88-1·27]; p=0·54). INTERPRETATION: We found little evidence of any beneficial effect of BCG revaccination on all-cause mortality. The high proportion of deaths attributable to non-infectious causes beyond infancy, and the long time interval since BCG for most deaths, might obscure any benefits. FUNDING: British Leprosy Relief Association (LEPRA); Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacina BCG/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/mortalidade , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Wound Care ; 30(6): 498-503, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify the complications arising in consecutive neuropathic patients undergoing partial longitudinal amputations of the foot. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted with data collected from the medical records of patients monitored at the Insensitive Foot Clinic of the Foot and Ankle Group of our institution who underwent partial amputation of foot rays from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 31 amputated/partially amputated feet. Of these, 18 (58.1%) feet were amputated/partially amputated due to diabetes, seven (22.6%) due to leprosy, two (6.5%) due to alcoholic neuropathy, two (6.5%) secondary to traumatic peripheral nerve injury, and two (6.5%) due to other causes. Fifth ray amputation was the most frequent type (n=12). The cause of amputation was the presence of an infected ulcer in 93.6% of the samples. At a mean follow-up time of 60 months, 13 (41.9%) feet required new amputations-five (38.5%) transtibial, five (38.5%) transmetatarsal, two (15.4%) of the toes, and one (7.7%) at Chopart's joint. Patients with diabetes had a 50.0% reamputation rate. Patients who initially underwent amputation of the fifth ray had a 58.3% reamputation rate. CONCLUSION: Partial longitudinal amputation of the foot in neuropathic patients exhibited a high reoperation rate, especially in patients with diabetes or in patients with initial amputation of the peripheral rays. Declaration of interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest.


Assuntos
Amputação , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Pé/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Desbridamento , Humanos , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 540, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decision to diagnose certain skin diseases in patient undergoing psychotic break is challenging; this includes establishing the diagnosis of leprosy. Diagnosis of leprosy is established if there is at least one of the three cardinal signs of leprosy. Histopathological examination is not a gold standard, but remains useful in atypical or clinically suspicious cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report for the first time, an interesting case of leprosy with atypical clinical manifestations in a psychotic homeless male with unknown history of present illness. Upon examination, hypopigmented macules, hyperpigmented macules, and plaques were observed, with unclear sensation impairment. Peripheral nerve thickening and acid-fast bacilli from slit-skin smear were not found. Histopathological examination from hypopigmented macule on the upper right limb showed no granulomatous reaction and other histopathological features of leprosy. Although the condition did not fulfill the cardinal signs of leprosy, we found lagophthalmos, claw hands, pseudomutilation of fingers and toes. Therefore, the diagnosis of suspected leprosy was established. The patient was hospitalized and attempts to administer oral rifampicin and clofazimine were made. Several days after treatment, annular erythematous macules appeared on the patient's face, abdomen, and back. Histopathological examination results on sample taken from erythematous macule and right sural nerve were consistent with the diagnosis of leprosy with reversal reaction. CONCLUSION: In certain conditions, histopathological examination of the skin and nerves are a highly rewarding test in establishing a diagnosis of leprosy.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(1): 54-60, jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1254987

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar o discurso dos gestores do Programa Nacional de Controle da Hanseníase (PNCH). Método: estudo descritivo, qualitativo, de abordagem discursiva. Os coordenadores dos pólos da PNCH do Rio Grande do Norte (RN), os coordenadores regionais e o coordenador estadual compuseram a população, foram incluídos aqueles com vínculo com o serviço por pelo menos seis meses, 12 gestores foram considerados adequados como amostra. O material empírico, coletado de novembro de 2015 a junho de 2016, foi analisado por meio da análise do discurso. Resultados: os enunciadores construíram discursos em torno de dois eixos: a questão dos médicos, com ênfase no centro de atenção à saúde, e a questão da gestão, apoiada nos princípios burocráticos com componentes legados do regime autoritário, tendo, ambos os eixos, influência do modelo sanitarista/ativista. Conclusão: entende-se que o PNCH pode melhorar a partir da profissionalização da gestão e da ênfase na promoção da saúde e no trabalho em equipe. (AU)


Objective: This study aimed to analyze the discourse of the managers of the National Leprosy Control Program (NLCP). Method: a descriptive and qualitative study with a discursive approach.The coordinators of the NLCP host cities of Rio Grande do Norte, the regional coordinators and the state coordinator composed the population, witch included those with bond to the service for at least six months, 12 managers were considered suitable as a sample. The empirical material, collected from November 2015 to June 2016, was investigated through discourse analysis. Results: The enunciators built speeches around two axes: the subject of the phisicyans, emphasizing the center of Health Care, and the subject of management, supported by the bureaucrats principles with legacy components of the authoritarian regime, with both axes having influence of the sanitary/activist model. Conclusion: It is understood that the NLCP can improve from the professionalization of management and the emphasis on health promotion and teamwork. (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el discurso de los gerentes del Programa Nacional de Control de la Lepra (PNCL). Método: estudio descriptivo e cualitativo con enfoque discursivo. Los coordinadores de las ciudades sede del PNCL en Rio Grande do Norte (RN), los coordinadores regionales y el coordinador estatal componían la población, se incluyeron aquellos con vínculos al servicio durante al menos seis meses, 12 gerentes se consideraron adecuados como muestra. El material empírico, recopilado desde noviembre de 2015 hasta junio de 2016, fue investigado mediante análisis del discurso. Resultados: Los enunciadores formularon discursos en torno a dos ejes: la cuestión de los médicos, con énfasis en el centro de atención de la salud, y la cuestión de la gestión, respaldada por principios burocráticos con componentes heredados del régimen autoritario, con ambos ejes influenciados por el modelo sanitario/activista. Conclusión: Se entiende que el PNCL puede mejorar en función de la profesionalización de la gestión y el énfasis en la promoción de la salud y el trabajo en equipo. (AU)


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Política Pública , Resultado do Tratamento , Diretores de Hospitais , Doenças Negligenciadas
8.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 536.e1-536.e7, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early orchidopexy has been linked to improved long term outcomes of fertility and reduced malignancy rates. However, the optimal age of intervention has been subject to change over the years. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to study males aged 6 months or less who undergo laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy for intraabdominal testes to establish the safety, efficacy, and benefit in the defined age group. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively assessed 19 boys at or below 6 months of age, who had laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy for intraabdominal undescended testes at Salmaniya Medical Complex in Bahrain between January 2014 and December 2018. We examined: demographics, laterality, testicular locations, testicular volumes, operative time, complications, and durations of hospitalization and follow-up. Ultrasound-derived testicular volumes were assessed before and after orchidopexy. They were calculated using the Hansen formula (Testicular volume = 0.52 × length [L] × width [W]2 [1]. They were then compared with reference ranges from a Dutch cohort study of 769 healthy boys. Successful outcomes were correct intrascrotal position with minimal complications and normal testicular volumes. RESULTS: A total of 19 males were operated at a mean age of 5.6 months and followed for a mean of 2.35 years. Of these, 7 had left-sided and 12 had right-sided cryptorchidism. Testicular locations were noted intra-operatively; 10 were above the internal ring, 5 near the iliac vessels, and 4 close to the kidney. The mean operative time was 59.58 minutes. Only 2 minor complications occurred and no cases of testicular atrophy. None of the patients required hospital-stay beyond 24 hours. The success rate was 89.46% in achieving correct scrotal position. Testicular volumes were normal before and after orchidopexy. They significantly increased after orchidopexy (P ≤ 0.05). The testicular growth rate after 24 months was slightly higher than normal. DISCUSSION: In line with previous studies we were 89.46% successful in re-positioning testes [2]. In contrast to studies intervening at older ages which associated intra-abdominal testes with greater risks of complications, we found few minor complications and no testicular atrophy [3,4]. Testicular volumes in the affected testes were normal, contrary to decreased volumes found by other researchers [5]. Limitations of this study are the small number of patients and short follow-up which limits assessment of long-term outcomes. CONCLUSION: Early orchiopexy is safe and effective. Laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy at an early age was beneficial and resulted in normal testicular volumes before and after surgery.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Criptorquidismo/cirurgia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquidopexia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testículo/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Dan Med J ; 68(5)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A minimally invasive approach in colorectal surgery reduces surgical stress compared with open surgery. Today, the gold standard in the treatment of right-sided colonic cancer is a minimally invasive approach, which can be performed with either a "minimally invasive assisted" technique - a combination of open and minimally invasive surgery with an extracorporeal anastomosis (ECA) or with a "totally minimally invasive" technique with intracorporeal anastomosis (ICA). The prevailing technique is ECA, but there is no conclusive evidence on the superiority of one technique over the other, and randomised trials comparing ICA with ECA are warranted. We hypothesised that ICA will yield improved recovery compared with ECA. METHODS: This is a triple blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing robotic right colectomy with ECA with robotic right colectomy with ICA. We plan to include 100 patients undergoing elective minimally invasive right colectomies in two colorectal centres in Denmark. The primary outcome is patient-reported post-operative recovery, and secondary outcomes are additional measures of post-operative recovery (pain, analgesics, nausea and vomiting, time to first flatus/bowel movement, length of hospital stay), operative time, intraoperative complications, conversions, readmissions, reoperations, 30- and 90-day morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION: The results of this randomised controlled trial will contribute with valuable knowledge on the best surgical management of right-sided colonic cancer. FUNDING: The study has received unrestricted grants from the Louis-Hansen Foundation, Jacob & Olga Madsen's foundation, Trigon Foundation, Toyota Foundation, Dagmar Marshalls Foundation, Vissing Foundation, The Kjaer Foundation and the Nyegaard foundation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03130166.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Laparoscopia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Duração da Cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23839, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592840

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) comprise mycobacteria, with the exceptions of Mycobacterium (M.) leprae and the M. tuberculosis complex. Septic arthritis caused by NTM is so rare that there is no standardized treatment.Between April and September 2012, 27 patients were infected with M. massiliense in a single clinic following injection of steroid in the knee joint. Clinical data of 9 patients who received arthroscopic treatment in Seoul Hospital of Soonchunhyang University were analyzed retrospectively.Arthroscopic irrigation and debridement were performed average 2.6 times (1-3 times). As 6 out of 9 cases (67%) had joint contracture of the knee joint, arthroscopic adhesiolysis, and brisement were performed. After surgical procedures, Hospital for Special Surgery and Lysholm knee score showed improvement compared before the surgery, but a radiographic result evaluated by Kellgren-Lawrence revealed that 6 cases got deteriorated to stage 4 in the 4-year follow-up.NTM septic arthritis had a higher recurrence and a higher contracture incidence than septic arthritis caused by tuberculous mycobacteria or other bacteria. Treatment was possible with repeated arthroscopic debridement and intravenous antibiotics.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/cirurgia , Artroscopia/métodos , Injeções Intra-Articulares/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/cirurgia , Mycobacterium abscessus , Idoso , Artrite Infecciosa/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 27(7): 799-808, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomically surgical reduction of ankle fractures does not always result in a clinically favorable outcome. Arthroscopic examination combined with treatment of intra-articular lesion may related to clinical outcomes OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to review initial and second look arthroscopic finding of acute ankle fracture and to evaluate clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Lauge-Hansen classification system of ankle fractures included supination-external rotation type (n = 24), supination-adduction type (n = 3), pronation-external rotation type (n = 7), and pronation-abduction type (n = 6), total 40 ankles. Osteochondral lesions were found in 25 ankles (62%) with an initial arthroscopic finding of acute ankle fracture. Newly discovered chondral lesions in secondary arthroscopy were found in 17 cases. According to the Ferkel and Cheng staging at secondary arthroscopy, 4 of 25 ankles with osteochondral lesions of the talus were deteriorating (more than stage D). In terms of ICRS overall repair grades, 5 ankles (20%) were abnormal (grade III). Diffuse synovitis and arthrofibrosis were found in 12 and 7 ankles, respectively, in secondary arthroscopy, and correlations were found between AOFAS scores, VAS and intra-articular lesions. CONCLUSION: Second-look arthroscopic examination combined with treatment of intra-articular lesion such as arthrofibrosis and osteochondral lesion arising from ankle fracture surgery may consider to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Tálus , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Artroscopia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 44(5): 795-800, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endovascular robotics is an emerging technology within the developing field of medical robotics. This was a prospective evaluation to assess safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted carotid artery stenting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive cases of carotid artery stenting cases performed over period of 24 months, from May 2015 to October 2016, using the Magellan Robotic System (Hansen, Mountain View, CA) were included. All cases utilised the robotic system to navigate the arch, obtain a stable position in the common carotid artery, followed by manual manipulation of Embolic Protection Devices and self-expandable stents through the robotic catheter. Patients demographics, clinical indications, anatomical features, technical and clinical success, complication rate and hospital stay were prospectively recorded. RESULTS: Thirteen patients, 10 males (78.5%), with an average age of 68.7 years were treated. Mean follow up time was 30 months. Ten patients (91%) were symptomatic at presentation. Anatomical indications for endovascular stent insertion were previous open surgery to the neck ± radiotherapy (87.5%) and hostile anatomy for open surgery (12.5%). Technical success was 100% and the robotic system demonstrates enhanced stability during arch and lesion crossing. There were no neurological complications post-operatively. Average hospital stay was 3 days (range 2-6 days) and a change in serum creatinine of -7.8 µmol/L. There was no documented case of in stent restenosis, new or worsening neurology during follow-up. CONCLUSION: These results illustrate safety and feasibility of robotic endovascular revascularisation for carotid disease and demonstrates potential to enhance peri-procedural safety through improved control and stability.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Primitiva/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Robótica , Stents , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lagos State Tuberculosis, Buruli Ulcer, and Leprosy Control Program (LSTBLCP) started engaging private hospitals under the Public-Private Mix (PPM) Program in 2008. The study aimed to evaluate the trend and predictors of successful Tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes of patients managed across these private health facilities between 2010-2016 in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: Retrospective review of TB treatment register and treatment cards of patients commenced on TB treatment between January 2010 and December 2016 in 36 private health facilities engaged by the LSTBLCP. Between December 2016 and February 2017, data were collected and entered into Microsoft Excel by trained data entry clerks. The analysis was done using SPSS software. Independent predictors of successful treatment outcomes were determined using multivariate analysis at the statistical significance of p<0.05 and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: A total of 1660 records of TB patients were reviewed. 1535 (92.47%) commenced treatment, while 1337 (87.10%) of all records had documented treatment outcomes. Of the 1337 patients with outcomes, 1044 (78.09%) had a successful treatment outcome, and 293 (21.91%) had an unsuccessful outcome. Majority were male, 980 (59.04%), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) negative status, 1295 (80.24%), diagnosed with smear, 1141 (73.14%), treated in private not-for-profit (PNFP) hospital, 1097 (66.08%), treated for TB between 2014-2016 (18.96%-19.52%). In multivariate analysis, age>20years (aOR = 0.26, p = 0.001), receiving TB treatment in 2013 (aOR = 0.39, p = 0.001), having genexpert for TB diagnosis (aOR = 0.26, p = 0.031) and being HIV positive (aOR = 0.37, p = 0.001) significantly reduced likelihood of successful treatment outcome. The site of TB, being on ART or CPT, were confounding determinants of successful treatment outcomes as they became non-significant at the multivariate analysis level. CONCLUSION: Treatment outcome among Lagos private hospitals was low compared with NTBLCP and World Health Organization (WHO) target. We urge the government and TB stakeholders to strengthen the PPM interventions to improve adherence, particularly among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) and older TB patients. Hence, promotion of early care-seeking, improving diagnostic and case holding efficiencies of health facilities, and TB/HIV collaborative interventions can reduce the risk of an unsuccessful outcome.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Feminino , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(5): e13010, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325540

RESUMO

World Health Organisation recommends the practice of BCG vaccination at birth in countries which have a high incidence of tuberculosis and/or high leprosy burden. The BCG vaccination is considered safe for a competent immune system. However, in children with weakened immune systems cause of which can be primary or secondary, the vaccine may lead to side effects which can be localized or disseminated. In this study, we report a spectrum of inborn errors of immunity (IEI) commonly referred to as primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) diagnosed in a large cohort of patients presenting with complications to BCG vaccination from India. Retrospective data analysis of patients referred to ICMR- National Institute of Immunohematology (ICMR-NIIH) for IEI workup between 2007 and 2019 was done. IEI was identified in n = 52/90 (57.7%) patients presenting with BCG complications. Of these, n = 13(14.4%) patients were diagnosed with severe combined immune deficiency, n = 15(16.7%) with chronic granulomatous disease, n = 19(21.1%) with Inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity, n = 4(4.4%) with Combined immunodeficiency and n = 1(1.1%) with Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency type1. Majority of cases with BCGosis (88%) had an underlying IEI. This study strongly highlights the need for evaluation of patients with BCG complications for underlying IEI. While disseminated BCGosis strongly predicts underlying IEI, even localized persistent adenitis may be a warning sign of underlying IEI. It is also strongly recommended to record a family history of previous sibling death prior to administration of this live vaccine and deferring live vaccine till the diagnosis of IEI is ruled out in cases with a positive family history.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373997

RESUMO

Worldwide, Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a big problem; the diagnostic capacity has superseded the clinical management capacity thereby causing ethical challenges. In Sub-Saharan Africa, treatment is either inadequate or lacking and some diagnosed patients are on treatment waiting lists. In Uganda, various health system challenges impeded scale-up of DR-TB care in 2012; only three treatment initiation facilities existed, with only 41 of the estimated 1010 RR-TB/MDR-TB cases enrolled on treatment yet 300 were on the waiting list and there was no DR-TB treatment scale-up plan. To scale up care, the National TB and leprosy Program (NTLP) with partners rolled out a DR-TB mixed model of care. In this paper, we share achievements and outcomes resulting from the implementation of this mixed Model of DR-TB care. Routine NTLP DR-TB program data on treatment initiation site, number of patients enrolled, their demographic characteristics, patient category, disease classification (based on disease site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status), on co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) statuses, culture results, smear results and treatment outcomes (6, 12, and 24 months) from 2012 to 2017 RR-TB/MDR-TB cohorts were collected from all the 15 DR-TB treatment initiation sites and descriptive analysis was done using STATA version 14.2. We presented outcomes as the number of patient backlog cleared, DR-TB initiation sites, RR-TB/DR-TB cumulative patients enrolled, percentage of co-infected patients on the six, twelve interim and 24 months treatment outcomes as per the Uganda NTLP 2016 Programmatic Management of drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) guidelines (NTLP, 2016). Over the period 2013-2015, the RR-TB/MDR-TB Treatment success rate (TSR) was sustained between 70.1% and 74.1%, a performance that is well above the global TSR average rate of 50%. Additionally, the cure rate increased from 48.8% to 66.8% (P = 0.03). The Uganda DR-TB mixed model of care coupled with early application of continuous improvement approaches, enhanced cohort reviews and use of multi-disciplinary teams allowed for rapid DR-TB program expansion, rapid clearance of patient backlog, attainment of high cumulative enrollment and high treatment success rates. Sustainability of these achievements is needed to further reduce the DR-TB burden in the country. We highly recommend this mixed model of care in settings with similar challenges.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Organizacionais , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354978

RESUMO

Thoraco-lumbar intervertebral disc extrusion is a common condition seen in veterinary practice. Although there are different surgical techniques described for decompression, most of these techniques are based on the surgeon's preference or experience rather than clinical research. Our objective was to determine the clinical outcomes, using return to ambulation and micturition, as well as complication rates, in a large cohort of dogs by using a mini-hemilaminectomy for decompression of the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord with Hansen type I thoraco-lumbar intervertebral disc extrusions (IVDE). A retrospective study was performed on dogs presented for acute thoraco-lumbar IVDE undergoing surgical decompression. In total, 252 spinal decompression surgeries were performed. The recovery rates for patients graded with a modified Frankel score (MFS) of 5 to 0 were 100%, 99%, 100%, 96%, 86% and 64%, respectively. The mean days to micturition across all the MFS 5-0 were 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] ± 0.7), 1.8 (SD ± 1), 4.3 (SD ± 1.7), 6.4 (SD ± 2.2), 9.3 (SD 3) and 11.9 (SD ± 2.2), respectively. The mean days to ambulation across all the groups 5-0 were 2 (SD ± 0.7), 2.6 (SD ± 1), 7.6 (SD ± 4.4), 10.1 (SD ± 2.5), 16.1 (SD ± 2.9) and 19.3 (SD ± 2.6), respectively. Postoperative complications were seen in 32 of the surgeries, with a complication rate of 13%. Minor complications accounted for 38% of all complications, and major complications constituted 62% of all complications. In total, 15 dogs died or were euthanised as a direct result of thoraco-lumbar disc extrusion or the surgical procedure, with a mortality rate of 6% across all groups. A mini-hemilaminectomy provides similar clinical outcomes described in the literature for other methods of spinal cord decompressive surgery, and it also provides patients with similar short-term outcomes to other described decompressive surgical techniques in the dog, which have been described in the literature.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Laminectomia/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Feminino , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Laminectomia/efeitos adversos , Laminectomia/métodos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 625-632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163023

RESUMO

Background: Following initiation of MDR-TB treatment, patients have a choice to receive follow up DOT supervision at either the central initiating facility or at a peripheral facility. Objectives: We describe the adherence patterns of MDR-TB patients undergoing DOT supervision at the two health facility categories during intensive phase of treatment. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort of patients initiated on MDR TB treatment at Mulago National Referral Hospital between 2014 and 2016. We extracted data from the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program records and analysed these using STATA V14. Result: Majority (84.01%) of the patients received their DOT supervision from the peripheral facilities. Males made up 62.1% of patients, and 91.2% had had their household contacts screened for MDR-TB. 26.5% of the patients on peripheral DOT supervision had good adherence to treatment protocol compared to 0% among patients on central initiating health facility DOT supervision. Among the patients with good adherence, 24.1% had contacts screened for MDR-TB as compared to 3.6% with poor adherence. Conclusion: More patients preferred MDR-TB DOT supervision at peripheral facilities, which had better adherence to the treatment protocol compared to the central initiating facility. Younger people and those with household contacts screened had better adherence to the treatment protocol, highlighting areas for targeted interventional programs for MDR-TB in resource limited settingsMore patients preferred MDR-TB DOT supervision at peripheral facilities, which had better adherence to the treatment protocol compared to the central initiating facility. Younger people and those with household contacts screened had better adherence to the treatment protocol, highlighting areas for targeted interventional programs for MDR-TB in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(4): 546-550, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various treatment modalities have been used in treating femoral shaft fractures, i.e., open intramedullary nailing, plating and external fixators but these does not always produce stable fixation and there is increased risk of infection, closed locked intramedullary nailing technique has being the gold standard and is a routine procedure but it requires proper orthopedic operation table with traction apparatus and the use of image intensifier. The use of open interlocking nailing technique doesn't require any special orthopaedic table nor it requires use of Image intensifier. The objective of this study is to find out and determine the frequency of fracture union and wound infection in open reamed interlocking nailing of close fractures of shaft of femur. METHODS: This study included fifty-eight patients from either gender, above 14 years of age with closed femoral shaft fracture presenting within 2 weeks. Data was collected on Performa about gender, age, address, date of fracture, date of operation and discharge, type of fracture and follow-up visits. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients were 31.24±8.662. According to Winquist & Hansen, femur shaft fractures were divided into four types. Type I were found in the 16(27.6%), Type II in 21 (36.2%), Type III in 12 (20.7%) and Type IV in 9 (15.5%). Total number of fracture union with regard to Winquist & Hensen Classification of fracture shaft femur were, Type I, 14 (24.1%), Type II, 21 (36.2%), Type III, 12 (20.7%), Type IV, 8 (13.8%) respectively while the rest 3 (5.2%) were found in non-union. Total number of fracture union with regard to gender of the patients were, 41 (70.7%) males and 14 (24.1%) were females while the rest 3 (5.2%) patients fracture union has not occurred. Fracture union was found in 55 (94.8%) out of 58 patients; while fracture union had not occurred in 3 (5.2%) out of 58 patients. The total number of patients who developed wound infection following surgery were 5 (8.6%) out of 58 patients; while the non-infected patients were 53 (91.4%) out of 58 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The open interlocking nailing technique for close fractures shaft of femur without the use of image intensifier achieved excellent results in terms of fracture union. Results obtained are mostly similar to the results of close interlocking nailing and it also requires less expertise, recourses and without the use of image intensifier.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Fechadas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pinos Ortopédicos , Diáfises/lesões , Diáfises/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas não Consolidadas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(11): 1387-1391, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191695

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the necessity of repairing the deep layer of deltoid ligament in the treatment of mixed medial injury associated with ankle fractures. Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2018, 12 patients with mixed medial injury associated with ankle fractures were treated with the fixation of the lateral malleolus by bone plates, the fixation of the anterior colliculus of medial malleolus by cannulated screws, and the repair of the deltoid ligament by suture anchors. There were 8 males and 4 females, with an average age of 42 years (range, 18-56 years). According to the Lauge-Hansen classification criteria, there were 11 cases of supination-external rotation type and 1 case of pronation-external rotation type. According to the Weber classification criteria, all cases were type B. The time from injury to operation was 3-6 days, with an average of 4.7 days. In each patient, X-ray films of anteroposterior and lateral views and mortise view of ankle were taken postoperatively. The motion range of ankle joints was observed. The function of the ankle and the outcome of the treatment were evaluated according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system, Olerud-Molander scoring system, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results: All cases were followed up 12-42 months (mean, 28 months). The 12 patients returned to their pre-injury jobs. Five patients with sports injury completely recovered to their pre-injury motor function. No patient experienced persistent medial ankle pain or ankle instability. At last follow-up, the ankle range of motion in dorsiflexion was 9°-25° (mean, 17.96°), which was 0°-11° (mean, 4.02°) less than that in normal side; the range of motion in plantar flexion was 38°-50° (mean, 43.90°), which was 0°-7° (mean, 2.53°) less than that in normal side. The AOFAS score was 88-100 (mean, 96.7); the Olerud-Molander score was 90-100 (mean, 96.5); the VAS score was 0-3 (mean, 1.1). Conclusion: It is necessary to repair the deep layer of deltoid ligament in the mixed medial injuries associated with ankle fracture, which include anterior colliculus fracture and deep deltoid ligament injury. A better outcome can be achieved by employing the suture anchor repair method.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Ligamentos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Âncoras de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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