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1.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(2): 169-177, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407334

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of this study is to observe the trend in treatment outcomes and identify determinants of treatment success among patients recruited into care through the DOTS strategy. Methodology: A retrospective record review of tuberculosis patients (2012-2016) was carried out at the Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Centre, Eku, Delta State, Nigeria. Results: Records of four hundred and twenty five (425) tuberculosis patients under DOTS were reviewed over five years. The highest number of cases under treatment, 102 (24.0%), was recorded in 2013. The mean age (SD) of patients was 37.3 (±16.5) years, majority of the patients were male (62.4%) and 18% had TB/HIV co-infection. Treatment outcomes of patients were cured (53.4%), completed (27.8%), died (6.8%), failed (2.4%), lost to follow up (4.9%), transferred out (1.2%) and not evaluated (3.5%). Over all, treatment success rate was 81.2% with a trend of 88.7% (2012), 87.3% (2013), 85.9% (2014), 65.0% (2015) and 65.8% (2016) respectively. Patient characteristics were not associated with treatment success. Conclusion: The treatment success rate was high and in line with the national recommendation of 80% and above. The trend showed a reduction in number of new cases enrolled into the DOTS programme, reduction in success rate with a concomitant increase in loss to follow up. There was no association between patient characteristics and TB treatment success. System strengthening on patient follow up, community health education and treatment adherence is recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, posterior malleolar fragments are fixed either with percutaneous anteroposterior screws or through a posterolateral approach using screws and/or a buttress plate. Both surgical methods have some shortcomings, and the use of anteroposterior screws to fix osteoporotic posterior malleolar fractures carries a risk of failure. METHODS: Nine elderly patients (average age, 67 years) with posterior malleolar fractures were treated with transfibular Kirschner wire tension band fixation. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification, all fractures were of the supination-external rotation type. The operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, and wound healing outcome were recorded. During the follow-up period, clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, and the occurrence of complications was observed. RESULTS: The patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months (mean, 15 months). The operative duration ranged from approximately 30 to 95 minutes, with an average of 70 minutes. Anatomical reduction was achieved in nine cases, and there were no complications, such as skin necrosis, wound infection, or skin sensory disturbance. There was one case of delayed wound healing caused by fat liquefaction, which was cured by a dressing change. The functional scores were excellent in four cases, good in four cases, fair in one case, and poor in zero cases. The rate of excellent and good results was 88.89% (eight of nine), with an average of 78.78 points. CONCLUSION: Kirschner wire tension band fixation through a transfibular approach for the treatment of posterior malleolar fractures does not require a change in patient posture. It facilitates the reduction and internal fixation of the posterior malleolar fragment; furthermore, it is easier to remove internal fixation after fracture healing, which provides a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolus fracture. Thus, this has potential as a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolar fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Idoso , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fios Ortopédicos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(6): 724-737, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962514

RESUMO

Background Intralesional immunotherapy has been reported to be effective for warts and to show good safety profiles, but this has not yet been systematically studied. Aims To determine the efficacy and safety of intralesional immunotherapy for treating non-genital warts. Methods We comprehensively searched the MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases from the times of their inception to January 3, 2020. The primary outcome was the rate of complete response of all lesions. The distant complete response rate of warts located in an anatomically different body part and the recurrence rate were also analyzed. Results A total of 54 prospective studies was ultimately included. The immunotherapeutic agents used were Mycobacterium w vaccine, measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, purified protein derivative, Candida antigen, interferon, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine and others. The pooled rate of complete response among all patients with non-genital warts treated using intralesional immunotherapy was 60.6% (95% confidence interval 54.8-66.5%). The pooled recurrence rate was 2.0% (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9%). All reported adverse events were mild and transient. Limitations The heterogeneity among studies Conclusion Intralesional immunotherapy is suggested for use in patients with multiple warts, given its promising results, good safety profile and low recurrence rate.


Assuntos
Verrugas , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Verrugas/terapia , Verrugas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Trials ; 23(1): 559, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that affects skin, soft tissues, and bones, causing long-term morbidity, stigma, and disability. The recommended treatment for BU requires 8 weeks of daily rifampicin and clarithromycin together with wound care, physiotherapy, and sometimes tissue grafting and surgery. Recovery can take up to 1 year, and it may pose an unbearable financial burden to the household. Recent in vitro studies demonstrated that beta-lactams combined with rifampicin and clarithromycin are synergistic against M. ulcerans. Consequently, inclusion of amoxicillin/clavulanate in a triple oral therapy may potentially improve and shorten the healing process. The BLMs4BU trial aims to assess whether co-administration of amoxicillin/clavulanate with rifampicin and clarithromycin could reduce BU treatment from 8 to 4 weeks. METHODS: We propose a randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority phase II, multi-centre trial in Benin with participants stratified according to BU category lesions and randomized to two oral regimens: (i) Standard: rifampicin plus clarithromycin therapy for 8 weeks; and (ii) Investigational: standard plus amoxicillin/clavulanate for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome will be lesion healing without recurrence and without excision surgery 12 months after start of treatment (i.e. cure rate). Seventy clinically diagnosed BU patients will be recruited per arm. Patients will be followed up over 12 months and managed according to standard clinical care procedures. Decision for excision surgery will be delayed to 14 weeks after start of treatment. Two sub-studies will also be performed: a pharmacokinetic and a microbiology study. DISCUSSION: If successful, this study will create a new paradigm for BU treatment, which could inform World Health Organization policy and practice. A shortened, highly effective, all-oral regimen will improve care of BU patients and will lead to a decrease in hospitalization-related expenses and indirect and social costs and improve treatment adherence. This trial may also provide information on treatment shortening strategies for other mycobacterial infections (tuberculosis, leprosy, or non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05169554 . Registered on 27 December 2021.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Úlcera de Buruli , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Benin , Úlcera de Buruli/tratamento farmacológico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(6): 761-770, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389028

RESUMO

Background Melasma is an acquired dyschromia with several histologic alterations in the epidermis, basement membrane and upper dermis. The treatment of melasma is challenging due to the irregular response and chronicity of the disease. To date, there are no curative strategies, largely due to the limited understanding of the intrinsic effects of each treatment. Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate the histological changes promoted by triple combination cream, with or without complementary treatment with microneedling and oral tranexamic acid, in the treatment of melasma. Methods A factorial, randomised, controlled and evaluator-blinded clinical trial was performed involving 64 women with facial melasma, divided in four groups, who underwent 60 days of treatment with triple combination cream alone (control group) or combined with two monthly microneedling sessions (microneedling group), TA 250 mg twice daily (tranexamic acid group), or both tranexamic acid group and microneedling group. The participants underwent biopsy of the area with melasma at inclusion (D1) and D60. The primary outcomes were the variation (D1 × D60) between the variables: Thickness of the epidermis and stratum corneum, stratum corneum compaction and solar elastosis; melanin density in the epidermis and upper dermis; proportion between the extension of the nonintact and intact basement membrane zone; mast cell count in the upper dermis; melanocyte count in the basal layer, pendulum melanocyte count and melanocyte area; immunostaining density of vascular endothelial growth factor; stem cell factor and keratinocyte growth factor. Results One participant in the TG discontinued tranexamic acid due persistent headache; and herpes simplex occurred in three patients after microneedling. The groups showed a 24% (CI95%: 17-35%; P < 0.01) reduction in epidermal melanin density. There was no change in dermal melanin density or the area of melanocytes after treatment. There was an overall 25% (CI95%: 7-42%; P < 0.01) reduction in the number of pendulum melanocytes, especially in the microneedling and tranexamic acid group, that presented a 41% (CI95%: 7-73%; P < 0.01) reduction. The extension of the nonintact basal membrane relative to the intact basal membrane decreased after treatment, especially in microneedling group and microneedling and tranexamic acid group. There was an increase of 13% (CI95%: 5-21%; P = 0.02) in epidermal thickness and 6% (CI95%: 0-22%; P = 0.04) thinning of the stratum corneum in the groups. All groups showed stratum corneum compaction. Solar elastosis improved only in the microneedling group and microneedling and tranexamic acid group. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunostaining increased 14% (CI95%: 4-24%; P = 0.03) in the groups; and stem cell factor increased only in microneedling group. There was no change in the number of mast cells, CD34 and keratinocyte growth factor immunostaining. Limitations The site of biopsy may not represent all of the facial melasma and the immunohistochemical sensitivity of the cytokines does not have a stoichiometric relationship with proteins. Conclusion A greater thickness of the epidermis is associated with melasma bleaching. Dermal melanin seems to have no impact on melasma prognosis. Damage to the skin barrier and stimulus of angiogenesis should be avoided in the treatment of melasma. Microneedling complements the topical treatment of melasma by improving patterns of skin photoaging. Oral tranexamic acid complements the topical treatment of melasma by inhibiting the stem cell factor.


Assuntos
Melanose , Ácido Tranexâmico , Humanos , Feminino , Fator 7 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/uso terapêutico , Melaninas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Fator de Células-Tronco/uso terapêutico , Melanose/terapia , Melanose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 7726726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444779

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the clinical outcome and postoperative complications of the treatment of supination-external rotation-type ankle fractures using the posterolateral approach in the prone position and the lateral approach in the supine position. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in our hospital, including a total of 66 patients ranging from January 2013 to February 2016, regardless of age or sex. All the patients were classified as Lauge-Hansen supination-external rotation (SER)-type ankle fractures and were assigned to receive an open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) through a posterolateral approach performed in the prone position (the "posterolateral approach group," 32 patients), or a lateral approach performed in the supine position (the "Lateral Approach Group," 34 patients). In the posterolateral approach group, 5 patients had Grade II fractures, 8 had Grade III fractures, and 19 had Grade IV fractures; among whom, 12 underwent fixation of the posterior malleolus with hollow screws and 6 with plates, and none of them had fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis; in the lateral approach group, 4 patients had Grade II fractures, 12 had Grade III fractures, and 18 had Grade IV fractures; among whom, 21 received fixation of the posterior malleolus, and 5 received fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. The postoperative complications and ankle scores were recorded. Results: After 1 year of follow-up, in the posterolateral approach group, the incision healed by primary intention and sutures were removed 2 weeks after the operation in all patients; 1 patient had pain in the region posterior to the fibula, presumably peroneal tendon irritation induced by internal fixation, which disappeared after fracture union and fixation device removal; no loosening or breakage of the internal fixation device was reported; the rate of good to excellent results was 96.8% at 12 months. In the lateral approach group: 1 case of wound infection, 1 case of necrosis of lateral skin flap, and 3 cases of lateral skin irritation were reported; the rate of good to excellent results was 94.6% at 12 months. Conclusion: Compared with the traditional lateral approach, the posterolateral approach for the reduction and internal fixation of supination-external rotation-type ankle fractures performed in the prone position has more satisfactory clinical outcomes, with better reduction, more secure fixation, and smaller wound.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 339-350, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135310

RESUMO

Aims: Ivermectin is a safe, inexpensive and effective early COVID-19 treatment validated in 20+ random, controlled trials. Having developed combination therapies for Helicobacter pylori, the authors present a highly effective COVID-19 therapeutic combination, stemming from clinical observations. Patients & methods: In 24 COVID-19 subjects refusing hospitalization with high-risk features, hypoxia and untreated moderate to severe symptoms averaging 9 days, the authors administered this novel combination of ivermectin, doxycycline, zinc and vitamins D and C. Results & conclusions: All subjects resolved symptoms (in 11 days on average), and oxygen saturation improved in 24 h (87.4% to 93.1%; p = 0.001). There were no hospitalizations or deaths, less than (p < 0.002 or 0.05, respectively) background-matched CDC database controls. Triple combination therapy is safe and effective even when used in outpatients with moderate to severe symptoms. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04482686 (ClinicalTrial.gov).


Assuntos
Ivermectina , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Trop Doct ; 52(2): 293-297, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018841

RESUMO

Patients with Hansen's disease are liable to develop non-healing trophic ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of autologous platelet rich fibrin (PRF) applied at weekly intervals in the management of trophic ulcers. The mean age of the patients, duration and size of ulcer were 44.3 years, 7.4 months and 6.25cm2 respectively. After the third sessions of weekly dressing, there was a significant reduction in the ulcer area (p value = 0.015). All ulcers healed by a maximum of six weeks. No adverse events were noted. PRF thus seems a feasible, safe, simple and cost-effective treatment method.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Dermatopatias , Adulto , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera
11.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 61(3): 482-485, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656414

RESUMO

Tibiofibular injury repair of ankle fractures may result in over-compression when performed via a partially threaded screw depending on its placed level. We aimed to examine the relationship between the screw level relative to the tibiotalar joint and syndesmosis malreduction in postoperative radiographs of ankle fractures treated with partially threaded screws. We retrospectively analyzed 129 patients who underwent surgery due to lateral malleolar fractures between 2011 and 2019. We measured the distance between the screw and the tibiotalar joint and stratified the patients per their screw level as either trans-syndesmotic or suprasyndesmotic. According to Lauge-Hansen, 83 cases were supination-external rotation type (64.3%), and the remaining were pronation-external rotation type (35.7%) injuries. We found postoperative syndesmosis malreduction in 20 cases (15.5%). Eight (6.2%) cases had medial clear space mismatch. As the distance of the screw to the joint increased, postoperative medial clear space values increased (rho: 0.190, p = .031). The relationship between postoperative syndesmosis mismatch and the level of the syndesmotic screw was statistically significant (p = .044). In syndesmosis repair with a partially threaded screw, as the distance of the screw from the joint increases, the over-compression caused by the screw may cause an increase in postoperative syndesmotic malreduction rates.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Parafusos Ósseos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 61(3): 490-496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763998

RESUMO

Fragility ankle fractures in elderly have a rising incidence and hospitalization may be prolonged due to pre-existing comorbidities, compromised soft tissue and postoperative difficulties in the rehabilitation process. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate risk factors for longer total hospitalization duration in elderly patients with surgically treated fragility (Lauge Hansen supination external rotation type 4) fractures. We included all patients ≥ 70 years with a fragility fracture, who were treated surgically between 2011 and 2019 (n = 97) in a level 1 and 2 trauma center. Data on patient demographics, fracture characteristics, surgical treatment strategies and postoperative complications were retrieved from medical records. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for longer hospitalization duration. The mean age of the included patients was 78.27 (± 6.56) years; 71 patients (73.20%) were female. Ten fractures (10.30%) were classified as open and 49 (50.50%) as a luxation type fracture. Fifty-nine patients (60.80%) were hospitalized after admission to the emergency department. External fixation was performed in 34 patients (35.10%) and served as bridge to definitive fixation in 29 patients (85.30%). The mean total hospital length of stay of all patients was 7.04 (± 6.58) days. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the use of external fixation (p < .001) and the postoperative discharge destination (p < .001) were independently associated with a prolonged hospital stay. External fixation and discharge destination were independent risk factors for a prolonged hospital stay in elderly patients with a fragility fracture.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(4): 494-499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877858

RESUMO

Background Although topical amphotericin B cream is effective for the treatment of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis in vitro, studies of its effectiveness and safety in vivo are limited. Objectives We studied the effectiveness and safety of topical 0.3% amphotericin B in 30% dimethyl sulfoxide cream (amphotericin B cream) in nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis using the vehicle cream 30% dimethyl sulfoxide cream as control. Methods This randomized controlled study was conducted between January 2019 and November 2020. Patients diagnosed with nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis were randomly divided into two groups of ten patients each: one treated with amphotericin B cream and the other with the vehicle cream. Clinical and mycological cure as well as safety were evaluated. Results Ten patients each treated with amphotericin B cream and the vehicle cream were included in the study, but only nine patients in the vehicle cream group were available for follow up. All the 19 evaluable patients had distal lateral subungual onychomycosis and the great toenails were affected in 18 (94.7%) of these. Mycological cure was achieved in 8 (80%) patients treated with amphotericin B cream and in 4 (44.4%) patients using the control (vehicle) cream. Clinical cure was achieved in 7 (70%) patients treated with amphotericin B cream, but only in 2 (22.2%) patients on the control cream. No adverse events were observed. Limitations The small sample size and the fact that PCR fungal identification that provides accurate identification of fungal species was not performed are limitations of our study. Conclusion Topical amphotericin B cream was both very effective and safe in the treatment nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis. The control (vehicle) cream containing 30% dimethyl sulfoxide also demonstrated some antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé , Onicomicose , Administração Tópica , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/uso terapêutico , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(1): 108-114, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949111

RESUMO

DISCLOSURES: Funding for this summary was contributed by Arnold Ventures, The Donaghue Foundation, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, and Kaiser Foundation Health Plan to the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), an independent organization that evaluates the evidence on the value of health care interventions. ICER's annual policy summit is supported by dues from AbbVie, America's Health Insurance Plans, Anthem, Alnylam, AstraZeneca, Biogen, Blue Shield of CA, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Cambia Health Services, CVS, Editas, Evolve Pharmacy, Express Scripts, Genentech/Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Harvard Pilgrim, Health Care Service Corporation, HealthFirst, Health Partners, Humana, Johnson & Johnson (Janssen), Kaiser Permanente, LEO Pharma, Mallinckrodt, Merck, Novartis, National Pharmaceutical Council, Pfizer, Premera, Prime Therapeutics, Regeneron, Sanofi, Sun Life Financial, uniQure, and United Healthcare. Agboola, Herron-Smith, Nhan, Rind, and Pearson are employed by ICER. Through their affiliated institutions, Atlas, Brouwer, Carlson, and Hansen received funding from ICER for the work described in this summary.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/economia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 936, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A supination-adduction (SAD) ankle fracture is a special type of ankle fracture that results in collapse of the distal tibial articular surface; as such, orthopaedic surgeons require greater awareness of this type of fracture. The severity of this injury lies between that of an ordinary ankle fracture and a pilon fracture, and the treatment of such fractures based on the ankle fracture concept leads to extremely high rates of postoperative complications and a poor prognosis. In this retrospective study, we aimed to explore the treatment of SAD fractures based on the pilon fracture concept. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 67 patients with Lauge-Hansen supination-adduction type II (SAD-II) ankle fractures, most of whom had a 44-A AO classification. Patients underwent surgical treatment at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2009 to June 2019. The patients were divided into two groups based on the surgical concept employed: 43 patients were included in the ankle fracture surgical concept group, and 24 patients were included in the medial pilon fracture surgical concept group. The therapeutic effect was evaluated based on the Burwell-Charnley radiological reduction standard, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score and postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score 1 year after surgery using regression with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: All 67 patients were followed up. Twenty-four patients were treated according to the medial pilon fracture concept, and forty-three patients were treated according to the ankle fracture concept. The AOFAS score 1 year after surgery in the medial pilon group (89.83 ± 2.77) was higher than that in the ankle fracture group (83.63 ± 7.97) (p < 0.05). The VAS score 1 year after surgery in the medial pilon fracture group (1.17 ± 0.96) was significantly better than that in the ankle fracture group (2.28 ± 0.96) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with Lauge-Hansen SAD-II ankle fractures treated based on the medial pilon fracture surgical concept had better postoperative outcomes than those treated based on the ankle fracture surgical concept. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Fraturas da Tíbia , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Indian J Med Res ; 154(1): 121-131, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782538

RESUMO

Background & objectives: The elimination goal for leprosy as a public health problem at the national level was achieved in 2005 in India. However, the number of new cases reporting annually remained nearly the same during the last 10-15 years. Moreover, a substantial number of these new cases reported disabilities for the first time. Therefore, besides multidrug therapy (MDT), newer strategies with focus on effectively decreasing the number of new cases, optimizing the treatment of detected cases, averting disabilities and arresting the transmission of the disease are required. So the objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) vaccine implementation in National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) for newly diagnosed leprosy patients as well as their contacts to arrest/decrease the transmission and occurrence of new cases. Methods: This was a model-based estimation of incremental costs, total quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, new cases averted, deaths averted, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and budget impact of the vaccination intervention. This model included the addition of MIP treatment intervention to the newly detected leprosy patients as well as vaccination with MIP to their contacts. Results: Using the societal perspective, discounted ICER was estimated to be ₹73,790 per QALY gained over a five-year time period. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was assessed by varying the values of input parameters. Majority (96%) of simulations fell in North East quadrant of cost-effectiveness plane, which were all below the willingness to pay threshold. Interpretation & conclusions: Introduction of MIP vaccination in the NLEP appears to be a cost-effective strategy for India. Significant health gains were reduction in the number of new leprosy cases, decreased incidence and severity of reactions during treatment, and after release from treatment, prevention of disabilities, thus reducing the cost as well as stigma of the disease.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Vacinas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1590-1597, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials of BCG vaccination to prevent or reduce severity of COVID-19 are taking place in adults, some of whom have been previously vaccinated, but evidence of the beneficial, non-specific effects of BCG come largely from data on mortality in infants and young children, and from in-vitro and animal studies, after a first BCG vaccination. We assess all-cause mortality following a large BCG revaccination trial in Malawi. METHODS: The Karonga Prevention trial was a population-based, double-blind, randomised controlled in Karonga District, northern Malawi, that enrolled participants between January, 1986, and November, 1989. The trial compared BCG (Glaxo-strain) revaccination versus placebo to prevent tuberculosis and leprosy. 46 889 individuals aged 3 months to 75 years were randomly assigned to receive BCG revaccination (n=23 528) or placebo (n=23 361). Here we report mortality since vaccination as recorded during active follow-up in northern areas of the district in 1991-94, and in a demographic surveillance follow-up in the southern area in 2002-18. 7389 individuals who received BCG (n=3746) or placebo (n=3643) lived in the northern follow-up areas, and 5616 individuals who received BCG (n=2798) or placebo (n=2818) lived in the southern area. Year of death or leaving the area were recorded for those not found. We used survival analysis to estimate all-cause mortality. FINDINGS: Follow-up information was available for 3709 (99·0%) BCG recipients and 3612 (99·1%) placebo recipients in the northern areas, and 2449 (87·5%) BCG recipients and 2413 (85·6%) placebo recipients in the southern area. There was no difference in mortality between the BCG and placebo groups in either area, overall or by age group or sex. In the northern area, there were 129 deaths per 19 694 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·6 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·8]) versus 133 deaths per 19 111 person-years at risk in the placebo group (7·0 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·9-8·2]; HR 0·94 [95% CI 0·74-1·20]; p=0·62). In the southern area, there were 241 deaths per 38 399 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·3 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·1]) versus 230 deaths per 38 676 person-years at risk in the placebo group (5·9 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·2-6·8]; HR 1·06 [95% CI 0·88-1·27]; p=0·54). INTERPRETATION: We found little evidence of any beneficial effect of BCG revaccination on all-cause mortality. The high proportion of deaths attributable to non-infectious causes beyond infancy, and the long time interval since BCG for most deaths, might obscure any benefits. FUNDING: British Leprosy Relief Association (LEPRA); Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacina BCG/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/mortalidade , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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