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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS | ID: lis-48575

RESUMO

Foi sancionada, nesta terça-feira (4) a Lei nº 14.289, que obriga o sigilo sobre a condição de pessoas infectadas pelo vírus HIV e hepatites crônicas. A medida também abrange pessoas com hanseníase ou tuberculose. O sigilo é obrigatório no âmbito dos serviços de saúde, estabelecimentos de ensino, locais de trabalho, administração pública, segurança pública, processos judiciais e mídias escrita e audiovisual. O texto foi publicado no Diário Oficial da União.


Assuntos
HIV , Hepatite , Tuberculose , Hanseníase , Confidencialidade/normas
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1928, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) care can be costly for patients and their families. The End TB Strategy includes a target that zero TB affected households should experience catastrophic costs associated with TB care. Costs are catastrophic when a patient spends 20% or more of their annual household income on their TB diagnosis and care. In Solomon Islands the costs of TB care are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the costs of TB diagnosis and care, the types of costs and the proportion of patients with catastrophic costs. METHODS: This was a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of TB patients carried out between 2017 and 2019. Patients were recruited from health care facilities, from all ten provinces in Solomon Islands. During an interview they were asked about the costs of TB diagnosis and care. These data were analysed using descriptive statistics to describe the costs overall and the proportions of different types of costs. The proportion of patients with catastrophic costs was calculated and a multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to determine factors associated with catastrophic costs. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three TB patients participated in the survey. They spent a mean of 716 USD (inter quartile range: 348-1217 USD) on their TB diagnosis and care. Overall, 62.1% of costs were attributable to non-medical costs, while income loss and medical costs comprised 28.5 and 9.4%, respectively. Overall, 19.7% (n = 36) of patients used savings, borrowed money, or sold assets as a financial coping mechanism. Three patients (1.6%) had health insurance. A total of 92.3% (95% CI: 88.5-96.2) experienced catastrophic costs, using the output approach. Being in the first, second or third poorest wealth quintile was significantly associated with catastrophic costs (adjusted odds ratio: 67.3, 95% CI: 15.86-489.74%, p <  0.001). CONCLUSION: The costs of TB care are catastrophic for almost all patients in Solomon Islands. The provision of TB specific social and financial protection measures from the National TB and Leprosy Programme may be needed in the short term to ameliorate these costs. In the longer term, advancement of universal health coverage and other social and financial protection measures should be pursued.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Tuberculose , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 6: e25809, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Providing more convenient and patient-centred options for service delivery is a priority within global HIV programmes. These efforts improve patient satisfaction and retention and free up time for providers to focus on new HIV diagnoses or severe illness. Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic precipitated expanded eligibility criteria for these differentiated service delivery (DSD) models to decongest clinics and protect patients and healthcare workers. This has resulted in dramatic scale-up of DSD for antiretroviral therapy, cotrimoxazole and tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment. While TB treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has traditionally involved frequent, facility-based management, TB treatment can also be adapted within DSD models. Such adaptations could include electronic tools to ensure appropriate clinical management, treatment support, adherence counselling and adverse event (AE) monitoring. In this commentary, we outline considerations for DSD of TB treatment among PLHIV, building on best practices from global DSD model implementation for HIV service delivery. DISCUSSION: In operationalizing TB treatment in DSD models, we consider the following: what activity is being done, when or how often it takes place, where it takes place, by whom and for whom. We discuss considerations for various programme elements including TB screening and diagnosis; medication dispensing; patient education, counselling and support; clinical management and monitoring; and reporting and recording. General approaches include multi-month dispensing for TB medications during intensive and continuation phases of treatment and standardized virtual adherence and AE monitoring. Lastly, we provide operational examples of TB treatment delivery through DSD models, including a conceptual model and an early implementation experience from Zambia. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has catalysed the rapid expansion of differentiated patient-centred service delivery for PLHIV. Expanding DSD models to include TB treatment can capitalize on existing platforms, while providing high-quality, routine treatment, follow-up and patient education and empowerment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1590-1597, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials of BCG vaccination to prevent or reduce severity of COVID-19 are taking place in adults, some of whom have been previously vaccinated, but evidence of the beneficial, non-specific effects of BCG come largely from data on mortality in infants and young children, and from in-vitro and animal studies, after a first BCG vaccination. We assess all-cause mortality following a large BCG revaccination trial in Malawi. METHODS: The Karonga Prevention trial was a population-based, double-blind, randomised controlled in Karonga District, northern Malawi, that enrolled participants between January, 1986, and November, 1989. The trial compared BCG (Glaxo-strain) revaccination versus placebo to prevent tuberculosis and leprosy. 46 889 individuals aged 3 months to 75 years were randomly assigned to receive BCG revaccination (n=23 528) or placebo (n=23 361). Here we report mortality since vaccination as recorded during active follow-up in northern areas of the district in 1991-94, and in a demographic surveillance follow-up in the southern area in 2002-18. 7389 individuals who received BCG (n=3746) or placebo (n=3643) lived in the northern follow-up areas, and 5616 individuals who received BCG (n=2798) or placebo (n=2818) lived in the southern area. Year of death or leaving the area were recorded for those not found. We used survival analysis to estimate all-cause mortality. FINDINGS: Follow-up information was available for 3709 (99·0%) BCG recipients and 3612 (99·1%) placebo recipients in the northern areas, and 2449 (87·5%) BCG recipients and 2413 (85·6%) placebo recipients in the southern area. There was no difference in mortality between the BCG and placebo groups in either area, overall or by age group or sex. In the northern area, there were 129 deaths per 19 694 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·6 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·8]) versus 133 deaths per 19 111 person-years at risk in the placebo group (7·0 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·9-8·2]; HR 0·94 [95% CI 0·74-1·20]; p=0·62). In the southern area, there were 241 deaths per 38 399 person-years at risk in the BCG group (6·3 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·5-7·1]) versus 230 deaths per 38 676 person-years at risk in the placebo group (5·9 deaths per 1000 person-years at risk [95% CI 5·2-6·8]; HR 1·06 [95% CI 0·88-1·27]; p=0·54). INTERPRETATION: We found little evidence of any beneficial effect of BCG revaccination on all-cause mortality. The high proportion of deaths attributable to non-infectious causes beyond infancy, and the long time interval since BCG for most deaths, might obscure any benefits. FUNDING: British Leprosy Relief Association (LEPRA); Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacina BCG/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/mortalidade , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044715, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As infectious diseases approach global elimination targets, spatial targeting is increasingly important to identify community hotspots of transmission and effectively target interventions. We aimed to synthesise relevant evidence to define best practice approaches and identify policy and research gaps. OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of spatially targeted community public health interventions for HIV, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy and malaria. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews between 1 January 1993 and 22 March 2021. STUDY SELECTION: The studies had to include HIV or TB or leprosy or malaria and spatial hotspot definition, and community interventions. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: A data extraction tool was used. For each study, we summarised approaches to identifying hotpots, intervention design and effectiveness of the intervention. RESULTS: Ten studies, including one cluster randomised trial and nine with alternative designs (before-after, comparator area), satisfied our inclusion criteria. Spatially targeted interventions for HIV (one USA study), TB (three USA) and leprosy (two Brazil, one Federated States of Micronesia) each used household location and disease density to define hotspots followed by community-based screening. Malaria studies (one each from India, Indonesia and Kenya) used household location and disease density for hotspot identification followed by complex interventions typically combining community screening, larviciding of stagnant water bodies, indoor residual spraying and mass drug administration. Evidence of effect was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Studies investigating spatially targeted interventions were few in number, and mostly underpowered or otherwise limited methodologically, affecting interpretation of intervention impact. Applying advanced epidemiological methodologies supporting more robust hotspot identification and larger or more intensive interventions would strengthen the evidence-base for this increasingly important approach. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019130133.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hanseníase , Malária , Tuberculose , Brasil , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Quênia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717071

RESUMO

It was previously published that single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2476601 (PTPN22 [protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22]-C1858T) might be related to increased sensibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae infection. However, the results were inconclusive despite a high degree of similarity between both parameters. Herein, we carried out this meta-analysis to systematically summarize and articulate the correlation between PTPN22-C1858T polymorphism and mycobacterial infection. The susceptibility of PTPN22-C1858T carriers with autoimmune conditions receiving immunosuppressive therapy to M. tuberculosis and M. leprae infection was determined. A systematic retrieval of studies on relevance of PTPN22-C1858T polymorphism to susceptibility of M. tuberculosis or M. leprae infection was performed in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed and Embase databases. We regarded Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the determined effect size. Finally, four and two case-control studies on tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively, were included. In all genetic models, without indicated association between PTPN22-C1858T polymorphism and tuberculosis's susceptibility. [C versus T: OR = 0.22 (95% CI: 0.09-0.50, PH = 0.887); CT versus CC: OR = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.09-0.49, PH = 0.889); TT+CT versus CC: OR = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.09-0.49, PH = 0.889)]. A significantly increased risk of leprosy was perceived in patients with the PTPN22-C1858T polymorphism [C versus T: OR = 2.82 (95% CI: 1.02-7.81, PH = 0.108)]. While the PTPN22-C1858T polymorphism is irrelevant to higher susceptibility to the infection of M. tuberculosis in Caucasians and Asians, it is relevant to increased susceptibility to the infection of M. leprae. However, the results of M. leprae are supposed to interpreted with prudence owing to the limited quantity of studies and heterogeneity. Further well-designed studies with sufficient populations are required to verify our conclusions.


Assuntos
Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hanseníase/etiologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Tuberculose/etiologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Viés de Publicação , Risco , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
7.
Immunol Rev ; 301(1): 30-47, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529407

RESUMO

Vaccination strategies against mycobacteria, focusing mostly on classical T- and B-cells, have shown limited success, encouraging the addition of alternative targets. Classically restricted T-cells recognize antigens presented via highly polymorphic HLA class Ia and class II molecules, while donor-unrestricted T-cells (DURTs), with few exceptions, recognize ligands via genetically conserved antigen presentation molecules. Consequently, DURTs can respond to the same ligands across diverse human populations. DURTs can be activated either through cognate TCR ligation or via bystander cytokine signaling. TCR-driven antigen-specific activation of DURTs occurs upon antigen presentation via non-polymorphic molecules such as HLA-E, CD1, MR1, and butyrophilin, leading to the activation of HLA-E-restricted T-cells, CD1-restricted T-cells, mucosal-associated invariant T-cells (MAITs), and TCRγδ T-cells, respectively. NK cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which lack rearranged TCRs, are activated through other receptor-triggering pathways, or can be engaged through bystander cytokines, produced, for example, by activated antigen-specific T-cells or phagocytes. NK cells can also develop trained immune memory and thus could represent cells of interest to mobilize by novel vaccines. In this review, we summarize the latest findings regarding the contributions of DURTs, NK cells, and ILCs in anti-M tuberculosis, M leprae, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial immunity and explore possible ways in which they could be harnessed through vaccines and immunotherapies to improve protection against Mtb.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta
8.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(17): 2026-2040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634753

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, because of its unique biochemical behavior and a complex host relationship, successfully evades the host immune system. Therefore, chemotherapy appears to be the first-line option for patients with tuberculosis. However, poor patient compliance with anti-tubercular treatment and variability in anti-tubercular drug pharmacokinetics are among the major driving factors for the emergence of drug resistance. The rising cases of extrapulmonary TB, cross-resistance patterns, high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV co-infections make tuberculosis treatment more complicated than conventional multidrug therapy. Due to their distinct advantages like higher solubility, increased payload, controlled release profiles, tissue-specific accumulation, and lack of toxicity, nanoscale materials have immense potential for drug delivery applications. An appropriate selection of polymer and careful particle engineering further improves therapeutic outcomes with opportunities to overcome conventional anti-tubercular drugs' challenges. The present review introduces the prospect of using nanotechnology in tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy and provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in nanocarriers implied for delivering anti-tubercular drugs.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Nanotecnologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0243687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630846

RESUMO

The key to evolution is reproduction. Pathogens can either kill the human host or can invade the host without causing death, thus ensuring their own survival, reproduction and spread. Tuberculosis, treponematoses and leprosy are widespread chronic infectious diseases whereby the host is not immediately killed. These diseases are examples of the co-evolution of host and pathogen. They can be well studied as the paleopathological record is extensive, spanning over 200 human generations. The paleopathology of each disease has been well documented in the form of published synthetic analyses recording each known case and case frequencies in the samples they were derived from. Here the data from these synthetic analyses were re-analysed to show changes in the prevalence of each disease over time. A total of 69,379 skeletons are included in this study. There was ultimately a decline in the prevalence of each disease over time, this decline was statistically significant (Chi-squared, p<0.001). A trend may start with the increase in the disease's prevalence before the prevalence declines, in tuberculosis the decline is monotonic. Increase in skeletal changes resulting from the respective diseases appears in the initial period of host-disease contact, followed by a decline resulting from co-adaptation that is mutually beneficial for the disease (spread and maintenance of pathogen) and host (less pathological reactions to the infection). Eventually either the host may become immune or tolerant, or the pathogen tends to be commensalic rather than parasitic.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Fósseis/história , Fósseis/microbiologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/história , Paleopatologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Treponema/história , Tuberculose/história
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lagos State Tuberculosis, Buruli Ulcer, and Leprosy Control Program (LSTBLCP) started engaging private hospitals under the Public-Private Mix (PPM) Program in 2008. The study aimed to evaluate the trend and predictors of successful Tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes of patients managed across these private health facilities between 2010-2016 in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: Retrospective review of TB treatment register and treatment cards of patients commenced on TB treatment between January 2010 and December 2016 in 36 private health facilities engaged by the LSTBLCP. Between December 2016 and February 2017, data were collected and entered into Microsoft Excel by trained data entry clerks. The analysis was done using SPSS software. Independent predictors of successful treatment outcomes were determined using multivariate analysis at the statistical significance of p<0.05 and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: A total of 1660 records of TB patients were reviewed. 1535 (92.47%) commenced treatment, while 1337 (87.10%) of all records had documented treatment outcomes. Of the 1337 patients with outcomes, 1044 (78.09%) had a successful treatment outcome, and 293 (21.91%) had an unsuccessful outcome. Majority were male, 980 (59.04%), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) negative status, 1295 (80.24%), diagnosed with smear, 1141 (73.14%), treated in private not-for-profit (PNFP) hospital, 1097 (66.08%), treated for TB between 2014-2016 (18.96%-19.52%). In multivariate analysis, age>20years (aOR = 0.26, p = 0.001), receiving TB treatment in 2013 (aOR = 0.39, p = 0.001), having genexpert for TB diagnosis (aOR = 0.26, p = 0.031) and being HIV positive (aOR = 0.37, p = 0.001) significantly reduced likelihood of successful treatment outcome. The site of TB, being on ART or CPT, were confounding determinants of successful treatment outcomes as they became non-significant at the multivariate analysis level. CONCLUSION: Treatment outcome among Lagos private hospitals was low compared with NTBLCP and World Health Organization (WHO) target. We urge the government and TB stakeholders to strengthen the PPM interventions to improve adherence, particularly among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) and older TB patients. Hence, promotion of early care-seeking, improving diagnostic and case holding efficiencies of health facilities, and TB/HIV collaborative interventions can reduce the risk of an unsuccessful outcome.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Feminino , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 625-632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163023

RESUMO

Background: Following initiation of MDR-TB treatment, patients have a choice to receive follow up DOT supervision at either the central initiating facility or at a peripheral facility. Objectives: We describe the adherence patterns of MDR-TB patients undergoing DOT supervision at the two health facility categories during intensive phase of treatment. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort of patients initiated on MDR TB treatment at Mulago National Referral Hospital between 2014 and 2016. We extracted data from the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program records and analysed these using STATA V14. Result: Majority (84.01%) of the patients received their DOT supervision from the peripheral facilities. Males made up 62.1% of patients, and 91.2% had had their household contacts screened for MDR-TB. 26.5% of the patients on peripheral DOT supervision had good adherence to treatment protocol compared to 0% among patients on central initiating health facility DOT supervision. Among the patients with good adherence, 24.1% had contacts screened for MDR-TB as compared to 3.6% with poor adherence. Conclusion: More patients preferred MDR-TB DOT supervision at peripheral facilities, which had better adherence to the treatment protocol compared to the central initiating facility. Younger people and those with household contacts screened had better adherence to the treatment protocol, highlighting areas for targeted interventional programs for MDR-TB in resource limited settingsMore patients preferred MDR-TB DOT supervision at peripheral facilities, which had better adherence to the treatment protocol compared to the central initiating facility. Younger people and those with household contacts screened had better adherence to the treatment protocol, highlighting areas for targeted interventional programs for MDR-TB in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 147(12): 886-891, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In metropolitan France, nearly 20 new cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year. The incidence of tuberculosis in France is 8/100,000 inhabitants and there are very few accounts of association of these two mycobacteria. Herein we report a case of co-infection with borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy and disseminated tuberculosis diagnosed in metropolitan France. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A male subject presented with diffuse painless infiltrated erythematous plaques. The biopsy revealed perisudoral and perineural lymphohistiocytic epithelioid cell granuloma as well as acid-alcohol-fast bacilli on Ziehl staining. PCR was positive for Mycobacterium leprae, confirming the diagnosis of leprosy in the BT form. The staging examination revealed predominantly lymphocytic left pleural effusion, right-central necrotic adenopathy without histological granuloma, negative screening for BK, a positive QuantiFERON-TB™ test, and a positive intradermal tuberculin reaction. The clinical and radiological results militated in favour of disseminated tuberculosis. Combined therapy (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) together with clofazimine resulted in regression of both cutaneous and extra-cutaneous lesions. This rare co-infection combines leprosy, often present for several years, and tuberculosis (usually pulmonary) of subsequent onset. The pathophysiological hypothesis is that of cross-immunity (with anti-TB immunity protecting against subsequent leprosy and vice versa), supported by the inverse correlation of the two levels of prevalence and by the protection afforded by tuberculosis vaccination. In most cases, treatment for TB and leprosy improves both diseases. Patients presenting leprosy should be screened for latent tuberculosis in order to avoid reactivation, particularly in cases where corticosteroid treatment is being given.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Tuberculoide , Hanseníase , Tuberculose , Humanos , Hanseníase Dimorfa/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae , Pele
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18120, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093532

RESUMO

Rifampicin resistance is a major therapeutic challenge, particularly in tuberculosis, leprosy, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus infections, where it develops via missense mutations in gene rpoB. Previously we have highlighted that these mutations reduce protein affinities within the RNA polymerase complex, subsequently reducing nucleic acid affinity. Here, we have used these insights to develop a computational rifampicin resistance predictor capable of identifying resistant mutations even outside the well-defined rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR), using clinical M. tuberculosis sequencing information. Our tool successfully identified up to 90.9% of M. tuberculosis rpoB variants correctly, with sensitivity of 92.2%, specificity of 83.6% and MCC of 0.69, outperforming the current gold-standard GeneXpert-MTB/RIF. We show our model can be translated to other clinically relevant organisms: M. leprae, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, despite weak sequence identity. Our method was implemented as an interactive tool, SUSPECT-RIF (StrUctural Susceptibility PrEdiCTion for RIFampicin), freely available at https://biosig.unimelb.edu.au/suspect_rif/ .


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Humanos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
14.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 36: 57-64, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958428

RESUMO

The Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed over a century ago and has become one of the most used vaccines without undergoing a modern vaccine development life cycle. Despite this, the vaccine has protected many millions from severe and disseminated forms of tuberculosis (TB). In addition, BCG has cross-mycobacterial effects against non-tuberculous mycobacteria and off-target (also called non-specific or heterologous) effects against other infections and diseases. More recently, BCG's effects on innate immunity suggest it might improve the immune response against viral respiratory infections including SARS-CoV-2. New TB vaccines, developed over the last 30 years, show promise, particularly in prevention of progression to disease from TB infection in young adults. The role of BCG in the context of new TB vaccines remains uncertain as most participants included in trials have been previously BCG immunised. BCG replacement vaccines are in efficacy trials and these may also have off-target effects.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Proteção Cruzada/imunologia , Imunidade Heteróloga/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 101, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is one of the oldest mycobacterial infections and tuberculosis is the most common mycobacterial infection with a higher degree of infectivity than leprosy. Although both diseases are prevalent in clusters in developing countries, simultaneous occurrence of them in an individual is a rare entity, even in an endemic setting. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe six cases of tuberculosis and leprosy coinfection: a 57-year-old Sinhalese woman, a 47-year-old Tamil woman, a 72-year-old Tamil man, a 59-year-old Sinhalese man, a 54-year-old Sinhalese man, and a 50-year-old Sinhalese man. In this case series, five patients had lepromatous leprosy and the majority of patients were men. Three patients were detected to have tuberculosis at the outset of treatment of leprosy, while two developed tuberculosis later and one had extrapulmonary tuberculosis 5 years before the diagnosis of leprosy. The latter developed pulmonary tuberculosis as a reactivation while on treatment for leprosy. A majority of our patients with pulmonary tuberculosis had positive Mantoux test, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiological evidence, and acid-fast bacilli in sputum. Human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes were detected in one patient. One patient had rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, while she was on monthly rifampicin therapy for leprosy. CONCLUSION: An immunocompromised status, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes, and immunosuppressive drugs, are risk factors for tuberculosis infection. The use of steroids in the treatment of leprosy may increase the susceptibility to develop tuberculosis. Development of rifampicin resistance secondary to monthly rifampicin in leprosy is a major concern in treating patients coinfected with tuberculosis. Despite the paucity of reports of coinfection, it is advisable to screen for tuberculosis in patients with leprosy, especially if there are respiratory or constitutional symptoms, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal chest X-ray. The fact is that positive Mantoux and QuantiFERON Gold tests and presence of acid-fast bacilli in sputum are misleading, chest X-ray evidence of active tuberculosis and positive tuberculosis cultures are important diagnostic clues for active tuberculosis infection in a patient with leprosy. This is important to avoid monthly rifampicin in patients with suspected coinfections, which may lead to development of drug resistance to tuberculosis treatment. Whether prolonged steroid therapy in leprosy is a risk factor for development of tuberculosis is still controversial.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/complicações , Tuberculose/complicações , Idoso , Coinfecção/induzido quimicamente , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Sri Lanka , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(12): 3179-3187, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perineural spread (PNS) is an emerging mechanism for progressive, non-traumatic brachial plexopathy. We aim to summarize the pathologies (tumor and infection) shown to have spread along or to the brachial plexus, and identify the proposed mechanisms of perineural spread. METHODS: A focused review of the literature was performed pertaining to pathologies with identified perineural spread to the brachial plexus. RESULTS: We summarized pathologies currently reported to have PNS in the brachial plexus and offer a structure for understanding and describing these pathologies with respect to their interaction with the peripheral nervous system. CONCLUSIONS: Perineural spread is an underrepresented entity in the literature, especially regarding the brachial plexus. It can occur via a primary or secondary mechanism based on the anatomy, and understanding this mechanism helps to support biopsies of sacrificial nerve contributions, leading to more effective and timely treatment plans for patients.


Assuntos
Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/etiologia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/fisiopatologia , Plexo Braquial/fisiopatologia , Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias/complicações , Tuberculose/complicações
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 54, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537059

RESUMO

Introduction: Nigeria is among the countries with high Tuberculosis (TB) burden by global rating signifying the relevance of TB surveillance system evaluation in improving performance and capacity of the existing system. Hence, this evaluation was conducted in order to determine the gaps and proffer solution to enhance the TB surveillance system performance. Methods: questionnaires were administered to eight key informants using face-to-face interview method; data obtained was analyzed. Total number of TB cases and estimated number of cases for year 2018 was obtained. Percentage of positive cases using the GeneXpert test for 6 months (January to June 2019) was obtained. Available documents and publications on the National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Buruli Ulcer Control Programme (NTBLCP) were also sought for information. Results: the NTBLCP has over 5,300 TB service points and 1,602 microscopy Centre's distributed across the country. Acceptance for the standard TB case definition was 100%, forms used are easy to fill and diagnosis is laboratory-based requiring specialized trainings for laboratory personnel. The system had 25% sensitivity, high data quality with 100% timeliness. The TB surveillance system is representative of all ages. The system was first designed as TB and Leprosy Control Programme but later Buruli ulcer was incorporated into the Programme. First quarter supervisory visits are skipped due to late funding and delayed budget approval. Major share of the funding comes from donor partners. Conclusion: the system is useful, representative, acceptable, has good data quality, timely, and sensitive. The system is stable but needs to be funded more by the government. There is need for early funding and budget approval to avoid skipping of supervisory visits due to funding challenges. The system is not simple due the various test that need to be conducted before, during and after treatment to detect and verify that the patient is cured. We recommend continuous training of health workers, routine monitoring and evaluation, integration of TB care and prevention into other health services programmes like HIV/AIDS and active case search at all levels to increase the sensitivity of the system. Speed up the process of integration of NTBLCP surveillance system with IDSR for data harmonization in the country.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(1/2): 12-18, jun. 2020. graf.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1129948

RESUMO

El aumento de las infecciones por micobacterias ambientales u oportunistas (MAO) coincide mundialmente con el declive de la infección tuberculosa e incremento de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). El presente trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo realizado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia-Investigaciones de Tuberculosis/Micobacterias/Lepra (LNRI-TB/Lepra/Micobacterias), del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí (IPK), La Habana, Cuba, durante el período enero 2014-diciembre 2018. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue conocer la variabilidad de especies aisladas para establecer un referente actualizado sobre las infecciones causadas por estas. En este trabajo se clasificaron-identificaron 413 cepas procedentes de pacientes sintomáticos; 162 (39.22%) eran aislamientos de pacientes con VIH/sida atendidos en nuestro Hospital Nacional de Referencia a Atención al paciente VIH/sida (IPK), y el resto (n = 251 [60.77%]), procedentes de pacientes inmunocompetentes, incluyendo aislamientos recibidos de los Centros Provinciales de Higiene, Epidemiología, y Microbiología (CPHEM). Las muestras fueron analizadas con las técnicas convencionales establecidas: las pulmonares fueron descontaminadas por el método de Petroff modificado; las extrapulmonares, por el método del ácido sulfúrico al 4%; el cultivo se realizó en medio de Löwenstein-Jensen modificado. Posteriormente se realizó la clasificación-identificación de especies según el esquema fenotípico-bioquímico establecido. Las especies con mayor porcentaje de aislamiento pertenecieron a los Grupos III y IV, complejo Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (34.14%) y complejo M. fortuitum (20.82%), respectivamente. Estos resultados permitirán conocer la prevalencia de estas especies en nuestro país, reafirmando la importancia diagnóstica de estos microorganismos para aplicar tratamiento específico, sobre todo en pacientes con factores de riesgo, en quienes es más probable la diseminación de la infección.


The increase in infections by environmental or opportunistic mycobacteria (MAO) coincides worldwide with the decline in tuberculosis infection and an increase in infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present work is a retrospective study carried out at the National Reference Laboratory-Tuberculosis/Mycobacterial/Leprosy Research (LNRI-TB / Leprosy / Mycobacteria), of the Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine (IPK), La Habana, Cuba, during the period January 2014-December 2018. The objective of our study was to know the variability of isolated species to establish an updated reference on the infections caused by MAO. In this study, 413 strains from symptomatic patients were classified and identified; 162 (39.22%) were isolates from patients with HIV/AIDS treated at our National Hospital of Reference for Attention to HIV/AIDS patients (IPK), and the remaining (n=251 [60.77%]), from immunocompetent patients, including isolates received from the Provincial Centers of Hygiene, Epidemiology, and Microbiology (CPHEM). The samples were analyzed with the established conventional techniques: the lung samples were decontaminated by the modified Petroff method; the extrapulmonary, by the 4% sulfuric acid method; the culture was carried out in modified Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Subsequently, the classification-identification of species was carried out according to the established phenotypic-biochemical scheme. The species with the highest percentage of isolation belonged to Groups III and IV, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (34.14%), and M. fortuitum complex (20.82%), respectively. These results will allow us to know the prevalence of these species in our country, emphasizing the diagnostic importance of these microorganisms and thus apply a specific treatment, especially in patients with risk factors, in whom the spread of the infection is more likely


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Complexo Mycobacterium avium , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium
19.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 121: 101914, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279870

RESUMO

Mycobacteria are important causes of disease in human and animal hosts. Diseases caused by mycobacteria include leprosy, tuberculosis (TB), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections and Buruli Ulcer. To better understand and treat mycobacterial disease, clinicians, veterinarians and scientists use a range of discipline-specific approaches to conduct basic and applied research, including conducting epidemiological surveys, patient studies, wildlife sampling, animal models, genetic studies and computational simulations. To foster the exchange of knowledge and collaboration across disciplines, the Many Hosts of Mycobacteria (MHM) conference series brings together clinical, veterinary and basic scientists who are dedicated to advancing mycobacterial disease research. Started in 2007, the MHM series recently held its 8th conference at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Bronx, NY). Here, we review the diseases discussed at MHM8 and summarize the presentations on research advances in leprosy, NTM and Buruli Ulcer, human and animal TB, mycobacterial disease comorbidities, mycobacterial genetics and 'omics, and animal models. A mouse models workshop, which was held immediately after MHM8, is also summarized. In addition to being a resource for those who were unable to attend MHM8, we anticipate this review will provide a benchmark to gauge the progress of future research concerning mycobacteria and their many hosts.


Assuntos
Bacteriologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Infectologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Animais , Congressos como Assunto , Difusão de Inovações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mycobacterium/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117300

RESUMO

Diseases due to mycobacteria, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Buruli ulcer, rank among the top causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal studies have revealed the importance of T cells in controlling these infections. However, the specific antigens recognized by T cells that confer protective immunity and their associated functions remain to be definitively established. T cells that respond to mycobacterial peptide antigens exhibit classical features of adaptive immunity and have been well-studied in humans and animal models. Recently, innate-like T cells that recognize lipid and metabolite antigens have also been implicated. Specifically, T cells that recognize mycobacterial glycolipid antigens (mycolipids) have been shown to confer protection to tuberculosis in animal models and share some biological characteristics with adaptive and innate-like T cells. Here, we review the existing data suggesting that mycolipid-specific T cells exist on a spectrum of "innateness," which will influence how they can be leveraged to develop new diagnostics and vaccines for mycobacterial diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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