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1.
Exp Neurol ; 352: 114053, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341747

RESUMO

Nine-banded armadillos develop peripheral neuropathy after experimental Mycobacterium leprae infection that recapitulates human disease. We used an intracutaneous excision axotomy model to assess the effect of infection duration by M. leprae on axonal sprouting and Schwan cell density. 34 armadillos (17 naïve and 17 M. leprae-infected) underwent 3 mm skin biopsies to create an intracutaneous excision axotomy followed by a concentric 4-mm overlapping biopsy 3 and 12-months post M. leprae inoculation. A traditional distal leg biopsy was obtained at 15mo for intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density. Serial skin sections were immunostained against a axons (PGP9.5, GAP43), and Schwann cells (p75, s100) to visualize regenerating nerves. Regenerative axons and proliferation of Schwann cells was measured and the rate of growth at each time point was assessed. Increasing anti-PGL antibody titers and intraneural M. leprae confirmed infection. 15mo following infection, there was evidence of axon loss with reduced distal leg IENF versus naïve armadillos, p < 0.05. This was associated with an increase in Schwann cell density (11,062 ± 2905 vs. 7561 ± 2715 cells/mm3, p < 0.01). Following excisional biopsy epidermal reinnervation increased monotonically at 30, 60 and 90 days; the regeneration rate was highest at 30 days, and decreased at 60 and 90 days. The reinnervation rate was highest among animals infected for 3mo vs those infected for 12mo or naïve animals (mean ± SD, 27.8 ± 7.2 vs.16.2 ± 5.8vs. 15.3 ± 6.5 mm/mm3, p < 0.05). The infected armadillos displayed a sustained Schwann cell proliferation across axotomy time points and duration of infection (3mo:182 ± 26, 12mo: 256 ± 126, naive: 139 ± 49 cells/day, p < 0.05). M. leprae infection is associated with sustained Schwann cell proliferation and distal limb nerve fiber loss. Rates of epidermal reinnervation were highest 3mo after infection and normalized by 12 mo of infection. We postulate that excess Schwann cell proliferation is the main pathogenic process and is deleterious to sensory axons. There is a compensatory initial increase in regeneration rates that may be an attempt to compensate for the injury, but it is not sustained and eventually followed by axon loss. Aberrant Schwann cell proliferation may be a novel therapeutic target to interrupt the pathogenic cascade of M. leprae.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Axotomia , Proliferação de Células , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Células de Schwann/patologia
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 747-749, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202538

RESUMO

Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and are implicated in the zoonotic transmission of leprosy in the United States. In Mexico, the existence of such a reservoir remains to be characterized. We describe a wild armadillo infected by M. leprae in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico.


Assuntos
Tatus , Hanseníase , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , México/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009436, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. As incidence begins to decline, the characteristics of new cases shifts away from those observed in highly endemic areas, revealing potentially important insights into possible ongoing sources of transmission. We aimed to investigate whether transmission is driven mainly by undiagnosed and untreated new leprosy cases in the community, or by incompletely treated or relapsing cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature search of major electronic databases was conducted in January, 2020 with 134 articles retained out of a total 4318 records identified (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020178923). We presented quantitative data from leprosy case records with supporting evidence describing the decline in incidence across several contexts. BCG vaccination, active case finding, adherence to multidrug therapy and continued surveillance following treatment were the main strategies shared by countries who achieved a substantial reduction in incidence. From 3950 leprosy case records collected across 22 low endemic countries, 48.3% were suspected to be imported, originating from transmission outside of the country. Most cases were multibacillary (64.4%) and regularly confirmed through skin biopsy, with 122 cases of suspected relapse from previous leprosy treatment. Family history was reported in 18.7% of cases, while other suspected sources included travel to high endemic areas and direct contact with armadillos. None of the countries included in the analysis reported a distinct increase in leprosy incidence in recent years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with socioeconomic improvement over time, several successful leprosy control programmes have been implemented in recent decades that led to a substantial decline in incidence. Most cases described in these contexts were multibacillary and numerous cases of suspected relapse were reported. Despite these observations, there was no indication that these cases led to a rise in new secondary cases, suggesting that they do not represent a large ongoing source of human-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Viagem
5.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952660

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections claim more than a million lives each year, and better treatments or vaccines are required. A crucial pathogenicity factor is translocation from phagolysosomes to the cytosol upon phagocytosis by macrophages. Translocation from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is an ESX-1-dependent process, as previously shown in vitro Here, we show that in vivo, mycobacteria also translocate to the cytosol but mainly when host immunity is compromised. We observed only low numbers of cytosolic bacilli in mice, armadillos, zebrafish, and patient material infected with M. tuberculosis, M. marinum, or M. leprae In contrast, when innate or adaptive immunity was compromised, as in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1)-deficient mice, significant numbers of cytosolic M. tuberculosis bacilli were detected in the lungs of infected mice. Taken together, in vivo, translocation to the cytosol of M. tuberculosis is controlled by adaptive immune responses as well as IL-1R1-mediated signals.IMPORTANCE For decades, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been one of the deadliest pathogens known. Despite infecting approximately one-third of the human population, no effective treatment or vaccine is available. A crucial pathogenicity factor is subcellular localization, as M. tuberculosis can translocate from phagolysosome to the cytosol in macrophages. The situation in vivo is more complicated. In this study, we establish that high-level cytosolic escape of mycobacteria can indeed occur in vivo but mainly when host resistance is compromised. The IL-1 pathway is crucial for the control of the number of cytosolic mycobacteria. The establishment that immune signals result in the clearance of cells containing cytosolic mycobacteria connects two important fields, cell biology and immunology, which is vital for the understanding of the pathology of M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Citosol/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Fagossomos/microbiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Translocação Bacteriana , Citosol/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Mycobacterium/classificação , Fagossomos/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Células THP-1 , Peixe-Zebra
6.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 153-164, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226194

RESUMO

Understanding and quantifying the risk of Hansen's disease (HD) through zoonotic transmission of Mycobacterium leprae infection from wild armadillos is important because hunting, handling and consumption of these animals is widespread in communities where HD is endemic, posing a potential threat to the health of individuals and to HD elimination. We conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42019159891) of publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, LILACS, Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações de CAPES, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde up to 09/05/2020 using Mesh and text terms in English, Portuguese, Spanish and French. Random effects meta-analyses were performed including of subgroups by endemicity and type of exposure. Seven of the nine included studies were case-control, four from Brazil and three from the USA, comprising 1,124 cases and 2,023 controls in total. The other two studies, one from Brazil and one from Colombia, were cross-sectional. The overall summary estimate (odds ratio, OR) for the relative odds of HD comparing people who had direct contact with armadillos and/or had eaten armadillo meat with those who had not was OR = 2.60 (95% CI 1.78-3.80, p < .001) with a predictive interval of OR = 1.10-6.17. Summary odds ratios for specific exposures were as follows: indirect contact, OR = 1.39 (95% CI 1.02, 1.89) (p = .04); eating, OR = 2.29 (95% CI 1.13, 4.66) (p = .02); hunting, OR = 2.54 (95% CI 1.21, 5.33) (p = .01). Most of the included studies had moderate risk of bias. Crude estimates were reduced by up to 24% when adjusted for confounders (where reported). Direct contact with wild armadillos was strongly associated with an increased risk of HD, whilst evidence for an increased risk of HD from indirect contact was weaker. The fraction of HD in endemic countries attributable to zoonotic transmission from armadillos remains unknown, but the precautionary principle needs to be adopted to protect public health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/transmissão
7.
s.l; s.n; 2021. 6 p.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1284429
8.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 42(10): 769-773, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most cases of Hansen disease (HD) in the United States are imported from endemic areas, a subset of cases are relate to exposure to nine-banded armadillos. Several recent cases of HD in Arkansas occurred in patients who had not traveled to endemic areas and who reported variable degrees of armadillo exposure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report 6 cases of HD diagnosed in Arkansas between 2004 and 2016. The secondary purpose was to explore the correlation between exposure to the nine-banded armadillo as it pertains to transmission of the disease. METHODS: The referring clinician of each patient was contacted to gather information regarding the patient's clinical presentation, armadillo exposure, and travel history. In addition, the Arkansas Department of Health was consulted to review the demographics of individuals diagnosed with HD in the past 15 years and to review the distribution of HD throughout the state of Arkansas. RESULTS: Six domestic cases of HD were associated with both direct and indirect exposure to armadillos. LIMITATIONS: Armadillo exposure may be underreported in patients with HD because of fear of stigmatization and/or lack of access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Direct exposure to armadillos does not appear to be required for transmission of HD making a soil-mediated mechanism of indirect exposure plausible.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Pele/patologia , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008276, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339201

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) and the more recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis (M. lepromatosis). The two leprosy bacilli cause similar pathologic conditions. They primarily target the skin and the peripheral nervous system. Currently it is considered a Neglected Tropical Disease, being endemic in specific locations within countries of the Americas, Asia, and Africa, while in Europe it is only rarely reported. The reason for a spatial inequality in the prevalence of leprosy in so-called endemic pockets within a country is still largely unexplained. A systematic review was conducted targeting leprosy transmission research data, using PubMed and Scopus as sources. Publications between January 1, 1945 and July 1, 2019 were included. The transmission pathways of M. leprae are not fully understood. Solid evidence exists of an increased risk for individuals living in close contact with leprosy patients, most likely through infectious aerosols, created by coughing and sneezing, but possibly also through direct contact. However, this systematic review underscores that human-to-human transmission is not the only way leprosy can be acquired. The transmission of this disease is probably much more complicated than was thought before. In the Americas, the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) has been established as another natural host and reservoir of M. leprae. Anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission have both been proposed as modes of contracting the disease, based on data showing identical M. leprae strains shared between humans and armadillos. More recently, in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) with leprosy-like lesions in the British Isles M. leprae and M. lepromatosis DNA was detected. This finding was unexpected, because leprosy is considered a disease of humans (with the exception of the armadillo), and because it was thought that leprosy (and M. leprae) had disappeared from the United Kingdom. Furthermore, animals can be affected by other leprosy-like diseases, caused by pathogens phylogenetically closely related to M. leprae. These mycobacteria have been proposed to be grouped as a M. leprae-complex. We argue that insights from the transmission and reservoirs of members of the M. leprae-complex might be relevant for leprosy research. A better understanding of possible animal or environmental reservoirs is needed, because transmission from such reservoirs may partly explain the steady global incidence of leprosy despite effective and widespread multidrug therapy. A reduction in transmission cannot be expected to be accomplished by actions or interventions from the human healthcare domain alone, as the mechanisms involved are complex. Therefore, to increase our understanding of the intricate picture of leprosy transmission, we propose a One Health transdisciplinary research approach.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Hanseníase/transmissão , Hanseníase/veterinária , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Sciuridae/microbiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008127, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203502

RESUMO

Understanding the prevalence of M. leprae infection in armadillos is important because of evidence from Brazil and other countries of an association between contact with armadillos and the development of Hansen's Disease (leprosy). Our aim was to characterize studies which have investigated natural M. leprae infection in wild armadillos in Brazil, and to quantify and explore variability in the reported prevalence of infection. We conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42019155277) of publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, LILACS, Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações de CAPES, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde up to 10/2019 using Mesh and text search terms (in English, Portuguese, Spanish, and French). The 10 included studies represented a total sample of 302 armadillos comprising 207 (69%) Dasypus novemcinctus, 67 (22%) Euphractus sexcinctus, 16 (5%) Priodontes maximus, 10 (3%) Cabassous unicinctus, and 2 (1%) Cabassous tatouay from 7 different states. Methods used included histopathology (4 studies), PGL-1 and LID-1 antigen detection (4 studies) and examination for clinical signs of disease (4 studies). Eight studies used PCR of which 7 targeted the RLEP repetitive element and 3 tested for inhibitory substances. M. leprae prevalence by PCR ranged from 0% (in 3 studies) to 100% in one study, with a summary estimate of 9.4% (95% CI 0.4% to 73.1%) and a predictive interval of 0-100%. The average prevalence is equivalent to 1 in 10 armadillos in Brazil being infected with M. leprae, but wide variation in sample estimates means that the prevalence in any similar study would be entirely unpredictable. We propose instead that future studies aim to investigate transmission and persistence of M. leprae within and between armadillo populations, meanwhile adopting the precautionary principle to protect human health and an endangered species in Brazil.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Bases de Dados Factuais , Mapeamento Geográfico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
11.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 68: 101397, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775113

RESUMO

Leprosy was recognized as a zoonotic disease, associated with nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the Southern United States of America in 2011. In addition, there is growing evidence to support a role for armadillos in zoonotic leprosy in South America. The current study evaluated twenty specimens of the six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus), collected from rural locations in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Brazil for evidence of infection with Mycobacterium leprae. Serum was examined using two "in-house" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and via two commercially available (ML flow and NDO-LID®) immunochromatographic lateral flow (LF) tests, for detection of the PGL-I and/or LID-1 antigens of the bacterium. The presence of M. leprae DNA in liver tissue was examined using the multi-copy, M. leprae-specific repetitive element (RLEP), as target in conventional and nested PCR assays. Molecular and anti-PGL-I-ELISA data indicated that 20/20 (100 %) of the armadillos were infected with M. leprae. The corresponding detection levels recorded with the LF tests were 17/20 (85 %) and 16/20 (85 %), for the NDO-LID® and ML flow tests, respectively. Our results indicate that, in common with D. novemcinctus, six banded armadillos (a species hunted and reared as a food-source in some regions of Brazil, including RN), represent a potential reservoir of M. leprae and as such, their role in a possible zoonotic cycle of leprosy within Brazil warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Hanseníase/veterinária , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
12.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e44, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531622

RESUMO

Mycobacterium leprae is the primary causative agent of Hansen's disease or leprosy. Besides human beings, natural infection has been described in animals such as mangabey monkeys and armadillos. Leprosy is considered a global health problem and its complete pathogenesis is still unknown. As M. leprae does not grow in artificial media, armadillos have become the primary experimental model for leprosy, mimicking human disease including involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Leprosy transmission occurs through continuous and close contact of susceptible people with untreated infected people. However, unknown leprosy contact has been reported in leprosy-affected people, and contact with armadillos is a risk factor for leprosy. In the USA, leprosy is considered a zoonosis and this classification has recently been accepted in Brazil. This review presents information regarding the role of wild armadillos as a source of M. leprae for human infections, as well as the pathogenesis of leprosy.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , Mycobacterium leprae , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(6)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256049

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious, granulomatous disease caused by the intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae that infects macrophages and Schwann cells. While relatively rare in the USA, there is about 200 new cases of leprosy every year with the majority occurring in the southern parts of the country. It is believed to be linked to the region of the nine-banned armadillo in patients with no significant travel history outside of the country. In this case report, we encountered a 58-year-old Central Florida man that had extensive exposure to armadillos and presented with the typical symptoms of large erythaematous patches, numbness and peripheral nerve hypertrophy. Once diagnosed properly, patients are then reported to the National Hansen's Centre who provides the multidrug therapy for 12-24 months. Due to its rarity and its ability to mimic other more common ailments, leprosy should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients that have significant exposure to armadillos, live in the southern part of the country or have recently travelled to countries that have a high prevalence of leprosy.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Florida , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629624

RESUMO

There is evidence that in southern US, leprosy is a zoonosis infecting wild Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos but the extent of this finding is unknown. This ecological study investigated leprosy in rural communities and in wild armadillos from the Brazilian Amazon. The study area was the Mamiá Lake of Coari municipality, Amazonas State, Northern region, a hyper endemic leprosy area where residents live on subsistence farming, fishing and armadillo hunting and its meat intake are frequent. The leprosy survey was conducted in sixteen communities by a visiting team of specialists. Local partakers provided wild armadillos to investigate M. leprae infection. Volunteers had complete dermato-neurological examination by a dermatologist with expertise in leprosy diagnosis, suspect skin lesions were biopsied for histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin/HE, Fite-Faraco/FF staining); slit skin smears were collected. Armadillos' tissue fragments (skins, spleens, livers, lymph nodes, adrenal glands, others) were prepared for histopathology (HE/FF) and for M. leprae repetitive element-RLEP-qPCR. Among 176 volunteers, six new indeterminate leprosy cases were identified (incidence = 3.4%). Suspect skin sections and slit skin smears were negative for bacilli. Twelve wild D. novemcinctus were investigated (48 specimens/96 slides) and histopathological features of M. leprae infection were not found, except for one skin presenting unspecific inflammatory infiltrate suggestive of indeterminate leprosy. Possible traumatic neuroma, granuloma with epithelioid and Langhans cells, foreign-body granuloma were also identified. Granulomatous/non-granulomatous dermatitides were periodic-acid-Schiff/PAS negative for fungus. M. leprae-RLEP-qPCR was negative in all armadillos' tissues; no bacillus was found in histopathology. Our survey in rural communities confirmed the high endemicity for leprosy while one armadillo was compatible with paucibacillary M. leprae infection. At least in the highly endemic rural area of Coari, in the Brazilian Amazon region where infectious sources from untreated multibacillary leprosy are abundant, M. leprae infected armadillos may not represent a major source of infection nor a significant public health concern.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/veterinária , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/virologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , População Rural , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/microbiologia
15.
s.l; s.n; 2019. 13 p. ilus, mapas.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, SES-SP, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1097760

RESUMO

There is evidence that in southern US, leprosy is a zoonosis infecting wild Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos but the extent of this finding is unknown. This ecological study investigated leprosy in rural communities and in wild armadillos from the Brazilian Amazon. The study area was the Mamia´ Lake of Coari municipality, Amazonas State, Northern region, a hyper endemic leprosy area where residents live on subsistence farming, fishing and armadillo hunting and its meat intake are frequent. The leprosy survey was conducted in sixteen communities by a visiting team of specialists. Local partakers provided wild armadillos to investigate M. leprae infection. Volunteers had complete dermato-neurological examination by a dermatologist with expertise in leprosy diagnosis, suspect skin lesions were biopsied for histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin/HE, Fite-Faraco/FF staining); slit skin smears were collected. Armadillos' tissue fragments (skins, spleens, livers, lymph nodes, adrenal glands, others) were prepared for histopathology (HE/FF) and for M. leprae repetitive elementRLEP-qPCR. Among 176 volunteers, six new indeterminate leprosy cases were identified (incidence = 3.4%). Suspect skin sections and slit skin smears were negative for bacilli. Twelve wild D. novemcinctus were investigated (48 specimens/96 slides) and histopathological features of M. leprae infection were not found, except for one skin presenting unspecific inflammatory infiltrate suggestive of indeterminate leprosy. Possible traumatic neuroma, granuloma with epithelioid and Langhans cells, foreign-body granuloma were also identified. Granulomatous/non-granulomatous dermatitides were periodic-acid-Schiff/ PAS negative for fungus. M. leprae-RLEP-qPCR was negative in all armadillos' tissues; no bacillus was found in histopathology. Our survey in rural communities confirmed the high endemicity for leprosy while one armadillo was compatible with paucibacillary M. leprae infection. At least in the highly endemic rural area of Coari, in the Brazilian Amazon region where infectious sources from untreated multibacillary leprosy are abundant, M. leprae infected armadillos may not represent a major source of infection nor a significant public health concern.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Tatus/microbiologia , População Rural , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Zoonoses , Ecossistema , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/veterinária , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Paucibacilar/virologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Pele
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(6): e0006532, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953440

RESUMO

Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a human pathogen and the causative agent for leprosy, a chronic disease characterized by lesions of the skin and peripheral nerve damage. Zoonotic transmission of M. leprae to humans by nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) has been shown to occur in the southern United States, mainly in Texas, Louisiana, and Florida. Nine-banded armadillos are also common in South America, and residents living in some areas in Brazil hunt and kill armadillos as a dietary source of protein. This study examines the extent of M. leprae infection in wild armadillos and whether these New World mammals may be a natural reservoir for leprosy transmission in Brazil, similar to the situation in the southern states of the U.S. The presence of the M. leprae-specific repetitive sequence RLEP was detected by PCR amplification in purified DNA extracted from armadillo spleen and liver tissue samples. A positive RLEP signal was confirmed in 62% of the armadillos (10/16), indicating high rates of infection with M. leprae. Immunohistochemistry of sections of infected armadillo spleens revealed mycobacterial DNA and cell wall constituents in situ detected by SYBR Gold and auramine/rhodamine staining techniques, respectively. The M. leprae-specific antigen, phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) was detected in spleen sections using a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for PGL-I. Anti-PGL-I titers were assessed by ELISA in sera from 146 inhabitants of Belterra, a hyperendemic city located in western Pará state in Brazil. A positive anti-PGL-I titer is a known biomarker for M. leprae infection in both humans and armadillos. Individuals who consumed armadillo meat most frequently (more than once per month) showed a significantly higher anti-PGL-I titer than those who did not eat or ate less frequently than once per month. Armadillos infected with M. leprae represent a potential environmental reservoir. Consequently, people who hunt, kill, or process or eat armadillo meat are at a higher risk for infection with M. leprae from these animals.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Tatus/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Carne/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/genética , Glicolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Coelhos , Risco , Baço/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 62: 20-26, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665434

RESUMO

Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) has occurred throughout human history, and persists today at a low prevalence in most populations. Caused by Mycobacterium leprae, the infection primarily involves the skin, mucosa and peripheral nerves. The susceptible host range for Mycobacterium leprae is quite narrow. Besides humans, nine banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) are the only other natural hosts for M. leprae, but only armadillos recapitulate the disease as seen in humans. Armadillos across the Southern United States harbor a single predominant genotypic strain (SNP Type-3I) of M. leprae, which is also implicated in the zoonotic transmission of leprosy. We investigated, whether the zoonotic strain (3I) has any notable growth advantages in armadillos over another genetically distant strain-type (SNP Type-4P) of M. leprae, and if M. leprae strains manifest any notably different pathology among armadillos. We co-infected armadillos (n = 6) with 2 × 109 highly viable M. leprae of both strains and assessed the relative growth and dissemination of each strain in the animals. We also analyzed 12 additional armadillos, 6 each individually infected with the same quantity of either strain. The infections were allowed to fulminate and the clinical manifestations of the disease were noted. Animals were humanely sacrificed at the terminal stage of infection and the number of bacilli per gram of liver, spleen and lymph node tissue were enumerated by Q-PCR assay. The growth of M. leprae strain 4P was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than 3I when each strain was propagated individually in armadillos. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher growth of the 4P strain also was confirmed among animals co-infected with both 3I and 4P strain types using whole genome sequencing. Interestingly, the zoonotic strain does not exhibit any growth advantage in these non-human hosts, but the varied proliferation of the two M. leprae strains within armadillos suggest there are notable pathological variations between M. leprae strain-types.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Genótipo , Hanseníase/veterinária , Mycobacterium leprae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , América/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Variação Genética , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Camundongos , Mycobacterium leprae/classificação , Zoonoses
18.
Skinmed ; 15(5): 391-393, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139372

RESUMO

The first patient was a 41-year-old white man who was referred to the dermatology clinic with a 2-year history of numerous erythematous, hypoesthetic, poorly demarcated papules and plaques present on the trunk, buttocks, and bilateral upper and lower extremities (Figures 1 and 2). The lesions had initially begun as localized erythematous plaques on the right flank, and were diagnosed and treated as cellulitis and allergic contact dermatitis by primary care on separate occasions, with no resolution and continued gradual but persistent spread.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Florida , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Masculino
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 52(3): 524-32, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27195687

RESUMO

The nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) is the only known nonhuman reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae , the causative agent of Hansen's disease or leprosy. We conducted a 6-yr study on a wild population of armadillos in western Mississippi that was exposed to M. leprae to evaluate the importance of demographic and spatial risk factors on individual antibody status. We found that spatially derived covariates were not predictive of antibody status. Furthermore, analyses revealed no evidence of clustering by antibody-positive individuals. Lactating females and adult males had higher odds of being antibody positive than did nonlactating females. No juveniles or yearlings were antibody positive. Results of these analyses support the hypothesis that M. leprae infection patterns are spatially homogeneous within this armadillo population. Further research related to movement patterns, contact among individuals, antibody status, and environmental factors could help address hypotheses related to the role of environmental transmission on M. leprae infection and the mechanisms underlying the differential infection patterns among demographic groups.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Feminino , Lactação , Masculino , Mississippi
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