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1.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 682021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642290

RESUMO

Although intranuclear coccidiosis was first identified in chelonians less than 30 years ago, it is now considered an important emerging disease. Symptoms include anorexia, weakness and weight loss, potentially leading to death of the infected animal. The use of molecular tools has led to improved diagnosis and has also led to an increase in known host species. Here we report a putative intranuclear coccidium in Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger), from Morocco, based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of this parasite from a freshwater terrapin species.


Assuntos
Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/veterinária , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccídios/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Marrocos
2.
Parasitol Int ; 82: 102306, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610828

RESUMO

Species of Haemogregarina are apicomplexan blood parasites that use vertebrates as intermediate hosts. Due to limited interspecific morphological characters within the genus during the last decade, 18S rRNA gene sequences were widely used for species identification. As coinfection patterns were recently reported from nuclear molecular data for two sympatric freshwater turtles Mauremys leprosa and Emys orbicularis from Tunisia, our objectives were to design COI specific primers to confirm the presence of three distinct species in both host species. Blood samples were collected from 22 turtles, from which DNAs were extracted and used as templates for amplification. Following different rounds of PCR and nested PCR, we designed specific Haemogregarina COI primers that allowed the sequencing of nine distinct haplotypes. Phylogenetic Bayesian analysis revealed the occurrence of three well-differentiated sublineages that clustered together into a single clade. Based on pairwise genetic distances (p-distance), we confirmed the occurrence of three distinct but phylogenetically closely related species coinfecting M. leprosa and E. orbicularis in the same aquatic environments. Our results demonstrate that the use of fast evolving genes within Haemogregarina will help to investigate the parasite diversity within both intermediate vertebrate and definitive invertebrate hosts, and to assess the evolution, historical biogeography and specificity of haemogregarines.


Assuntos
Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/enzimologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Filogenia , Tunísia
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(18): 23174-23181, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439446

RESUMO

The marginal populations of the Sahara blue-eyed pond turtle, Mauremys leprosa saharica (Testudines: Geoemydidae) in the pre-Saharan area in the Lower Draa Valley, are faced to extreme environmental conditions of arid climate and anthropogenic activities including overuse of water and land salinization. In this study, we investigated a small isolated population of the blue-eyed pond turtle at Sidi El Mehdaoui Oasis, Lower Draa Valley, to determine its population structure and morphometric characteristics. Water salinity was about 24% of seawater and dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 3 mg l-1 (sub-hypoxia). The average body size of adults (carapace length) was much lower in comparison to other Moroccan populations. Among adult individuals, the mean carapace lengths were 103 ± 21 mm and 104.4 ± 35 mm for males and females, respectively. The corresponding mean body mass were 173 ± 92.4 g and 135 ± 52 g. There were no significant differences between sexes for size or weight. The studied population is small, with a predominance of adults (75%). A significant sexual size dimorphism was found. In fact, the Sexual Dimorphism Index for size had the lowest level ever described for the species possibly because of the low productivity of this marginal isolated habitat. The increased drought and salinization are major threats to the long-term persistence of the vulnerable populations of the Saharan blue-eyed pond turtle and their habitats. Therefore, conservation measures of these populations through the protection of their habitats are very urgent.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , África do Norte , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Marrocos
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3459-3467, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677002

RESUMO

Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) was considered as a specific host of Placobdella costata (Fr. Mûller, 1846). However, since the parasite was recorded from outside the distribution area of its host, some authors suggested a possible relationship with other hosts. Although two accidental associations were found with another turtle, Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812), the obtained data remain insufficient to better understand this discovered host-parasite ecological system. In this context, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the Mediterranean pond turtle, M. leprosa, and the freshwater rhynchobdellid leech, P. costata (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae), in aquatic ecosystems of Morocco. During the period from April to June 2018, we found leeches attached to turtles in five out of 30 populations sampled with a prevalence of infection significantly higher in adult than that in juvenile turtles. Moreover, the males are the most infested with 51% of the total, followed by females (33.3%) and juveniles (15.7%). The obtained results indicated that 51 turtles were infested by 139 leeches with a mean intensity of infestation of 4.17 ± 0.47 leeches/turtle (up to 10 leeches/turtle). It was higher in males than that in females in almost all sites. The posterior limbs are the most preferred attachment site, and the body condition of turtles was not affected by the intensity of infestation but it is rather a function of altitude. Our findings proved that M. leprosa-P. costata association is more than accidental and that M. leprosa is rather the main host of P. costata in aquatic ecosystems of Morocco.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3315-3326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699938

RESUMO

Haemogregarina species are apicomplexan blood parasites infecting vertebrates such as fish, lizards, and turtles. Due to the high morphological similarity of the erythrocytic stages infecting host species, it has always been a challenge to identify the true diversity of these parasites. Therefore, taxonomic studies are presently based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. In Tunisia, two species of Haemogregarina have been reported within the freshwater turtle Mauremys leprosa (Geoemydidae) for more than 40 years. Since M. leprosa occurs in the same aquatic environments as Emys orbicularis (Emydidae) in Tunisia, our objectives were to assess parasite diversity and specificity on the basis of both morphological and molecular approaches. The turtles were surveyed and sampled across six aquatic areas of Tunisia. Among the 39 specimens of M. leprosa and seven of E. orbicularis that were trapped and investigated, the presence of haemogregarines was detected in the blood of turtles only at sites where leeches were observed. Three 18S variants were identified, which corresponded to three distinct Haemogregarina species, among which one was identified as Haemogregarina stepanowi. The two other species that were detected are likely new to science. Because we show the occurrence of more than one blood parasite species within a single host specimen, our study provides the first report of coinfection with molecularly distinct Haemogregarina spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Sanguessugas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/classificação
6.
Chemosphere ; 231: 194-206, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129400

RESUMO

Among reptiles, freshwater turtle species have high potential for metal accumulation because of their long lifespan or their aquatic and terrestrial habits. In order to monitor metal bioaccumulation, determine potential toxic effects, and investigate tools for non-invasive metal sampling in reptiles, we studied lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) accumulation in Mediterranean pond turtles (Mauremys leprosa) inhabiting two former mining areas, one of them with high environmental concentrations of Pb (Sierra Madrona-Alcudia Valley district) and the other one with high environmental concentrations of Hg (Almadén district). Individuals from the Pb mining area showed mean blood concentrations (i.e. 5.59 µg Pb/g dry weight, d.w.) that were higher than those measured in other populations. Blood Hg concentrations were highest (8.83 µg Hg/g d.w.) in the site close to the former Hg mines, whereas blood Hg concentrations in terrapins from another site of Almadén district, located ∼28 km downstream, were not different from locations at the non-mining area. Animals from the Pb-contaminated site showed evidence of oxidative stress, whereas those from the Hg-contaminated site showed increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, as well as reduced circulating levels of the main endogenous antioxidant peptide, glutathione. Concentrations measured in feces and carapace scutes were useful indicators to monitor blood concentrations of Pb, but not of Hg. Our results provide evidence of the usefulness of freshwater turtles as sentinels of chronic metal pollution, and validate non-invasive tools to advance Pb monitoring in reptiles.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/metabolismo , Mineração , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Água Doce , Região do Mediterrâneo , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Lagoas/química
7.
Chemosphere ; 220: 432-441, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594794

RESUMO

Freshwater turtles are long-lived sedentary organisms used as biological sentinels to assess anthropogenic perturbations in freshwater-ecosystems; notably because pollutants tend to accumulate in their tissues. Pollution has detrimental effects in sea turtles, but studies in freshwater turtles have provided contrasted results: several species have been impacted by habitat perturbation and pollution while others not. It is important to explore this issue since freshwater turtles are threatened worldwide. We compared two populations of the stripe necked terrapin (Mauremys leprosa) in a relatively pristine area (piedmont of the Atlas mountain) versus an extremely degraded-polluted area (sewers of a large city) in Morocco. All morphological and physiological proxies showed that turtles were able to cope remarkably well with highly degraded-polluted habitat. Population density, body size, and body condition were higher in the sewers, likely due to permanent water and food availability associated with human wastes. Stress markers (e.g. glucocorticoids) provided complex results likely reflecting the capacity of turtles to respond to various stressors. Reproductive parameters (testosterone level, indices of vitellogenesis) were lower in the relatively pristine area. The deceptive overall image provided by these analyses may hide the disastrous human impact on rivers. Indeed, Mauremys leprosa is the only aquatic vertebrate able to survive in the sewers, and thus, might nonetheless be a pertinent indicator of water quality, providing that the complexity of eco-physiological responses is considered.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Qualidade da Água
8.
Behav Processes ; 157: 142-147, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157465

RESUMO

Animals respond to predation risk with antipredatory behaviours that may disclose the presence of different personality traits among individuals in a population, and how populations may differ for the expression of those traits. Variation among individuals is a necessary condition for the evolution through natural selection and inter-individual behavioural differences may be selected in different environmental situations. We tested whether individuals of two freshwater turtle species, Emys orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa, show consistent risk-taking behaviour when exposed to the presence of a potential predator. In an outdoor experimental setting, we simulated a predatory attack by overturning a turtle onto its carapace and recording three different behavioural response variables. Our results showed clear differences between species. The appearance time was highly consistent over the trials for both species, but was shorter for E. orbicularis and very long for M. leprosa. Waiting time was consistent only for females of E. orbicularis while M. leprosa did not show repeatability and had significantly longer waiting times. The number of failed righting attempts, likely being partially dependent on turtle individual performance, was highly consistent during the experiment for both species. The hiding behaviour in both species of freshwater turtles was consistent over time and, therefore, could be regarded as a personality trait. However, the differences in waiting times consistency suggested possible differences in defensive strategies between sexes and species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Água Doce , Individualidade , Masculino , Personalidade , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Parasitol Int ; 67(1): 38-46, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336417

RESUMO

Polystomes are monogenean parasites that infest mainly semi aquatic vertebrates, such as amphibians and chelonians. Owing to the lack of discriminative morphological characters and because polystomes are considered to be strictly host- and site-specific, host identity is often used as an additional character for parasite identification. Recent genetic studies, however, showed that polystomes infecting freshwater turtles in outdoor turtle enclosures and natural environments, were not strictly host-specific. Therefore, we proposed a new procedure for turtle polystome taxonomy based on the combination of Cytochrome c Oxydase I sequences and two discriminant morphological characters, namely the number of genital spines and the testis shape. We tested the validity of this procedure with Polystomoides oris, which was collected from the pharyngeal cavity of the American painted turtle Chrysemys picta and two undescribed species, both collected from the pharyngeal cavity of the American slider Trachemys scripta and two other European turtles, namely the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis and the Mediterranean turtle Mauremys leprosa. A Principal Component Analysis based on both morphological characters allowed the separation of all specimens in three morphological groups, which matched well with the molecular data. As a result, we describe two new polystome species, i.e., Polystomoides soredensis n. sp. and Polystomoides scriptanus n. sp.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/veterinária , Trematódeos/classificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Florida , França , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , North Carolina , Fotografação , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
10.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 36(12): 3343-3350, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833383

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems face very strong anthropogenic pressures, among which overexploitation, habitat degradation, flow modification, species invasion, and water pollution lead to growing threats on biodiversity. Urbanization through wastewater treatment, industry through the release of inorganic and organic chemicals, and agriculture through the use of pesticides and herbicides are the main factors involved in water pollution. In France, more precisely in the Pyrénées-Orientales department, the poor quality of the watercourses is attributable overall to the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agricultural activities. Because these chemicals can impact individuals, populations, and biodiversity, we investigated, under experimental conditions, the physiological response of animals facing abiotic contaminants. We selected as a model, juveniles of the freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. We measured the gene expression and activity of the catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation, which are all oxidative stress biomarkers, in turtles challenged with high concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicides, on the one hand, and with degraded waters collected from a local watercourse, on the other. We also measured the acetylcholinesterase activity across the same animals. We showed through variations in gene expression and enzyme activity that a glyphosate commercial formulation induced a stress in turtles. A similar outcome was obtained when turtles faced degraded waters. The results indicated that the poor quality of regional waters could be a real threat for animal health. Because turtles are globally less sensitive to contaminants than amphibians, which are lacking in the degraded waters of the Pyrénées-Orientales department, they could constitute an excellent model to follow the evolution of water quality through the study of oxidative stress biomarkers. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3343-3350. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agricultura , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , França , Água Doce , Glicina/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 99(2): 167-172, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597086

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess metal exposure in the Mediterranean Pond Turtle (Mauremys leprosa) inhabiting a watercourse in an ancient mining district polluted by different metals ("Rambla de Las Moreras", southeastern Spain) and included in the Ramsar Convention. For this purpose, mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were analysed in blood samples from 42 M. leprosa healthy adults (27 males and 13 females). The highest median concentrations were found for Zn, followed by Cu, Pb, Hg and Cd (366, 33, 9, 0.83 and 0.14 µg/dL, respectively). Although the literature regarding toxic metals in freshwater turtles is relatively scarce, Pb may cause deleterious effects in our population. In general, males presented higher levels than females, which could be due to maternal transfer during egg formation. The significant correlations between Cu-Cd and Cu-Hg suggest the implication of an efficient mechanism of detoxification involving metallothioneins.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/sangue , Mineração , Tartarugas/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Lagoas/química , Espanha , Zinco/análise
12.
Parasitology ; 144(11): 1449-1457, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641604

RESUMO

Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates and may cause serious damages to their hosts. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some groups of reptiles such as terrapins. Moreover, the information on virulence from blood parasites mixed infection is largely unknown in reptiles. With this aim, we investigated for the first time the prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites from one genus of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan (Hepatozoon) in two populations of Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa), a semi-aquatic turtle from southwestern Europe with a vulnerable conservation status. We also examined the association between mixed blood parasite infection and indicators of health of terrapins (body condition, haematocrit values and immune response). Blood parasite infection with Hepatozoon spp was detected in 46·4% of 140 examined terrapins. The prevalence of blood parasites infection differed between populations. We found two different lineages of blood parasite, which have not been found in previous studies. Of the turtles with infection, 5·7% harboured mixed infection by the two lineages. There was no difference in body condition between uninfected, single-infected and mixed-infected turtles, but mixed-infected individuals had the lowest values of haematocrit, thus revealing the negative effects of blood parasite mixed infections. Immune response varied among terrapins with different infection status, where mixed infected individuals had higher immune response than uninfected or single-infected terrapins.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/genética , Variação Genética , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Prevalência , Tartarugas/imunologia
13.
Chemosphere ; 183: 332-338, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554017

RESUMO

Increasing anthropogenic activities, like agricultural practices, constitute the main causes of the loss of water quality and disruption of freshwater ecosystems. High concentrations of pesticides, as shown under experimental conditions, can indeed impact freshwater animals. In Southern France, especially in the Pyrénées-Orientales department, because agricultural activities are mainly based on fruit crops and vineyards, glyphosate and AMPA were detected in some watercourses. Thereby we investigated the effects of degraded waters on the physiology of the endemic endangered freshwater species, namely the Mediterranean pond turtle Mauremys leprosa, in contrasted environments along the same rivers on the one hand and between different rivers on the other. We measured the activity and gene expression of two enzymes involved in the oxidative detoxification processes, namely the Catalase and the Superoxide dismutase. We showed significant variations in the Catalase gene expression and activity within turtles of the Fosseille River depending of their location, i.e. upstream or downstream of the wastewater treatment plants (WTP). Because agricultural environments are similar all along this river, they can no be longer considered as the unique source of turtle stress. The processed waters discharged by the WTP, which contribute to watercourses degradation, could therefore considerably impact the biodiversity of the freshwater environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água Doce/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , França , Praguicidas/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/análise
14.
Parasitology ; 144(5): 563-570, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27938420

RESUMO

In an interconnected world, the international pet trade on wild animals is becoming increasingly important. As a consequence, non-native parasite species are introduced, which affect the health of wildlife and contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Because the investigation of parasite diversity within vulnerable host species implies the molecular identification of large samples of parasite eggs, the sequencing of DNA barcodes is time-consuming and costly. Thereby, the objectives of our study were to apply the high resolution melting (HRM) approach for species determination from pools of parasite eggs. Molecular assays were validated on flatworm parasites (polystomes) infecting the Mediterranean pond turtle Mauremys leprosa and the invasive red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans in French natural environments. HRM analysis results indicated that double or multiple parasitic infections could be detected from wild animal populations. They also showed that the cycle of parasite eggs production was not regular over time and may depend on several factors, among which the ecological niche and the target species. Thereby, monitoring parasites from wild endangered animals implies periodic parasitological surveys to avoid false negative diagnostics, based solely on eggs production.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , França , Masculino , Óvulo , Platelmintos/classificação , Platelmintos/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Temperatura de Transição
15.
Behav Processes ; 111: 90-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25528131

RESUMO

Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Gravidez , Assunção de Riscos
16.
Acta Parasitol ; 59(2): 259-62, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24827095

RESUMO

Placobdella costata is a leech specific to freshwater turtle Emys orbicularis. Both genera are native to North America and have co-evolved and undergone dispersion through the Palearctic. The leech is present throughout the Mediterranean area, always associated with E. orbicularis. Their only known presence in the Iberian Peninsula is in the north and center of the peninsula. Here we present the first description of the leech in southern Spain (Andalusia) in association with a small fragmented population of fresh-water turtles in which E. orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa coexist. Unusually, the leech was found attached to the carapace of a male M. leprosa.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Sanguessugas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Masculino , Espanha
17.
Parasitology ; 141(4): 522-30, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24476992

RESUMO

The majority of Haemogregarina species have been based on the morphology of their erythrocytic stages and supposed strict host specificity. The quantity of species with a limited number of overlapping diagnostic traits has led to a considerable mess in haemogregarine taxonomy and significant synonymy. We analysed host specificity, intra- and interspecific variability, evolutionary relationships, and the distribution of the type species of the genus Haemogregarina--H. stepanowi. The morphology of blood stages and 18S rDNA sequences of this haemogregarine from four western Palaearctic hard-shelled freshwater turtles (Emys orbicularis, Mauremys caspica, Mauremys leprosa and Mauremys rivulata) were compared with Haemogregarina balli. Additional sequences of 18S rDNA of Haemogregarina-like isolates collected from three species of African hinged terrapins (genus Pelusios) were used to enlarge the dataset for phylogenetic analyses. Thirteen sequences (1085 bp) of Haemogregarina representing all four western Palaearctic turtle species were identical, corresponding to H. stepanowi, which is closely related to the Nearctic species H. balli. In our analyses, Haemogregarina spp. constituted a monophyletic clade sister to the genus Hepatozoon. Haemogregarina stepanowi possesses a wide distribution range from the Maghreb, through Europe, Turkey and the Middle East to Iran. We consider that the genus Haemogregarina has a low host specificity crossing the family level of its vertebrate hosts and that its distribution is likely to be linked to the vector and definitive host--the leech.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sanguessugas/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/citologia , Eucoccidiida/genética , Feminino , Água Doce , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
18.
Naturwissenschaften ; 100(12): 1137-47, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24253419

RESUMO

Many studies have shown the importance of colorful ornamentation in mate choosiness or intrasexual conflict. However, research on color ornaments has focused mainly on birds, lizards or fish, but remains practically unknown in other animal groups such as turtles. In addition, female ornaments and their relation with sexual selection also remain almost unknown. Here, we measured the coloration of the shell and the limb stripes of male and female Spanish terrapins Mauremys leprosa and explored the existence of sexual dichromatism and the relation of color characteristics with body size and health state estimated from the immune response to the injection of an antigen (phytohaemagglutinin test). Our results showed that shell coloration, which could be constrained by natural selection to be cryptic, changed with body size, but did not differ between sexes. In contrast, females had brighter and less ultraviolet-saturated and more orange-saturated limb stripes than males. In females, interindividual variation in limb stripe coloration was related with body size and immune response suggesting that this coloration may inform honestly about multiple traits that could be important in sexual selection. In contrast, coloration of limb stripes of males was duller than in females, and was not related with any trait suggesting that coloration is not important in sexual selection for males.


Assuntos
Imunocompetência/imunologia , Pigmentação/imunologia , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Tartarugas/imunologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Physiol Behav ; 108: 28-33, 2012 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23058848

RESUMO

Righting behavior of aquatic turtles might be subject to coadaptation pressures between preferred basking temperature and locomotion, given that it is mainly performed on land and may critically determine the survival of turtles. We analyzed the effect of body temperature (T(b)) on righting performance of two species of freshwater turtles, the endangered native Spanish terrapin (Mauremys leprosa), and the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), an introduced invasive species that is displacing native turtles in the Iberian Peninsula. Interspecific differences in morphology, basking requirements and behavioral responses have been found between Spanish terrapins and introduced sliders. Therefore, we hypothesized that T(b) might differentially affect righting behavior of these two turtle species. We found a clear effect of T(b) on righting response of both M. leprosa and T. scripta, with the performance enhanced at the preferred basking temperature of each turtle species. These results suggest that righting might be coadapted to preferred basking temperature in freshwater turtles. Also, M. leprosa required longer times to right on average than T. scripta, which denotes a higher efficiency of introduced sliders at righting performance. These interspecific behavioral asymmetries in righting performance between native and exotic turtles might contribute to the greater competitive ability of introduced T. scripta, favoring the expansion of exotic sliders in the new environments in which they are introduced, in detriment to native Spanish terrapins.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Locomoção , Tempo de Reação , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
20.
Physiol Behav ; 105(5): 1208-13, 2012 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22226990

RESUMO

Thermoregulatory behavior and feeding status are strongly related in ectotherms. A trade-off between maintenance of energy balance and digestion efficiency has been recently proposed to affect thermoregulation in these animals. On the other hand, competition for basking sites has been described between Iberian turtles and the introduced red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). T. scripta negatively interferes with basking behavior of native turtles and benefits from a greater capacity to retain body heat, which may likely result in thermoregulatory advantages for the introduced sliders. Consequently, complex effects and alterations in metabolic rates of native turtles might derive from a deficient basking behavior. We compared the basking requirements of the endangered native Spanish terrapin (Mauremys leprosa) and those of the introduced red-eared slider, analyzing the upper set point temperature (USP) (defined as the body temperature at which basking ceased) of both native and introduced turtles, under feeding and fasting conditions. We found higher values of USP in the native species, and a reduction of this temperature associated with food deprivation in the two turtle species. This adjustment of thermoregulatory behavior to the nutritional status found in freshwater turtles suggests that ectotherms benefit from metabolic depression as an adaptive mechanism to preserve energy during periods of fasting. However, a reduction in metabolic rates induced by competition with sliders might lead M. leprosa to a prolonged deficiency of their physiological functions, thus incurring increased predation risk and health costs, and ultimately favoring the recession of this native species in Mediterranean habitats.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Espécies Introduzidas , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
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